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Sökning: WFRF:(Bjorkman Anders)

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  • Gustavsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Pharmacological Treatment Patterns in Neuropathic Pain-Lessons from Swedish Administrative Registries
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.). - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1526-2375 .- 1526-4637. ; 14:7, s. 1072-1080
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To explore the treatment patterns of patients with a diagnosis related to chronic pain (DRCP) initiating pharmacological treatment indicated for neuropathic pain (NeuP: tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and anticonvulsants). Design. Retrospective study on administrative registers. Setting. General population in Western Sweden (one sixth of the country). Subjects. All patients with a DRCP (N = 840,000) in years 2004-2009. Outcome Measures. Treatment sequence, continuation, switching, and comedication. Results. In total, 22,997 patients with a first NeuP in 2007 or 2008 were identified, out of which 2% also had epilepsy and 39% had a mood disorder. The remaining 13,749 patients were assumed to be treated for neuropathic pain, out of which 16% had a neuropathy diagnosis, 18% had a mixed pain diagnosis, and the remaining 66% had another DRCP. The most common first prescription was amitriptyline (40%) followed by pregabalin (22%) and gabapentin (19%). More than half had discontinued treatment after 3 months, and 60-70% at 6 months. Seven percent received another NeuP drug within 6 months of the discontinuation of their first NeuP treatment, 11% had another analgesic and 22% had a prescription indicating psychiatric comorbidity (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or benzodiazepine). Conclusions. Treatment initiation of currently available drugs indicated for neuropathic pain less frequently lead to long-term treatment in clinical practice compared with clinical trial, and few try more than one drug. We suggest our findings to be indications of a need for better routines in diagnosing patients to ascertain optimal treatment and follow-up.
  • Kattge, Jens, et al. (författare)
  • TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 26:1, s. 119-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.
  • Mansoor, Rashid, et al. (författare)
  • Haematological consequences of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria : a WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network pooled analysis of individual patient data
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: BMC Medicine. - : Springer Nature. - 1741-7015. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundPlasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with anaemia-related morbidity, attributable to host, parasite and drug factors. We quantified the haematological response following treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria to identify the factors associated with malarial anaemia.MethodsIndividual patient data from eligible antimalarial efficacy studies of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, available through the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network data repository prior to August 2015, were pooled using standardised methodology. The haematological response over time was quantified using a multivariable linear mixed effects model with nonlinear terms for time, and the model was then used to estimate the mean haemoglobin at day of nadir and day 7. Multivariable logistic regression quantified risk factors for moderately severe anaemia (haemoglobin < 7 g/dL) at day 0, day 3 and day 7 as well as a fractional fall >= 25% at day 3 and day 7.ResultsA total of 70,226 patients, recruited into 200 studies between 1991 and 2013, were included in the analysis: 50,859 (72.4%) enrolled in Africa, 18,451 (26.3%) in Asia and 916 (1.3%) in South America. The median haemoglobin concentration at presentation was 9.9 g/dL (range 5.0-19.7 g/dL) in Africa, 11.6 g/dL (range 5.0-20.0 g/dL) in Asia and 12.3 g/dL (range 6.9-17.9 g/dL) in South America. Moderately severe anaemia (Hb < 7g/dl) was present in 8.4% (4284/50,859) of patients from Africa, 3.3% (606/18,451) from Asia and 0.1% (1/916) from South America. The nadir haemoglobin occurred on day 2 post treatment with a mean fall from baseline of 0.57 g/dL in Africa and 1.13 g/dL in Asia. Independent risk factors for moderately severe anaemia on day 7, in both Africa and Asia, included moderately severe anaemia at baseline (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 16.10 and AOR = 23.00, respectively), young age (age < 1 compared to >= 12 years AOR = 12.81 and AOR = 6.79, respectively), high parasitaemia (AOR = 1.78 and AOR = 1.58, respectively) and delayed parasite clearance (AOR = 2.44 and AOR = 2.59, respectively). In Asia, patients treated with an artemisinin-based regimen were at significantly greater risk of moderately severe anaemia on day 7 compared to those treated with a non-artemisinin-based regimen (AOR = 2.06 [95%CI 1.39-3.05], p < 0.001).ConclusionsIn patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, the nadir haemoglobin occurs 2 days after starting treatment. Although artemisinin-based treatments increase the rate of parasite clearance, in Asia they are associated with a greater risk of anaemia during recovery.
  • Mhamilawa, Lwidiko E, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • Parasite clearance, cure rate, post-treatment prophylaxis and safety of standard 3-day versus an extended 6-day treatment of artemether-lumefantrine and a single low-dose primaquine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Bagamoyo district, Tanzania– a randomized controlled trial.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Malaria Journal. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1475-2875 .- 1475-2875. ; 19:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background:Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) resistant Plasmodium falciparum represents an increasing threat to Africa. Extended ACT regimens from standard 3 to 6 days may represent a means to prevent its development and potential spread in Africa.Methods: Standard 3-day treatment with artemether-lumefantrine (control) was compared to extended 6-day treatment and single low-dose primaquine (intervention); in a randomized controlled, parallel group, superiority clinical trial of patients aged 1-65 years with microscopy confirmed uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, enrolled in Bagamoyo district, Tanzania. The study evaluated parasite clearance, including proportion of PCR detectable P. falciparum on days 5 and 7 (primary endpoint), cure rate, post-treatment prophylaxis, safety and tolerability. Clinical, and laboratory assessments, including ECG were conducted during 42 days of follow-up. Blood samples were collected for parasite detection (by microscopy and PCR), molecular genotyping and pharmacokinetic analyses. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were done for both parasite clearance and recurrence. Results. A total of 280 patients were enrolled, 141 and 139 in the control and intervention arm, respectively, of whom 121 completed 42 days follow-up in each arm. There was no difference in proportion of PCR positivity across the arms at day 5 (80/130 (61.5%) vs 89/134 (66.4%), p=0.44), or day 7 (71/129 (55.0%) vs 70/134 (52.2%), p=0.71). Day 42 microscopy determined cure rates (PCR adjusted) were 97.4% (100/103) and 98.3% (110/112), p=0.65, in the control and intervention arm, respectively. Microscopy determined crude recurrent parasitemia during follow-up was 21/121 (17.4%) in the control and 14/121 (11.6%) in the intervention arm, p=0.20, and it took 34 days and 42 days in the respective arms for 90% of the patients to remain without recurrent parasitemia. Lumefantrine exposure was significantly higher in intervention arm from D3 to D42, but cardiac, biochemical and hematological safety was high and similar in both arms.Conclusion:Extended 6-day artemether-lumefantrine treatment and a single low-dose of primaquine was not superior to standard 3-day treatment for ACT sensitive P. falciparum infections, but importantly equally efficacious and safe. Thus, extended artemether-lumefantrine treatment may be considered as a future treatment regimen for ACT resistant P. falciparum, to prolong the therapeutic lifespan of ACT in Africa.
  • Morgan, Andrew P., et al. (författare)
  • Falciparum malaria from coastal Tanzania and Zanzibar remains highly connected despite effective control efforts on the archipelago
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Malaria Journal. - : BMC. - 1475-2875 .- 1475-2875. ; 19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Tanzania's Zanzibar archipelago has made significant gains in malaria control over the last decade and is a target for malaria elimination. Despite consistent implementation of effective tools since 2002, elimination has not been achieved. Importation of parasites from outside of the archipelago is thought to be an important cause of malaria's persistence, but this paradigm has not been studied using modern genetic tools.Methods: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used to investigate the impact of importation, employing population genetic analyses of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from both the archipelago and mainland Tanzania. Ancestry, levels of genetic diversity and differentiation, patterns of relatedness, and patterns of selection between these two populations were assessed by leveraging recent advances in deconvolution of genomes from polyclonal malaria infections.Results: Significant decreases in the effective population sizes were inferred in both populations that coincide with a period of decreasing malaria transmission in Tanzania. Identity by descent analysis showed that parasites in the two populations shared long segments of their genomes, on the order of 5 cM, suggesting shared ancestry within the last 10 generations. Even with limited sampling, two of isolates between the mainland and Zanzibar were identified that are related at the expected level of half-siblings, consistent with recent importation.Conclusions: These findings suggest that importation plays an important role for malaria incidence on Zanzibar and demonstrate the value of genomic approaches for identifying corridors of parasite movement to the island.
  • Msellem, Mwinyi, et al. (författare)
  • Increased Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to Artesunate/Amodiaquine Despite 14 Years as First-Line Malaria Treatment, Zanzibar
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Emerging Infectious Diseases. - : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). - 1080-6040 .- 1080-6059. ; 26:8, s. 1767-1777
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are first-line treatments for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. ACT resistance is spreading in Asia but not yet in Africa. Reduced effects of ACT partner drugs have been reported but with little information regarding widely used artesunate/amodiaquine (ASAQ). We studied its efficacy in Zanzibar after 14 years as first-line treatment directly by an in vivo, single-armed trial and indirectly by prevalences of different genotypes in the P. falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter, multidrug-resistance 1, and Kelch 13 propeller domain genes. In vivo efficacy was higher during 2017 (100%; 95% CI 97.4%-100%) than during 2002-2005 (94.7%; 95% CI 91.9%-96.7%) (p = 0.003). Molecular findings showed no artemisinin resistance-associated genotypes and major increases in genotypes associated with high sensitivity/efficacy for amodiaquine than before ASAQ was introduced. Thus, the efficacy of ASAQ is maintained and appears to be increased after long-term use in contrast to what is observed for other ACTs used in Africa.
  • Mubi, Marycelina, et al. (författare)
  • Malaria diagnosis and treatment practices following introduction of rapid diagnostic tests in Kibaha District, Coast Region, Tanzania
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Malaria Journal. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1475-2875 .- 1475-2875. ; 12, s. 293-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The success of the universal parasite-based malaria testing policy for fever patients attending primary health care (PHC) facilities in Tanzania will depend highly on health workers' perceptions and practices. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the present use of malaria diagnostics (rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and microscopy), prescription behaviour and factors affecting adherence to test results at PHC facilities in Kibaha District, Coast Region, Tanzania. Methods: Exit interviews were conducted with fever patients at PHC facilities and information on diagnostic test performed and treatment prescribed were recorded. Interviews with prescribers to assess their understanding, perceptions and practices related to RDTs were conducted, and health facility inventory performed to assess availability of staff, diagnostics and anti-malarial drugs. Results: The survey was undertaken at ten governmental PHC facilities, eight of which had functional diagnostics. Twenty health workers were interviewed and 195 exit interviews were conducted with patients at the PHC facilities. Of the 168 patients seen at facilities with available diagnostics, 105 (63%) were tested for malaria, 31 (30%) of whom tested positive. Anti-malarial drugs were prescribed to all patients with positive test results, 14% of patients with negative results and 28% of patients not tested for malaria. Antibiotics were more likely to be prescribed to patients with negative test results compared to patients with positive results (81 vs 39%, p < 0.01) and among non-tested compared to those tested for malaria (84 vs 69%, p = 0.01). Stock-outs of RDTs and staff shortage accounted for the low testing rate, and health worker perceptions were the main reason for non-adherence to test results. Conclusions: Anti-malarial prescription to patients with negative test results and those not tested is still practiced in Tanzania despite the universal malaria testing policy of fever patients. The use of malaria diagnostics was also associated with higher prescription of antibiotics among patients with negative results. Strategies to address health system factors and health worker perceptions associated with these practices are needed.
  • Mwaiswelo, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Adding a single low-dose of primaquine (0.25 mg/kg) to artemether-lumefantrine did not compromise treatment outcome of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tanzania : a randomized, single-blinded clinical trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Malaria Journal. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1475-2875 .- 1475-2875. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recently recommended the addition of a single low-dose of the gametocytocidal drug primaquine (PQ) to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in low transmission settings as a component of pre-elimination or elimination programmes. However, it is unclear whether that influences the ACT cure rate. The study assessed treatment outcome of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) plus a single PQ dose (0.25 mg/kg) versus standard AL regimen for treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tanzania. Methods: A randomized, single-blinded, clinical trial was conducted in Yombo, Bagamoyo district, Tanzania. Acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria patients aged >= 1 year, with the exception of pregnant and lactating women, were enrolled and treated with AL plus a single PQ dose (0.25 mg/kg) or AL alone under supervision. PQ was administered together with the first AL dose. Clinical and laboratory assessments were performed at 0, 8, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h and on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. The primary end-point was a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-adjusted adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) on day 28. Secondary outcomes included: fever and asexual parasitaemia clearance, proportion of patients with PCR-determined parasitaemia on day 3, and proportion of patients with Pfmdr1 N86Y and Pfcrt K76T on days 0, 3 and day of recurrent infection. Results: Overall 220 patients were enrolled, 110 were allocated AL + PQ and AL, respectively. Parasite clearance by microscopy was fast, but PCR detectable parasitaemia on day 3 was 31/109 (28.4 %) and 29/108 (26.9 %) in patients treated with AL + PQ and AL, respectively (p = 0.79). Day 28 PCR-adjusted ACPR and re-infection rate was 105/105 (100 %) and 101/102 (99 %) (p = 0.31), and 5/107 (4.7 %) and 5/8 (4.8 %) (p = 0.95), in AL + PQ and AL arm, respectively. There was neither any statistically significant difference in the proportion of Pfmdr1 N86Y or Pfcrt K76T between treatment arms on days 0, 3 and day of recurrent infection, nor within treatment arms between days 0 and 3 or day 0 and day of recurrent infection. Conclusion: The new WHO recommendation of adding a single low-dose of PQ to AL did not compromise treatment outcome of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Tanzania.
  • Mwaiswelo, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Safety of a single low-dose of primaquine in addition to standard artemether-lumefantrine regimen for treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tanzania
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Malaria Journal. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1475-2875 .- 1475-2875. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: This study assessed the safety of the new World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation of adding a single low-dose of primaquine (PQ) to standard artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), regardless of individual glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) status, for treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tanzania. Methods: Men and non-pregnant, non-lactating women aged >= 1 year with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were enrolled and randomized to either standard artemether-lumefantrine (AL) regimen alone or with a 0.25 mg/kg single-dose of PQ. PQ was administered concomitantly with the first AL dose. All drug doses were supervised. Safety was evaluated between days 0 and 28. G6PD status was assessed using rapid test (CareStart (TM)) and molecular genotyping. The primary endpoint was mean percentage relative reduction in haemoglobin (Hb) concentration (g/dL) between days 0 and 7 by genotypic G6PD status and treatment arm. Results: Overall, 220 patients, 110 per treatment arm, were enrolled, of whom 33/217 (15.2 %) were phenotypically G6PD deficient, whereas 15/110 (13.6 %) were genotypically hemizygous males, 5/110 (4.5 %) homozygous females and 22/110 (20 %) heterozygous females. Compared to genotypically G6PD wild-type/normal [ 6.8, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.67-8.96], only heterozygous patients in AL arm had significant reduction in day-7 mean relative Hb concentration (14.3, 95 % CI 7.02-21.55, p=0.045), however, none fulfilled the pre-defined haemolytic threshold value of >= 25 % Hb reduction. After adjustment for baseline parasitaemia, Hb, age and sex the mean relative Hb reduction was not statistically significant in both heterozygous and hemizygous/homozygous patients in both arms. A majority of the adverse events (AEs) were mild and unrelated to the study drugs. However, six (4.4 %) episodes, three per treatment arm, of acute haemolytic anaemia occurred between days 0 and 7. Three occurred in phenotypically G6PD deficient patients, two in AL and one in AL + PQ arm, but none in genotypically hemizygous/homozygous patients. All patients with acute haemolytic anaemia recovered without medical intervention. Conclusion: The findings support that the WHO recommendation of adding a single low-dose of PQ to standard AL regimen is safe for the treatment of acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria regardless of G6PD status in Tanzania.
  • Myers-Smith, Isla H., et al. (författare)
  • Complexity revealed in the greening of the Arctic
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Climate Change. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1758-678X .- 1758-6798. ; 10:2, s. 106-117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As the Arctic warms, vegetation is responding, and satellite measures indicate widespread greening at high latitudes. This ‘greening of the Arctic’ is among the world’s most important large-scale ecological responses to global climate change. However, a consensus is emerging that the underlying causes and future dynamics of so-called Arctic greening and browning trends are more complex, variable and inherently scale-dependent than previously thought. Here we summarize the complexities of observing and interpreting high-latitude greening to identify priorities for future research. Incorporating satellite and proximal remote sensing with in-situ data, while accounting for uncertainties and scale issues, will advance the study of past, present and future Arctic vegetation change.
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