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Sökning: WFRF:(Bjorkman Anders)

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  • Föregående 12[3]
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  • Salazar-Alvarez, German, et al. (författare)
  • Synthesis and nonlinear light scattering of microemulsions and nanoparticle suspensions
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of nanoparticle research. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1388-0764 .- 1572-896X. ; 9:4, s. 647-652
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microemulsions composed of normal or inverse micellar solutions and aqueous suspensions of pristine (uncoated) or silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles, mainly gamma-Fe2O3, were synthesised and their optical limiting properties investigated. The microemulsions are colorless solutions with high transparency for visible wavelengths while the aqueous suspensions of iron oxide are of pale yellow colour. Optical limiting experiments performed in 2 mm cells using a f/5 optical system with a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser delivering 5 ns pulses with 10 Hz repetition rate, showed clamping levels of similar to 3 mu J for the suspensions of both pristine and silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. A strong photoinduced nonlinear light scattering was observed for the water-in-oil microemulsion and the aqueous suspensions of nanoparticles while oil-in-water microemulsions did not show a significant nonlinear effect. Measurements carried out using an integrating sphere further verified that the photoinduced nonlinear light scattering is the dominating nonlinear mechanism while the nonlinear absorption of iron oxide nanoparticles is negligible at 532 nm.
  • Skiöldebrand, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein neoepitope in the synovial fluid of horses with acute lameness: A new biomarker for the early stages of osteoarthritis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Equine Veterinary Journal. - : Wiley. - 0425-1644 .- 2042-3306. ; 49:5, s. 662-667
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundClinical tools to diagnose the early changes of osteoarthritis (OA) that occur in the articular cartilage are lacking. ObjectivesWe sought to identify and quantify a novel cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) neoepitope in the synovial fluid from the joints of healthy horses and those with different stages of OA. Study designIn vitro quantitative proteomics and assay development with application in synovial fluids samples obtained from biobanks of well-characterised horses. MethodsArticular cartilage explants were incubated with or without interleukin-1 for 25 days. Media were analysed via quantitative proteomics. Synovial fluid was obtained from either normal joints (n = 15) or joints causing lameness (n = 17) or with structural OA lesions (n = 7) and analysed for concentrations of the COMP neoepitope using a custom-developed inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Explants were immunostained with polyclonal antibodies against COMP and the COMP neoepitopes. ResultsSemitryptic COMP peptides were identified and quantified in cell culture media from cartilage explants. A rabbit polyclonal antibody was raised against the neoepitope of the N-terminal portion of one COMP fragment (sequence SGPTHEGVC). An inhibition ELISA was developed to quantify the COMP neoepitope in synovial fluid. The mean concentration of the COMP neoepitope significantly increased in the synovial fluid from the joints responsible for acute lameness compared with normal joints and the joints of chronically lame horses and in joints with chronic structural OA. Immunolabelling for the COMP neoepitope revealed a pericellular staining in the interleukin-1-stimulated explants. Main limitationsThe ELISA is based on polyclonal antisera rather than a monoclonal antibody. ConclusionsThe increase in the COMP neoepitope in the synovial fluid from horses with acute lameness suggests that this neoepitope has the potential to be a unique candidate biomarker for the early molecular changes in articular cartilage associated with OA.
  • Stepniewska, Kasia, et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy of single dose primaquine with artemisinin combination therapy on P. falciparum gametocytes and transmission : A WWARN individual patient meta-analysis.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0022-1899 .- 1537-6613. ; 225:7, s. 1215-1226
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Since the World Health Organization recommended single low-dose (0.25mg/kg) primaquine (PQ) in combination with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in areas of low transmission or artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum, several single-site studies have been conducted to assess its efficacy.METHODS: An individual patient meta-analysis to assess the gametocytocidal and transmission-blocking efficacy of PQ used in combination with different ACTs was conducted. Random effects logistic regression was used to quantify PQ effect on (i) gametocyte carriage in the first two weeks post-treatment; (ii) the probability of infecting at least one mosquito or of a mosquito becoming infected.RESULTS: In 2,574 participants from fourteen studies, PQ reduced PCR-determined gametocyte carriage on days 7 and 14, most apparently in patients presenting with gametocytaemia on day 0 (Odds Ratio (OR)=0.22; 95%CI 0.17-0.28 and OR=0.12; 95%CI 0.08-0.16, respectively). The rate of decline in gametocyte carriage was faster when PQ was combined with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) compared to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) (p=0.010 for day 7). Addition of 0.25mg/kg PQ was associated with near complete prevention of transmission to mosquitoes.CONCLUSION: Primaquine's transmission-blocking effects are achieved with 0.25 mg/kg PQ. Gametocyte persistence and infectivity are lower when PQ is combined with AL compared to DP.
  • Stepniewska, Kasia, et al. (författare)
  • Safety of single-dose primaquine as a Plasmodium falciparum gametocytocide : a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: BMC Medicine. - : Springer Nature. - 1741-7015. ; 20:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundIn 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended single low-dose (SLD, 0.25 mg/kg) primaquine to be added as a Plasmodium (P.) falciparum gametocytocide to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) without glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) testing, to accelerate malaria elimination efforts and avoid the spread of artemisinin resistance. Uptake of this recommendation has been relatively slow primarily due to safety concerns.MethodsA systematic review and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of single-dose (SD) primaquine studies for P. falciparum malaria were performed. Absolute and fractional changes in haemoglobin concentration within a week and adverse effects within 28 days of treatment initiation were characterised and compared between primaquine and no primaquine arms using random intercept models.ResultsData comprised 20 studies that enrolled 6406 participants, of whom 5129 (80.1%) had received a single target dose of primaquine ranging between 0.0625 and 0.75 mg/kg. There was no effect of primaquine in G6PD-normal participants on haemoglobin concentrations. However, among 194 G6PD-deficient African participants, a 0.25 mg/kg primaquine target dose resulted in an additional 0.53 g/dL (95% CI 0.17-0.89) reduction in haemoglobin concentration by day 7, with a 0.27 (95% CI 0.19-0.34) g/dL haemoglobin drop estimated for every 0.1 mg/kg increase in primaquine dose. Baseline haemoglobin, young age, and hyperparasitaemia were the main determinants of becoming anaemic (Hb < 10 g/dL), with the nadir observed on ACT day 2 or 3, regardless of G6PD status and exposure to primaquine. Time to recovery from anaemia took longer in young children and those with baseline anaemia or hyperparasitaemia. Serious adverse haematological events after primaquine were few (9/3, 113, 0.3%) and transitory. One blood transfusion was reported in the primaquine arms, and there were no primaquine-related deaths. In controlled studies, the proportions with either haematological or any serious adverse event were similar between primaquine and no primaquine arms.ConclusionsOur results support the WHO recommendation to use 0.25 mg/kg of primaquine as a P. falciparum gametocytocide, including in G6PD-deficient individuals. Although primaquine is associated with a transient reduction in haemoglobin levels in G6PD-deficient individuals, haemoglobin levels at clinical presentation are the major determinants of anaemia in these patients.
  • Ursing, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Similar efficacy and tolerability of double-dose chloroquine and artemether-lumefantrine for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infection in Guinea-Bissau : a randomized trial
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0022-1899 .- 1537-6613. ; 203:1, s. 109-116
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. In 2008. Guinea-Bissau introduced artemether-lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Previously, 3 times the standard dose of chloroquine, that was probably efficacious against Plasmodium falciparum with the resistance-associated chloroquine-resistance transporter (pfcrt) 76T allele, was routinely used. The present study compared the efficacy and tolerability of a double standard dose of chloroquine with the efficacy and tolerability of artemether-lumefantrine.Methods. In a randomized open-label clinical trial, artemether-lumefantrine or chloroquine (50 mg/kg) were given as 6 divided doses over 3 days to children aged 6 months - 15 years who had uncomplicated P. falciparum monoinfection. Drug concentrations were measured on day 7. P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene N86Y and pfcrt K76T alleles were identified.Results. The polymerase chain reaction adjusted day 28 and 42 treatment efficacies were 162 (97%) of 168 and 155 (97%) of 161, respectively, for artemether-lumefantrine and 150 (95%) of 158 and 138 (94%) of 148, respectively, for chloroquine. When parasites with resistance-associated pfcrt 76T were treated, the day 28 efficacy of chloroquine was 87%. No severe drug-related adverse events were detected. Symptom resolution was similar with both treatments.Conclusions. Both treatments achieved the World Health Organization recommended efficacy for antimalarials that will be adopted as policy. High-dose chloroquine treatment regimes should be further evaluated with the aim of assessing chloroquine as a potential partner drug to artemisinin derivatives.
  • Vishina, Alena, et al. (författare)
  • High-throughput and data-mining approach to predict new rare-earth free permanent magnets
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Physical Review B. - : AMER PHYSICAL SOC. - 2469-9950 .- 2469-9969. ; 101:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present an application of a high-throughput search of new rare-earth free permanent magnets focusing on 3d-5d transition metal compounds. The search involved a part of the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database, together with tailored search criteria and electronic structure calculations of magnetic properties. Our results suggest that it is possible to find candidates for rare-earth free permanent magnets using a data-mining/datafiltering approach. The most promising candidates identified here are Pt2FeNi, Pt2FeCu, and W2FeB2. We suggest these materials to be a good platform for further investigations in the search of novel rare-earth free permanent magnets.
  • Wallin, Anders, 1950, et al. (författare)
  • Donepezil in Alzheimer's disease : What to expect after 3 years of treatment in a routine clinical setting
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - Basel : S. Karger AG. - 1420-8008 .- 1421-9824. ; 23:3, s. 150-160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Aims: Clinical short-term trails have shown positive effects of donepezil treatment in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The outcome of continuous long-term treatment in the routine clinical settings remains to be investigated. Methods: The Swedish Alzheimer Treatment Study (SATS) is a descriptive, prospective, longitudinal, multicentre study. Four hundred and thirty-five outpatients with the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, received treatment with donepezil. Patients were assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), global rating (CIBIC) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) at baseline and every 6 months for a total period of 3 years. Results: The mean MMSE change from baseline was positive for more than 6 months and in subgroups of patients for 12 months. After 3 years of treatment the mean change from baseline in MMSE-score was 3.8 points (95% CI, 3.0-4.7) and the ADAS-cog rise was 8.2 points (95% CI, 6.4-10.1). This is better than expected in untreated historical cohorts, and better than the ADAS-cog rise calculated by the Stern equation (15.6 points, 95% CI, 14.5-16.6). After 3 years with 38% of the patients remaining, 30% of the them were unchanged or improved in the global assessment. Conclusion: Three-year donepezil treatment showed a positive global and cognitive outcome in the routine clinical setting. Copyright © 2007 S. Karger AG.
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