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  • Jerdén, Lars (författare)
  • Health-promoting health services : personal health documents and empowerment
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In 2003, the Swedish Parliament adopted a national public health policy that included the domain - “A more health-promoting health service”. Strategies and tools are needed in the work to reorient health services. Personal health documents are documents concerning a person’s health, and are owned by the individual. Several studies that have evaluated such documents indicate that they could be of interest in health-promotion work. However, there is insufficient knowledge concerning personal health documents that target adolescents, and little is known about the feasibility of such documents in a Swedish cultural context. The concept of empowerment is gaining increased interest for health services, but the associations between empowerment, self-rated health and health behaviour are sparsely studied. The overall aim of the thesis is to explore a strategy - empowerment - and a tool - personal health documents - that might facilitate the work of the public health goal of a health-promoting health service. Specific aims are to examine the feasibility of using personal health documents in health promotion; to examine professionals’ experiences of working with health promotion and personal health documents; to examine the association between personal health documents and self-reported health behaviour change; and to examine the perception of empowerment in relation to self-rated health and health behaviour among adolescents. Two personal health documents that targeted adults and adolescents were developed and evaluated. Distribution to adults in different settings was compared in a cross-sectional study (n = 1 306). Adolescents received the document in school, and surveys were performed at baseline and after one year (n = 339). Practical use and attitudes by document owners were studied by questionnaires. Teachers (n = 69) answered a questionnaire, and community health nurses were interviewed (n = 12). The interviews also explored nurses’ experiences of working with health promotion in general, and were analysed by qualitative methodology. Adolescents’ empowerment was examined by a questionnaire (n = 1 046). Most participants reported reading in the documents; writing in the documents varied between 16% (distribution in occupational health) and 87% (adolescents). The health document was perceived as useful by 35% of the adolescents. Factors significantly related to personal usefulness were being born outside Sweden, experiencing fair treatment by teachers, being a non-smoker and having a positive school experience. Community health nurses were striving for a balance of being a doer of practical, disease-oriented tasks and a health-promotion communicator. The structural organisation in health care centres was important for their work with health promotion and the health document. Teachers were generally in favour of continued work with the document. In different settings, between 10% and 26% of adults reported changes in their health situations as a result of reading the booklet. Self-reported changes in health situations were less likely using postal distribution, and there were no significant differences between the other types of distribution. Adolescents with low empowerment scores reported poorer self-rated health and more risk-taking behaviours such as smoking and binge drinking. To conclude, personal health documents are feasible to use in different settings. Health promotion in health services needs active support from leaders as well as adequate support systems. Findings suggest that personal health documents can be tools for promoting self-reported lifestyle changes among adults in different settings. There is a close relation among adolescents between low empowerment in the domain of health, low self-rated health and health behaviours such as binge drinking and smoking.
  • Jerdén, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Personal health documents in school health education : a feasibility study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - : Sage Publications. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 35:6, s. 662-665
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To examine the feasibility of a school intervention using a personal health document adapted for adolescents. Methods: The health document was developed in close cooperation with groups of adolescents and tested among seventh-grade students at two junior high schools (n=339). The document was presented to the students by their regular teachers. For evaluation, an adolescent questionnaire was used at baseline and after one year. Results: After one year, 87% of adolescents reported having written in the health document, and 77% reported having had classes with discussions on subjects in the document. The health document was perceived as useful by 35% of the adolescents. Factors significantly related to personal usefulness were being born outside Sweden, experiencing fair treatment by teachers, being a non-smoker, and having a positive school experience. Conclusions: Implementation of a personal health document in junior high-school health education was feasible and well accepted.
  • Joffer, Junia, et al. (författare)
  • Predictors of smoking among Swedish adolescents
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 14, s. 1296-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Smoking most often starts in adolescence, implying that understanding of predicting factors for smoking initiation during this time period is essential for successful smoking prevention. The aim of this study was to examine predicting factors in early adolescence for smoking in late adolescence. Methods: Longitudinal cohort study, involving 649 Swedish adolescents from lower secondary school (12-13 years old) to upper secondary school (17-18 years old). Tobacco habits, behavioural, intra-and interpersonal factors and socio-demographic variables were assessed through questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify predicting factors. Results: Smoking prevalence increased from 3.3% among 12-13 year olds to 25.1% among 17-18 year olds. Possible predictors of smoking were: female sex, lower parental education, poorer family mood, poorer self-rated health, poorer self-esteem, less negative attitude towards smoking, binge drinking, snus use and smoking. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, female sex (OR 1.64, CI 1.08-2.49), medium and low self-esteem (medium: OR 1.57, CI 1.03-2.38, low: 2.79, CI 1.46-5.33), less negative attitude towards smoking (OR 2.81, CI 1.70-4.66) and ever using snus (OR 3.43, CI 1.78-6.62) remained significant independent predicting factors. Conclusions: The study stresses the importance of strengthening adolescents' self-esteem, promoting anti-smoking attitudes in early adolescence, as well as avoidance of early initiation of snus. Such measures should be joint efforts involving parents, schools, youth associations, and legislating authorities.
  • Karlsson, Bo, 1951-, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive behaviour therapy in women with fibromyalgia : A randomized cllinical trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Pain. - : Walter de Gruyter GmbH. - 1877-8860 .- 1877-8879. ; 9, s. 11-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and aimsStress has been pointed out as an important influential factor in the development and maintaining of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Since stress may worsen the pain experience, the development of individual strategies for coping with stress is essential to reduce the impact of FMS on daily life. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a group based stress management cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) programme could influence self-reported stress, wellbeing and life control, as well as self-reported pain behaviour in female FMS patients.Methods48 female FMS patient were randomized into a cognitive behaviour therapy treatment group (n = 24) and a waitlist control group (n = 24). When the 6 months waitlist period was over the control group received the same CBT programme. This allowed two analytical approaches, one based on the randomized controlled trial design and one based on a before-and-after design to improve the statistical power of the study. Four psychometric instruments were used: The West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (three parts, MPI-1 to MPI-3), the Maastricht Questionnaire, the Everyday Life Stress, and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression rating scale – self-reported. Primary outcome was the MPI-1 dimension ‘life control’, secondary outcomes were the MPI-1 dimensions ‘interference’, ‘affective distress’ and ‘support from spouses or significant others’, the various MPI-2 dimensions, the ‘general activity level’ in the MPI-3 dimension, and ‘vital exhaustion’, ‘stress behaviour’, and ‘depression’. The only tertiary outcome was the MPI-1 dimension ‘pain severity’.ResultsIn the RCT design the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory dimensions ‘life control’, ‘interference from pain’, ‘affective distress’, ‘support from spouses or significant others’, and ‘distracting responses’ and ratings for depression improved in the treatment group as compared with the control group. In the before-and after design these improvements were maintained and enhanced during 1-year follow-up, and so was the ‘vital exhaustion’ and ‘stress behaviour’. ‘Pain severity’ was rated higher after the intervention.ConclusionsCognitive behaviour therapy improved the life control in a female population with FMS. Coping behaviour in response to chronic pain was improved at the same time and in spite of higher subjective ratings of pain. Positive effects were seen on depression, vital exhaustion and stress behaviour. The effects of therapy were maintained and enhanced during the follow up period. It appears that women with FMS after the CBT treatment, according to this protocol obtained tools leading to better acceptance of their disorder.
  • Karlsson, Bo, 1951-, et al. (författare)
  • Decline of substance P levels after stress management with cognitive behaviour therapy in women with the fibromyalgia syndrome
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Pain. - : Walter de Gruyter. - 1877-8860 .- 1877-8879. ; 19:3, s. 473-482
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and aims: Substance P (CSF-SP) is known to be elevated in females with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) on plasma SP levels in women with FMS and to find possible clinical behavioural correlates to plasma SP level changes. Methods: Forty-eight women with FMS were randomly allocated into two groups. Group 1 received the CBT treatment intervention over the course of 6 months while group 2 was waitlisted. CBT was given with a protocol developed to diminish stress and pain. After 6 months, group 2 was given the same CBT treatment as well. All were followed up 1 year after the start of CBT treatment. This approach allowed for two analytical designs a randomised controlled trial (RCT) (n=24 vs. n=24) and a before-and-after treatment design (n=48). All women were repeatedly evaluated by the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) and three other psychometric questionnaires and plasma SP was analysed. Results: In the RCT design, the plasma SP level was 8.79 fmol/mL in both groups at the start of the trial, after adjustment for initial differences. At the end of the RCT, the plasma SP level was 5.25 fmol/mL in the CBT intervention group compared to 8.39 fmol/mL in the control group (p=0.02). In the before-and-after design, the plasma SP was reduced by 33% (p <0.01) after CBT, but returned to the pre-treatment level at follow-up 1 year after the start of CBT treatment. Plasma SP was associated with the MPI dimensions experienced "support from spouses or significant others" and "life control". Conclusions: Plasma SP might be a marker of the effect of CBT in FMS associated with better coping strategies and reduced stress rather than a biochemical marker of pain.
  • Karlsson, Bo, 1951-, et al. (författare)
  • Neuropeptide Y and measures of stress in a longitudinal study of women with the fibromyalgia syndrome
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Pain. - : Walter de Gruyter. - 1877-8860 .- 1877-8879. ; 23:1, s. 59-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Neuropeptide Y is associated with stress in animal and human laboratory studies. However, data from clinical studies are scarce and no clinical longitudinal studies have been published. The aim of this clinical study was to assess the possible association between changes in the levels of pain, depression, and stress measures, on the one hand, and plasma neuropeptide Y levels, on the other.METHODS: Forty-four women with the fibromyalgia syndrome were exposed to a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy intervention. Levels of the plasma neuropeptide Y as well as pain, depression, and stress measures were obtained at the start and at the end of the intervention, and after a further six month follow-up. Based on these data, a before-and-after analysis was performed.RESULTS: Almost all measures of pain, depression, and stress improved during the study; specifically, variables measuring life control (coping), depression, and stress-related time urgency improved significantly. Moreover, during the same time period, the mean plasma neuropeptide Y level was reduced from 93.2 ± 38.8 fmol/mL before the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to 75.6 ± 42.9 fmol/mL (p<0.001) at the end of the study.CONCLUSIONS: After exposure to a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy intervention, levels of most of the pain, depression, and stress measures improved, half of them significantly, as did the levels of neuropeptide Y. This circumstance indicates a possible functional relationship between pain-depression-stress and neuropeptide Y.
  • Lytsy, Per, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular Risk Factor Assessments and Health Behaviours in Patients Using Statins Compared to a Non-Treated Population
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1070-5503 .- 1532-7558. ; 19:2, s. 134-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUNDThe perception of cardiovascular risk factors is believed to be associated with a person's willingness to carry out lifestyle changes as well as their willingness to adhere to prescribed preventive medications. Little is known about whether these perceptions differ between statin users and those not using statins, including how these factors relate to health behaviours.PURPOSEThe objective was to investigate and compare the perceptions of known modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients using statins with those of a non-treated population. One further objective was to investigate if statin use was associated with favourable health behaviours.METHODData about health, perception of the importance of cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviours were collected through questionnaires from 829 statin users and 629 non-statin users. Beliefs about risk factors were compared in univariate analyses, and four health behaviours were compared in multivariate regression models.RESULTSStatin users had better health behaviours in univariate analyses compared to non-statin users. Statin users rated lifestyle-related risk factors as more important contributors for the development of cardiovascular disease than non-statin users. In a multivariate model, statin use was associated with having better eating habits.CONCLUSIONPeople using statins are more concerned about cardiovascular risk factors compared to non-statin users. The behaviour of taking statins seems to be associated with favourable eating habits.
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