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  • Lytsy, Per, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • How do prescribing doctors anticipate the effect of statins?
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice. - : Wiley. - 1356-1294 .- 1365-2753. ; 17:3, s. 420-428
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Statins are a lipid-lowering treatment, prescribed frequently to prevent cardiovascular events. The objective of this study was to explore how doctors anticipate the effect of statins and what factors are associated with their willingness to initiate treatment. Methods: A total of 330 Swedish cardiologists, internists and general practitioners were asked to consider two hypothetical patient cases, one with and one without previous coronary heart disease. Based on these cases, the respondents answered questions about their willingness to initiate treatment and what effects they might expect. The expectation of effect was assessed in two ways: (1) the absolute risk reduction of myocardial infarction in 1000 patients treated with statins for 5 years; and (2) statins' average effect on increased life expectancy. The doctors' beliefs about absolute risk reduction were compared with results from clinical trials. Results: Most doctors had a suboptimal expectation about absolute risk reduction; only about one-third had expectations in the range supported by evidence-based data. There were different views about statins' ability to prolong life: that is, average gain in life expectancy due to treatment was believed to be 2 years in the primary patient case, and 3 years in the second patient case. The doctors' beliefs about statins' ability to prolong life were associated significantly with their willingness to initiate treatment. Conclusion: The overall results imply that doctors have varying and suboptimal understanding of the effect of statins. This may inhibit the goal of integrating clinical research into clinical practice.
  • Lytsy, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Läkares syn och förväntningar på statinbehandling
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Svenska läkaresällskapets handlingar 2008.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Blodfettssänkande läkemedelsbehandling med statiner är en vanlig preventiv åtgärd. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka förskrivande läkares förväntningar på behandlingseffekt och jämföra dessa med effektresultat från kliniska studier samt att undersöka om förskrivarnas kön, medicinska specialitet och arbetsplats påverkar deras förväntningar.
  • Lytsy, Per, 1968- (författare)
  • Power of the Pill : Views about Cardiovascular Risk and the Risk-reducing Effect of Statins
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Medical treatments with statins are prescribed to patients with increased risk of cardiovascular events. The benefits from statin treatment are well documented in clinical trials, but long-term adherence in patients is low, indicating that patients have an uncertainty about the necessity and benefits of treatment. The aims of this thesis were to investigate how patients and doctors view different aspects of statin treatment. Further aims were to investigate if the cardiovascular risk level in patients affects their views about different aspects of statin treatment. Yet further aims were to compare health behaviours and views about risk factors in patients using statins to a non-treated population. Data was obtained from patients (n = 829), doctors (n = 330) and a population sample (n = 720) using postal questionnaires. Views about the effect of statin treatment were assessed in different ways for patients and doctors. Patients based their assessments on their own situation, and doctors’ treatment decisions and assessments of anticipated effect of treatment were based on two hypothetical patient cases. The results indicate that patients greatly overestimate the general effect of statins, compared to efficacy results reported from clinical trials. Patients’ previous coronary heart disease or high overall risk were factors not associated with their views and expectations of treatment effect. Statin users with an internally perceived health control and patients satisfied with their doctor’s treatment explanation reported higher beliefs in treatment necessity and benefits. Statin users reported having better health behaviours and generally rated risk factors as more important than the non-treated population. Doctors had suboptimal understanding of the number of patients expected to benefit following five years of statin treatment and had a varying understanding of statins’ ability to prolong life. Overall the results illustrate that patients and doctors have different perspectives and views of the benefits from statin treatment which puts emphasis on how statin treatment is discussed in the clinical setting.
  • Lytsy, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Views on Treatment Necessity, Harm, and Benefits in Patients Using Statins
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Medical decision making. - 0272-989X .- 1552-681X. ; 30:5, s. 594-609
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUNDPatients with dyslipidemia and high overall risk of ischemic heart disease are those most likely to benefit from treatment with statins. The objective of this study was to investigate patients' views of the necessity, harm, and expected benefits of their statin treatment, as well as factors associated with these treatment beliefs. One main objective was to investigate whether cardiovascular risk level and previous coronary heart disease affect the way patients view these different aspects of their medication.METHODSA total of 829 statin users were recruited while visiting a pharmacy to collect their statin medication (response rate, 69.4%). Patients returned a questionnaire assessing their medical history, concurrent risk status, social demographic factors, as well as their views and expectations regarding their statin treatment. RESULTS: Previous ischemic heart disease, or high risk of such disease, was not associated with a more favorable notion on statin treatment. Having an internal health locus of control as well as being satisfied with the physician's treatment explanation were factors associated with more positive views on expected treatment effect. The views on necessity, harm, and treatment benefit were closely associated with each other.CONCLUSIONThe main findings in this study suggest that cardiovascular risk level and previous coronary heart disease are not associated with the way patients value potential benefits of statin treatment. Patients' views of the treatment's necessity, harm, and benefits do not seem to be independent dimensions of patient beliefs but rather represent one overall question: is this good for me?
  • Nordin, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • How can health care help female breast cancer patients reduce their stress symptoms? : A randomized intervention study with stepped-care
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Cancer. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1471-2407 .- 1471-2407. ; 12, s. 167-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A life threatening illness such as breast cancer can lead to a secondary diagnosis of PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder) with intrusive thoughts and avoidance as major symptoms. In a former study by the research group, 80% of the patients with breast cancer reported a high level of stress symptoms close to the diagnosis, such as intrusive thoughts and avoidance behavior. These symptoms remained high throughout the study. The present paper presents the design of a randomized study evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a stress management intervention using a stepped-care design.Method: Female patients over the age of 18, with a recent diagnosis of breast cancer and scheduled for adjuvant treatment in the form of chemotherapy, radiation therapy and/or hormonal therapy are eligible and will consecutively be included in the study. The study is a prospective longitudinal intervention study with a stepped-care approach, where patients will be randomised to one of two interventions in the final stage of treatment. The first step is a low intensity stress-management intervention that is given to all patients. Patients who do not respond to this level are thereafter given more intensive treatment at later steps in the program and will be randomized to more intensive stress-management intervention in a group setting or individually. The primary out-come is subjective distress (intrusion and avoidance) assessed by the Impact of Event Scale (IES). According to the power-analyses, 300 patients are planned to be included in the study and will be followed for one year. Other outcomes are anxiety, depression, quality of life, fatigue, stress in daily living and utilization of hospital services. This will be assessed with well-known psychometric tested questionnaires. Also, the cost-effectiveness of the intervention given in group or individually will be evaluated.Discussion: This randomized clinical trial will provide additional empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of a stress-management program given in group or individually during adjuvant therapy in terms of decreased stress, minimizing fatigue, and maintaining or enhancing patients' quality of life and psychological well-being.
  • Norlund, Fredrika, et al. (författare)
  • Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety among Patients with a Recent Myocardial Infarction : The U-CARE Heart Randomized Trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research. - : JMIR Publications Inc.. - 1438-8871 .- 1438-8871. ; 20:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Symptoms of depression and anxiety are common after a myocardial infarction (MI). Internet-based cognitivebehavioral therapy (iCBT) has shown good results in other patient groups.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an iCBT treatment to reduce self-reported symptoms ofdepression and anxiety among patients with a recent MI.Methods: In total, 3928 patients were screened for eligibility in 25 Swedish hospitals. Of these, 239 patients (33.5%, 80/239women, mean age 60 years) with a recent MI and symptoms of depression or anxiety were randomly allocated to a therapist-guided,14-week iCBT treatment (n=117), or treatment as usual (TAU; n=122). The iCBT treatment was designed for post-MI patients.The primary outcome was the total score of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) 14 weeks post baseline, assessedover the internet. Treatment effect was evaluated according to the intention-to-treat principle, with multiple imputations. For themain analysis, a pooled treatment effect was estimated, controlling for age, sex, and baseline HADS.Results: There was a reduction in HADS scores over time in the total study sample (mean delta=−5.1, P<.001) but no differencebetween the study groups at follow-up (beta=−0.47, 95% CI −1.95 to 1.00, P=.53). Treatment adherence was low. A total of46.2% (54/117) of the iCBT group did not complete the introductory module.Conclusions: iCBT treatment for an MI population did not result in lower levels of symptoms of depression or anxiety comparedwith TAU. Low treatment adherence might have influenced the result.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01504191; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01504191 (Archived at Webciteat http://www.webcitation.org/6xWWSEQ22)
  • Norlund, Fredrika, et al. (författare)
  • Psychological mediators related to clinical outcome in cognitive behavioural therapy for coronary heart disease : A sub-analysis from the SUPRIM trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 2047-4873 .- 2047-4881. ; 24:9, s. 917-925
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:The Secondary Prevention in Uppsala Primary Healthcare Project (SUPRIM) was a randomized controlledtrial of a group-based cognitive behavioural therapy stress management programme for patients with coronary heartdisease. The project was successful in reducing the risk of fatal or non-fatal first recurrent cardiovascular events. The aimof this study was to analyse the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy on self-rated stress, somatic anxiety, vitalexhaustion and depression and to study the associations of these factors with the reduction in cardiovascular events.Methods:A total of 362 patients were randomly assigned to intervention or usual care groups. The psychologicaloutcomes were assessed five times during 24 months and analysed using linear mixed models. The mediating roles of theoutcomes were analysed using joint modelling of the longitudinal and time to event data.Results:The intervention had a positive effect on somatic anxiety (p<0.05), reflecting a beneficial development overtime compared with the controls. Stress, vital exhaustion and depression did not differ between the groups over time.Mediator analysis suggested that somatic anxiety may have mediated the effect of treatment on cardiovascular events.Conclusions:The intervention had a small positive effect on somatic anxiety, but did not affect stress, vital exhaustionor depression in patients with coronary heart disease. Somatic anxiety was associated with an increased risk of cardio-vascular events and might act as a partial mediator in the treatment effect on cardiovascular events. However, themechanisms between the intervention and the protective cardiovascular outcome remain to be identified.
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