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31.
  • Bellavia, Andrea, et al. (författare)
  • Time-based measures of treatment effect : reassessment of ticagrelor and clopidogrel from the PLATO trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Open heart. - 2053-3624. ; 4:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Treatment effects to binary endpoints using time-to-event data in randomised controlled trials are typically summarised by reporting HRs derived with Cox proportional hazard models. Alternative and complementary methods include summarising the between-treatment differences on the metric time scale, quantifying the effect as delay of the event (DoE). The aim of this study was to reassess data from the PLATO study expressing the effects as the time by which the main outcomes are delayed or hastened due to treatment.METHODS: PLATO was a randomised controlled double-blind multicentre study (n=18,624), conducted between 2006 and 2008, which demonstrated superiority of the antiplatelet treatment ticagrelor over clopidogrel in reducing risk of several cardiovascular events. In the present study, four of the main PLATO outcomes were reassessed by calculating the time by which an event may be delayed due to the treatment.RESULTS: The effects of ticagrelor, as compared with clopidogrel, consisted of a substantial delay of the evaluated outcomes, ranging from 83 to 98 days over 400-day follow-up. The Delay of Events Curves showed that the effects progressively increased over time, and the significant findings were concordant with those presented in the original PLATO study.CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed evidence of a beneficial effect of ticagrelor over clopidogrel, and provided the magnitude of such effects in terms of delayed event time. Investigating time-to-event data with a percentile approach allows presenting treatment effects from randomised controlled studies as absolute measures of the time by which an event may be delayed due to the treatment.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PLATO (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00391872); Results.
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32.
  • Berry, Natalia C., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Lesion Complexity and Clinical Risk Factors on the Efficacy and Safety of Dabigatran Dual Therapy Versus Warfarin Triple Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention A Subgroup Analysis From the REDUAL PCI Trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions. - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 1941-7640 .- 1941-7632. ; 13:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The REDUAL PCI trial (Evaluation of Dual Therapy With Dabigatran vs Triple Therapy With Warfarin in Patients With AF That Undergo a PCI With Stenting) demonstrated that, in patients with atrial fibrillation following percutaneous coronary intervention, bleeding risk was lower with dabigatran plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor (dual therapy) than warfarin plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor and aspirin (triple therapy). Dual therapy was noninferior for risk of thromboembolic events. Whether these results apply equally to patients at higher risk of ischemic events due to lesion complexity or clinical risk factors is unclear. Methods: The primary end point was time to first major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding event. The composite efficacy end point was death, thromboembolic event, or unplanned revascularization. Our prespecified subgroup analysis categorized patients by presence of procedural complexity and/or clinical complexity factors at baseline. A modified dual antiplatelet therapy score categorized patients according to degree of clinical risk. Results: Of 2725 patients, 43.1% had clinical complexity factors alone, 9.9% procedural factors alone, 10.0% both, and 37.0% neither. Risk of the primary bleeding end point was lower in both dabigatran dual therapy groups than warfarin triple therapy groups, regardless of procedural and/or clinical lesion complexity (interaction P values: 0.90 and 0.37, respectively). Importantly, a similar risk of the efficacy end point was observed between dabigatran dual and warfarin triple therapy, regardless of the presence of clinical or procedural complexity factors (interaction P values: 0.67 and 0.54, dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy, respectively). Similar benefit was seen for each dose of dabigatran dual therapy for bleeding events regardless of dual antiplatelet therapy score (interaction P values: 0.53 and 0.54, respectively), with similar risk of thromboembolic events (interaction P values: 0.20 and 0.08, respectively). Conclusions: In patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy reduced bleeding risk compared with warfarin triple therapy, with a similar risk of thromboembolic outcomes, irrespective of procedural and/or clinical complexity and modified dual antiplatelet therapy score. Registration: URL: ; Unique identifier: NCT02164864.
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33.
  • Bui, An H., et al. (författare)
  • Relationship Between Early and Late Nonsustained Ventricular Tachycardia and Cardiovascular Death in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) Trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 1941-3149 .- 1941-3084. ; 9:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background- Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) is common after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and a marker of increased risk of arrhythmogenic death. However, the prognostic significance of NSVT when evaluated with other contemporary risk markers and at later time points after ACS remains uncertain. Methods and Results- In the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial, continuous ECGs were performed during the first 7 days after ACS (n=2866) and repeated for another 7 days at day 30 (n=1991). Median follow-up was 1 year. There was a time-varying interaction between NSVT and cardiovascular death such that NSVT was significantly associated with increased risk within the first 30 days after randomization (22/999 [2.2%] versus 16/1825 [0.9%]; adjusted hazard ratio, 2.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-5.79; P=0.004) but not after 30 days (28/929 [3.0%] versus 42/1734 [2.4%]; P=0.71). Detection of NSVT during the convalescent phase (n=428/1991; 21.5%) was also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death, and was most marked within the first 2 months after detection (1.9% versus 0.3%; adjusted hazard ratio, 5.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-28.20; P=0.01), and then decreasing over time such that the relationship was no longer significant by approximate to 5 months after ACS. Conclusions- NSVT occurred frequently during the acute and convalescent phases of ACS. The risk of cardiovascular death associated with NSVT was the greatest during the first 30 days after presentation; however, patients with NSVT detected during the convalescent phase were also at a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular death that persisted for an additional several months after the index event.
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34.
  • Cannon, Christopher P., et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of ticagrelor with clopidogrel in patients with a planned invasive strategy for acute coronary syndromes (PLATO) : a randomised double-blind study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 375:9711, s. 283-293
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Variation in and irreversibility of platelet inhibition with clopidogrel has led to controversy about its optimum dose and timing of administration in patients with acute coronary syndromes. We compared ticagrelor, a more potent reversible P2Y12 inhibitor with clopidogrel in such patients. METHODS: At randomisation, an invasive strategy was planned for 13 408 (72.0%) of 18 624 patients hospitalised for acute coronary syndromes (with or without ST elevation). In a double-blind, double-dummy study, patients were randomly assigned in a one-to-one ratio to ticagrelor and placebo (180 mg loading dose followed by 90 mg twice a day), or to clopidogrel and placebo (300-600 mg loading dose or continuation with maintenance dose followed by 75 mg per day) for 6-12 months. All patients were given aspirin. The primary composite endpoint was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00391872. FINDINGS: 6732 patients were assigned to ticagrelor and 6676 to clopidogrel. The primary composite endpoint occurred in fewer patients in the ticagrelor group than in the clopidogrel group (569 [event rate at 360 days 9.0%] vs 668 [10.7%], hazard ratio 0.84, 95% CI 0.75-0.94; p=0.0025). There was no difference between clopidogrel and ticagrelor groups in the rates of total major bleeding (691 [11.6%] vs 689 [11.5%], 0.99 [0.89-1.10]; p=0.8803) or severe bleeding, as defined according to the Global Use of Strategies To Open occluded coronary arteries, (198 [3.2%] vs 185 [2.9%], 0.91 [0.74-1.12]; p=0.3785). INTERPRETATION: Ticagrelor seems to be a better option than clopidogrel for patients with acute coronary syndromes for whom an early invasive strategy is planned.
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35.
  • Cannon, Christopher P., et al. (författare)
  • Design and Rationale of the RE-DUAL PCI Trial : A Prospective, Randomized, Phase 3b Study Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of Dual Antithrombotic Therapy With Dabigatran Etexilate Versus Warfarin Triple Therapy in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Who Have Undergone Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Stenting
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cardiology. - 0160-9289 .- 1932-8737. ; 39:10, s. 555-564
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Antithrombotic management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing coronary stenting is complicated by the need for anticoagulant therapy for stroke prevention and dual antiplatelet therapy for prevention of stent thrombosis and coronary events. Triple antithrombotic therapy, typically comprising warfarin, aspirin, and clopidogrel, is associated with a high risk of bleeding. A modest-sized trial of oral anticoagulation with warfarin and clopidogrel without aspirin showed improvements in both bleeding and thrombotic events compared with triple therapy, but large trials are lacking. The RE-DUAL PCI trial (NCT 02164864) is a phase 3b, a strategy of prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial. The main objective is to evaluate dual antithrombotic therapy with dabigatran etexilate (110 or 150 mg twice daily) and a P2Y12 inhibtor (either clopidogrel or ticagrelor) compared with triple antithrombotic therapy with warfarin, a P2Y12 inhibtor (either clopidogrel or ticagrelor, and low-dose aspirin (for 1 or 3 months, depending on stent type) in nonvalvular AF patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting. The primary endpoint is time to first International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis major bleeding event or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding event. Secondary endpoints are the composite of all cause death or thrombotic events (myocardial infarction, or stroke/systemic embolism) and unplanned revascularization; death or thrombotic events; individual outcome events; death, myocardial infarction, or stroke; and unplanned revascularization. A hierarchical procedure for multiple testing will be used. The plan is to randomize similar to 2500 patients at approximately 550 centers worldwide to try to identify new treatment strategies for this patient population.
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36.
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37.
  • Charytan, David M, et al. (författare)
  • Early angiography in patients with chronic kidney disease : a collaborative systematic review
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - 1555-905X .- 1555-9041. ; 4:6, s. 1032-1043
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In the general population, an early invasive strategy of routine coronary angiography is superior to a conservative strategy of selective angiography in patients who are admitted with unstable angina or non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI), but the effectiveness of this strategy in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is uncertain. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a collaborative meta-analysis with data provided by the main authors of identified trials to estimate the effectiveness of early angiography in patients with CKD. The Cochrane, Medline, and EMBASE databases were searched to identify randomized trials that compared invasive and conservative strategies in patients with unstable angina or non-ST MI. Pooled risks ratios were estimated using data from enrolled patients with estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). RESULTS: Five randomized trials that enrolled 1453 patients with CKD were included. An early invasive strategy was associated with nonsignificant reductions in all-cause mortality, nonfatal MI, and a composite of death or nonfatal MI. The invasive strategy significantly reduced rehospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: This collaborative study suggests that the benefits of an early invasive strategy are preserved in patients with CKD and that an early invasive approach reduces the risk for rehospitalization and is associated with trends of reduction in the risk for death and nonfatal re-infarction in patients with CKD. Coronary angiography should be considered for patients who have CKD and are admitted with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes.
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38.
  • Costa, Francesco, et al. (författare)
  • Antithrombotic therapy according to baseline bleeding risk in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention : applying the PRECISE-DAPT score in RE-DUAL PCI.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 2055-6837 .- 2055-6845. ; 8:3, s. 216-226
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: Patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing coronary intervention are at higher bleeding risk due to the concomitant need for oral anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy. The RE-DUAL PCI trial demonstrated better safety with dual antithrombotic therapy (DAT: dabigatran 110 or 150 mg bid, clopidogrel or ticagrelor) compared to triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT: warfarin, clopidogrel or ticagrelor, and aspirin). We explored the impact of baseline bleeding risk based on the PRECISE-DAPT score for decision-making regarding DAT vs. TAT.METHODS AND RESULTS: A score ≥25 points qualified high bleeding-risk (HBR). Comparisons were made for the primary safety endpoint ISTH major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding, and the composite efficacy endpoint of death, thromboembolic events, or unplanned revascularization, analyzed by time-to-event analysis. PRECISE-DAPT was available in 2,336/2,725 patients, and 37.9% were HBR. Compared to TAT, DAT with dabigatran 110 mg reduced bleeding risk both in non-HBR (HR 0.42, 95%CI, 0.31-0.57) and HBR (HR 0.70, 95%CI, 0.52-0.94), with a greater magnitude of benefit among non-HBR (Pint=0.02). DAT with dabigatran 150 mg vs. TAT reduced bleeding in non-HBR (HR 0.60, 95%CI, 0.45-0.80), with a trend toward less benefit in HBR patients (HR 0.92, 95%CI, 0.63-1.34, Pint=0.08). Risk of ischaemic events was similar on DAT with dabigatran (both 110 and 150 mg) vs. TAT in non-HBR and HBR patients (Pint=0.45 and Pint=0.56, respectively).CONCLUSIONS: PRECISE-DAPT score appeared useful to identify AF patients undergoing PCI at further increased risk of bleeding complications, and may help clinicians identifying the antithrombotic regimen intensity with the best benefit-risk ratio in an individual patient.
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39.
  • Cowper, Patricia A, et al. (författare)
  • Economic Analysis of Ticagrelor Therapy From a U.S. Perspective : Results From the PLATO Study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 65:5, s. 465-476
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Based on results of the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial comparing ticagrelor with clopidogrel therapy, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved ticagrelor in 2011 for reducing thrombotic cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with the proviso that it be taken with low-dose aspirin.OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the cost and cost effectiveness of ticagrelor therapy relative to clopidogrel in treating ACS patients from the perspective of the U.S. health care system.METHODS: We estimated within-trial resource use and costs using U.S. low-dose aspirin patients in PLATO (n = 547). Quality-adjusted life expectancy was estimated using the total PLATO population (n = 18,624), combined with baseline risk and long-term survival data from an external ACS patient cohort. Study drugs were valued at current costs. Cost effectiveness was assessed, as was the sensitivity of results to sampling and methodological uncertainties.RESULTS: One year of ticagrelor therapy, relative to that of generic clopidogrel, cost $29,665/quality-adjusted life-year gained, with 99% of bootstrap estimates falling under a $100,000 willingness-to-pay threshold. Results were robust to extensive sensitivity analyses, including variations in clopidogrel cost, exclusion of costs in extended years of life, and a recalibrated estimate of survival reflecting a lower underlying mortality risk in the United States.CONCLUSIONS: For PLATO-eligible ACS patients, a U.S. perspective comparison of the current standard of dual antiplatelet therapy of aspirin with clopidogrel versus aspirin plus ticagrelor showed that the ticagrelor regimen increased life expectancy at an incremental cost well within accepted benchmarks of good value for money. (A Comparison of Ticagrelor [AZD6140] and Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [PLATO]; NCT00391872).
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40.
  • Cowper, Patricia A., et al. (författare)
  • Economic Analysis of Ticagrelor Therapy From a US Perspective
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 65:5, s. 465-476
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Based on results of the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial comparing ticagrelor with clopidogrel therapy, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved ticagrelor in 2011 for reducing thrombotic cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with the proviso that it be taken with low-dose aspirin. OBJECTIVES This study sought to assess the cost and cost effectiveness of ticagrelor therapy relative to clopidogrel in treating ACS patients from the perspective of the U.S. health care system. METHODS We estimated within-trial resource use and costs using U.S. low-dose aspirin patients in PLATO (n = 547). Quality-adjusted life expectancy was estimated using the total PLATO population (n = 18,624), combined with baseline risk and long-term survival data from an external ACS patient cohort. Study drugs were valued at current costs. Cost effectiveness was assessed, as was the sensitivity of results to sampling and methodological uncertainties. RESULTS One year of ticagrelor therapy, relative to that of generic clopidogrel, cost $29,665/quality-adjusted life-year gained, with 99% of bootstrap estimates falling under a $100,000 willingness-to-pay threshold. Results were robust to extensive sensitivity analyses, including variations in clopidogrel cost, exclusion of costs in extended years of life, and a recalibrated estimate of survival reflecting a lower underlying mortality risk in the United States. CONCLUSIONS For PLATO-eligible ACS patients, a U.S. perspective comparison of the current standard of dual antiplatelet therapy of aspirin with clopidogrel versus aspirin plus ticagrelor showed that the ticagrelor regimen increased life expectancy at an incremental cost well within accepted benchmarks of good value for money. (C) 2015 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
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