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41.
  • De Caterina, Raffaele, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of Dabigatran Plus a P2Y12 Inhibitor With Warfarin-Based Triple Therapy Across Body Mass Index in RE-DUAL PCI.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medicine. - 0002-9343 .- 1555-7162. ; 133:11, s. 1302-1312
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) affects drug levels of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants. We sought to assess whether BMI affected outcomes in the RE-DUAL PCI trial.METHODS: RE-DUAL PCI (NCT02164864) evaluated the safety and efficacy of a dual-antithrombotic-therapy regimen using dabigatran (110 mg or 150 mg twice daily and a P2Y12 platelet antagonist) in comparison with triple therapy of warfarin, aspirin, and a P2Y12 platelet inhibitor in 2725 patients with atrial fibrillation who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We compared the risk of first International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH)-defined major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events (primary endpoint) and the composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, systemic embolism, or unplanned revascularization (main efficacy endpoint) in relation to baseline BMI.RESULTS: Median (range) BMI was 28.1 (14-66) kg/m2. Dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy had relevantly and similarly lower rates of bleeding at both 110 mg and 150 mg twice-daily doses, irrespective of BMI. Thromboembolic event rates appeared consistent across categories of BMI, including those <25 and ≥35 kg/m2 (P for interaction: 0.806 and 0.279, respectively).CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in bleeding with dabigatran dual therapy compared with warfarin triple therapy in patients here evaluated appears consistent across BMI categories.
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42.
  • Ducrocq, Gregory, et al. (författare)
  • Balancing the risk of spontaneous ischemic and major bleeding events in acute coronary syndromes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : MOSBY-ELSEVIER. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 186, s. 91-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Evaluation of antithrombotic treatments for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) requires balancing ischemic and bleeding risks to assess net benefit. We sought to compare the relative effects of ischemic and bleeding events on mortality.Methods: In the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial, we compared spontaneous ischemic events (myocardial infarction or stroke) with spontaneous major bleeding events (PLATO major, Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction [TIMI] major, Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries [GUSTO] severe) with respect to risk of mortality using time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models. The comparison was performed using ratio of hazard ratios for mortality increase after ischemic vs bleeding events.Results: A total of 822 patients (4.4%) had >= 1 spontaneous ischemic event; 485 patients (2.6%), >= 1 spontaneous PLATO major bleed, 282 (1.5%), >= 1 spontaneous TIMI major bleed; and 207 (1.1%), >= 1 spontaneous severe GUSTO bleed. In patients who had both events, bleeding occurred first in most patients. Regardless of classification, major bleeding events were associated with increased short- and long-term mortality that were not significantly different from the increase associated with spontaneous ischemic events: ratio of hazard ratios (95% Cls) for short- and long-term mortality after spontaneous ischemic vs bleeding events: 1.46 (0.98-2.19) and 0.92 (0.52-1.62) (PLATO major); 1.26 (0.80-1.96) and 1.19 (0.58-2.24) (TIMI major), 0.72 (0.47-1.10) and 0.83 (0.38-1.79) (GUSTO severe) (all P > 0.05)Conclusions: In patients with ACS on dual antiplatelet therapy, spontaneous major bleeding events seem "prognostically equivalent" to spontaneous ischemic complications. This result allows quantitative comparisons between both actual and predicted bleeding and ischemic risks. Our findings help to better define net clinical benefit of antithrombotic treatments and more accurately estimate mortality after ischemic and bleeding events in patients with ACS.
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43.
  • Franchi, Francesco, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Kidney Disease on Cardiovascular Outcomes and Platelet P2Y12 Receptor Antagonist Effects in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes : Insights From the PLATO Trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 8:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-There are limited data on how the combination of diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects cardiovascular outcomes as well as response to different P2Y(12) receptor antagonists, which represented the aim of the present investigation. Methods and Results-In this post hoc analysis of the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial, which randomized acute coronary syndrome patients to ticagrelor versus clopidogrel, patients (n=15 108) with available DM and CKD status were classified into 4 groups: DM+/CKD+ (n=1058), DM+/CKD- (n=2748), DM-/CKD+ (n=2160), and DM-/CKD- (n=9142). The primary efficacy end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 12 months. The primary safety end point was PLATO major bleeding. DM+/CKD+ patients had a higher incidence of the primary end point compared with DM-/CKD- patients (23.3% versus 7.1%; adjusted hazard ratio 2.22; 95% CI 1.88-2.63; P<0.001). Patients with DM+/CKD- and DM-/CKD+ had an intermediate risk profile. The same trend was shown for the individual components of the primary end point and for major bleeding. Compared with clopidogrel, ticagrelor reduced the incidence of the primary end point consistently across subgroups (P-interaction=0.264), but with an increased absolute risk reduction in DM+/CKD+. The effects on major bleeding were also consistent across subgroups (P-interaction=0.288). Conclusions-In acute coronary syndrome patients, a gradient of risk was observed according to the presence or absence of DM and CKD, with patients having both risk factors at the highest risk. Although the ischemic benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel was consistent in all subgroups, the absolute risk reduction was greatest in patients with both DM and CKD.
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44.
  • Gargiulo, Giuseppe, et al. (författare)
  • Safety and efficacy of double versus triple antithrombotic therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation with or without acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention : a collaborative meta-analysis of NOAC-based randomized clinical trials
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 2055-6837 .- 2055-6845. ; 7:FI1, s. f50-f60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: Safety and efficacy of antithrombotic regimens in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may differ based on clinical presentation. We sought to comparing double vs. triple antithrombotic therapy (DAT vs TAT) in AF patients with or without acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing PCI.METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed using PubMed to search for non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC)-based randomized clinical trials. Data on subgroups of ACS or elective PCI were obtained by published reports or trial investigators. A total of 10,193 patients from 4 NOAC trials were analyzed, of whom 5,675 presenting with ACS (DAT = 3,063 vs. TAT = 2,612) and 4,518 with SCAD (DAT = 2,421 vs. TAT = 2,097). The primary safety endpoint of ISTH major bleeding or CRNMB was reduced with DAT compared with TAT in both ACS (12.2% vs 19.4%; RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.56-0.71; p < 0.0001; I2=0%) and SCAD (14.6% vs 22.0%; RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.55-0.85; p = 0.0008; I2=66%), without interaction (p-int = 0.54). Findings were consistent for secondary bleeding endpoints, including intracranial Haemorrhage. In both subgroups, there was no difference between DAT and TAT for all-cause death, major adverse cardiovascular events, or stroke. Myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis were numerically higher with DAT vs. TAT consistently in ACS and SCAD (p-int = 0.60 and 0.86 respectively). Findings were confirmed by multiple sensitivity analyses, including a separate analysis on dabigatran regimens and a restriction to PCI population.CONCLUSIONS: DAT, compared with TAT, is associated with lower bleeding risks, including intracranial Haemorrhage, and a small non-significant excess of cardiac ischaemic events in both patients with or without ACS.
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45.
  • Giannitsis, Evangelos, et al. (författare)
  • Outcomes after planned invasive or conservative treatment strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome and a normal value of high sensitivity troponin at randomisation : A Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial biomarker substudy.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European heart journal. Acute cardiovascular care. - 2048-8734. ; 6:6, s. 500-510
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: Current guidelines for patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) recommend early invasive treatment in intermediate-to-high risk patients based on medical history, electrocardiogram (ECG) and elevated troponin. Patients with normal levels of cardiac troponin measured with a high-sensitivity method (cTnT-hs) might not benefit from early invasive procedures.METHODS AND RESULTS: In this Prospective Randomized Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) blood-core substudy, 1232 patients presented with NSTE-ACS had a high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (cTnT-hs) level <99(th) percentile (<14 ng/l) at randomisation. The outcomes in relation to a planned invasive (n=473) vs planned conservative treatment (n=759), were evaluated by adjusted Cox proportional hazard analyses. In patients with a normal cTnT-hs at randomisation, regardless of randomised treatment, a planned invasive vs conservative treatment was associated with a 2.3-fold higher risk (7.3% vs 3.4%, p=0.0028) for cardiovascular (CV) death or myocardial infarction (MI), driven by higher rates of procedure-related MI (3.4% vs 0.1%), while there were no differences in rates of CV death (1.3% vs 1.3%, p=0.72) or spontaneous MI (3.0% vs 2.1%, p=0.28). There were significantly more major bleeds (hazard ratio (HR) 2.98, p<0.0001), mainly due to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)-related (HR 4.05, p<0.0001) and non-CABG procedural-related major bleeding events (HR 5.31, p=0.0175), however there were no differences in non-procedure-related major bleeding (1.5% vs 1.9%, p=0.45). Findings were consistent for patients with a normal cTnI-hs at randomisation.CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NSTE-ACS and normal cTnT-hs, a planned early invasive treatment strategy was associated with increased rates of procedure-related MI and bleeding but no differences in long-term spontaneous MI, non-procedure-related bleeding or mortality.
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46.
  • Golwala, Harsh B., et al. (författare)
  • Safety and efficacy of dual vs. triple antithrombotic therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation following percutaneous coronary intervention : a systematic review andmeta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 39:19, s. 1726-
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), approximately 10% undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We studied the safety and efficacy of dual vs. triple antithrombotic therapy (DAT vs. TAT) in this population.Methods and results: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using PubMed, Embase, EBSCO, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Web of Science, and relevant meeting abstracts for Phase 3, randomized trials that compared DAT vs. TAT in patients with AF following PCI. Four trials including 5317 patients were included, of whom 3039 (57%) received DAT. Compared with the TAT arm, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major or minor bleeding showed a reduction by 47% in the DAT arm [4.3% vs. 9.0%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.53, 95% credible interval (CrI) 0.36–0.85, I2 = 42.9%]. In addition, there was no difference in the trial-defined major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (10.4% vs. 10.0%, HR 0.85, 95% CrI 0.48–1.29, I2 = 58.4%), or in individual outcomes of all-cause mortality, cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, or stroke between the two arms.Conclusion: Compared with TAT, DAT shows a reduction in TIMI major or minor bleeding by 47% with comparable outcomes of MACE. Our findings support the concept that DAT may be a better option than TAT in many patients with AF following PCI.
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47.
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48.
  • Gutman, Boris A, et al. (författare)
  • A meta-analysis of deep brain structural shape and asymmetry abnormalities in 2,833 individuals with schizophrenia compared with 3,929 healthy volunteers via the ENIGMA Consortium.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Schizophrenia is associated with widespread alterations in subcortical brain structure. While analytic methods have enabled more detailed morphometric characterization, findings are often equivocal. In this meta-analysis, we employed the harmonized ENIGMA shape analysis protocols to collaboratively investigate subcortical brain structure shape differences between individuals with schizophrenia and healthy control participants. The study analyzed data from 2,833 individuals with schizophrenia and 3,929 healthy control participants contributed by 21 worldwide research groups participating in the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Harmonized shape analysis protocols were applied to each site's data independently for bilateral hippocampus, amygdala, caudate, accumbens, putamen, pallidum, and thalamus obtained from T1-weighted structural MRI scans. Mass univariate meta-analyses revealed more-concave-than-convex shape differences in the hippocampus, amygdala, accumbens, and thalamus in individuals with schizophrenia compared with control participants, more-convex-than-concave shape differences in the putamen and pallidum, and both concave and convex shape differences in the caudate. Patterns of exaggerated asymmetry were observed across the hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus in individuals with schizophrenia compared to control participants, while diminished asymmetry encompassed ventral striatum and ventral and dorsal thalamus. Our analyses also revealed that higher chlorpromazine dose equivalents and increased positive symptom levels were associated with patterns of contiguous convex shape differences across multiple subcortical structures. Findings from our shape meta-analysis suggest that common neurobiological mechanisms may contribute to gray matter reduction across multiple subcortical regions, thus enhancing our understanding of the nature of network disorganization in schizophrenia.
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49.
  • Hagström, Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Growth Differentiation Factor 15 Predicts All-Cause Morbidity and Mortality in Stable Coronary Heart Disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 63:1, s. 325-333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Higher growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) concentrations are associated with cardiovascular (CV) and non-CV morbidity and mortality. However, information on associations between GDF-15 and the risk of specific CV and non-CV events in stable coronary heart disease (CHD) patients is limited.METHODS: In 14 577 patients with stable CHD participating in the Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy Trial (STABILITY), GDF-15 and other prognostic biomarkers (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity troponin T, cystatin C, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were measured. In adjusted Cox regression models, the associations between GDF-15 and the composite CV end point [CV death, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke], as well as other CV and non-CV events, were assessed.RESULTS: The median concentration (interquartile range) of GDF-15 at baseline was 1253 (915-1827) ng/L. The hazard ratio for the composite end point for the highest compared to the lowest quartile of GDF-15 was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.5-2.2); for CV death, 2.63 (1.9-3.6); for sudden death, 3.06 (1.9-4.8); for heart failure (HF) death, 4.3 (1.3-14); for cancer death, 2.5 (1.3-4.7); for hospitalization for HF, 5.8 (3.2-10); for MI 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.9); and for stroke, 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1-2.8). After adjustment for other prognostic biomarkers, GDF-15 remained significantly associated with all outcomes except for MI.CONCLUSIONS: In stable CHD, GDF-15 was independently associated with CV, non-CV, and cancer mortality, as well as with MI and stroke. When also adjusting for other prognostic biomarkers, the associations to all fatal and nonfatal events were maintained except for MI. Information on GDF-15, therefore, might be helpful when assessing the risk of adverse outcomes in patients with stable CHD. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00799903.
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50.
  • Held, Claes, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory Biomarkers Interleukin-6 and C-Reactive Protein and Outcomes in Stable Coronary Heart Disease : Experiences From the STABILITY (Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy) Trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 6:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundEvaluation of cardiovascular prognosis in patients with stable coronary heart disease is based on clinical characteristics and biomarkers indicating dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, renal dysfunction, and possibly cardiac dysfunction. Inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis, but the association between inflammatory biomarkers and clinical outcomes is less studied in this population.Methods and ResultsOverall, 15 828 patients with coronary heart disease in the STABILITY (Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy) trial werer and randomized to treatment with darapladib or placebo and observed for a median of 3.7 years. In 14 611 patients, levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured in plasma samples: median levels were2.1 (interquartile range, 1.4-3.2) ng/Land1.3 (interquartile range, 0.6-3.1) mg/L, respectively. Associations between continuous levels or quartile groups and adjudicated outcomes were evaluated by spline graphs and Cox regression adjusted for clinical factors and cardiovascular biomarkers. IL-6 was associated with increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (quartile 4 versus quartile 1 hazard ratio [HR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-1.97; P< 0.0001); cardiovascular death (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.53-3.04; P< 0.0001); myocardial infarction (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.14-2.04; P< 0.05); all-cause mortality (HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.62-2.76; P< 0.0001); and risk of hospitalization for heart failure (HR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.34-3.89; P< 0.001). Cancer death was doubled in the highest IL-6 quartile group (HR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.20-4.53; P< 0.05). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was associated with both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular events in the unadjusted model, but these did not remain after multivariable adjustments.ConclusionsIL-6, an upstream inflammatory marker, was independently associated with the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cancer mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease. IL-6 might reflect a pathophysiological process involved in the development of these events.
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