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51.
  • Held, Claes, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory Biomarkers Interleukin-6 and C-Reactive Protein and Outcomes in Stable Coronary Heart Disease : Experiences From the STABILITY (Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy) Trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - 2047-9980. ; 6:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundEvaluation of cardiovascular prognosis in patients with stable coronary heart disease is based on clinical characteristics and biomarkers indicating dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, renal dysfunction, and possibly cardiac dysfunction. Inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis, but the association between inflammatory biomarkers and clinical outcomes is less studied in this population.Methods and ResultsOverall, 15 828 patients with coronary heart disease in the STABILITY (Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy) trial werer and randomized to treatment with darapladib or placebo and observed for a median of 3.7 years. In 14 611 patients, levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured in plasma samples: median levels were2.1 (interquartile range, 1.4-3.2) ng/Land1.3 (interquartile range, 0.6-3.1) mg/L, respectively. Associations between continuous levels or quartile groups and adjudicated outcomes were evaluated by spline graphs and Cox regression adjusted for clinical factors and cardiovascular biomarkers. IL-6 was associated with increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (quartile 4 versus quartile 1 hazard ratio [HR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-1.97; P< 0.0001); cardiovascular death (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.53-3.04; P< 0.0001); myocardial infarction (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.14-2.04; P< 0.05); all-cause mortality (HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.62-2.76; P< 0.0001); and risk of hospitalization for heart failure (HR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.34-3.89; P< 0.001). Cancer death was doubled in the highest IL-6 quartile group (HR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.20-4.53; P< 0.05). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was associated with both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular events in the unadjusted model, but these did not remain after multivariable adjustments.ConclusionsIL-6, an upstream inflammatory marker, was independently associated with the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cancer mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease. IL-6 might reflect a pathophysiological process involved in the development of these events.
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52.
  • Held, Claes, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Results From the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) Trial
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 57:6, s. 672-684
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor and clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), as a post-randomization strategy. Background Ticagrelor is a novel, reversibly binding, oral, direct-acting P2Y(12)-receptor antagonist. In the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial, which randomized 18,624 patients with acute coronary syndromes, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel significantly reduced the risk of the primary composite end point of cardiovascular (CV) death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77 to 0.92; p < 0.001). This report investigated the outcomes of patients treated with CABG during the trial. Methods In total, 1,899 patients underwent CABG post-randomization. The protocol recommended ticagrelor/placebo to be withheld for 24 to 72 h and clopidogrel/placebo for 5 days preoperatively. In all, 1,261 patients underwent CABG and were receiving study drug treatment <7 days before surgery. The statistical analysis was based on events occurring from the CABG procedure until the end of the study, excluding 3 patients with CABG after study end. Results In the 1,261 patient cohort, the relative reduction of primary composite end point at 12 months (10.6% [66 of 629] with ticagrelor versus 13.1% [79 of 629] with clopidogrel; HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.60 to 1.16; p = 0.29) was consistent with the results of the whole trial. Total mortality was reduced from 9.7% (58 of 629) to 4.7% (29 of 629; HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.77; p < 0.01), CV death from 7.9% (47 of 629) to 4.1% (25 of 629; HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.85; p < 0.01), and non-CV death numerically from 2.0% to 0.7% (p = 0.07). There was no significant difference in CABG-related major bleeding between the randomized treatments. Conclusions In the subgroup of patients undergoing CABG within 7 days after the last study drug intake, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel was associated with a substantial reduction in total and CV mortality without excess risk of CABG-related bleeding.
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53.
  • Hohnloser, Stefan H., et al. (författare)
  • Renal Function and Outcomes With Dabigatran Dual Antithrombotic Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation Patients After PCI
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JACC. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1936-8798 .- 1876-7605. ; 12:16, s. 1553-1561
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The study sought to evaluate the effect of dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy across categories of renal function in the RE-DUAL PCI (Randomized Evaluation of Dual Antithrombotic Therapy with Dabigatran versus Triple Therapy with Warfarin in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial.BACKGROUND: The RE-DUAL PCI (NCT02164864) trial of patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention reported that dabigatran dual therapy (110 or 150 mg twice daily, plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor) reduced the primary endpoint of major bleeding events (MBE) or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events (CRNMBE) compared with warfarin triple therapy, with noninferiority in overall thromboembolic events.METHODS: Risk of a first MBE or CRNMBE and the composite of death or thromboembolic event (DTE) or unplanned revascularization were evaluated in 2,725 patients according to baseline creatinine clearance (CrCl) categories: 30 to <50, 50 to <80, and >= 80 ml/min.RESULTS: Compared with warfarin, dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy reduced risk of MBE or CRNMBE across all categories of CrCl (p for interaction = 0.19). Dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy reduced risk of MBE or CRNMBE regardless of the CrCl category (p for interaction = 0.31). Risk of DTE or unplanned revascularization was similar to warfarin triple therapy for dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy across all CrCl categories. Dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy had similar risk for DTE or unplanned revascularization in patients with CrCl 30 to <80 ml/min and lower risk at CrCl >= 80 ml/min (p for interaction = 0.02).CONCLUSIONS: In the RE-DUAL PCI trial, dabigatran dual therapy reduced bleeding events versus warfarin triple therapy irrespective of renal function, with overall similar risks of thromboembolic events but lower risks with dabigatran 150 mg in patients with normal CrCl. 
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54.
  • Husted, Steen, et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel in Elderly Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes A Substudy From the Prospective Randomized PLATelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) Trial
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. - 1941-7713 .- 1941-7705. ; 5:5, s. 680-688
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome are at high risk of recurrent ischemic events and death, and for both antithrombotic therapy and catheter-based complications. This prespecified analysis investigates the effect and treatment-related complications of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in elderly patients (>= 75 years of age) with acute coronary syndrome compared with those < 75 years of age. Methods and Results-The association between age and the primary composite outcome, as well as major bleeding were evaluated in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial using Cox proportional hazards. Similar models were used to evaluate the interaction of age with treatment effects. Hazard ratios were adjusted for baseline characteristics. The clinical benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel was not significantly different between patients aged >= 75 years of age (n=2878) and those < 75 years of age (n=15744) with respect to the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (interaction P=0.56), myocardial infarction (P=0.33), cardiovascular death (P=0.47), definite stent thrombosis (P=0.81), or all-cause mortality (P=0.76). No increase in PLATO-defined overall major bleeding with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel was observed in patients aged >= 75 years (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.27) or patients aged < 75 years (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.15). Dyspnea and ventricular pauses were more common during ticagrelor than clopidogrel treatment, with no evidence of an age-by-treatment interaction. Conclusions-The significant clinical benefit and overall safety of ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome patients in the PLATO cohort were not found to depend on age. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00391872. (Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2012;5:680-688.)
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55.
  • James, Stefan, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of ticagrelor, the first reversible oral P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, with clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes : Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 157:4, s. 599-605
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Antiplatelet therapy is essential treatment for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Current therapies, however, have important limitations affecting their clinical success. Ticagrelor, the first reversible oral P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, provides faster, greater, and more consistent adenosine diphosphate-receptor inhibition than clopidogrel. The phase III PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial is designed to test the hypothesis that ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel will result in a lower risk of recurrent thrombotic events in a broad patient population with ACS. METHODS: PLATO is an international, randomized, double-blind, event-driven trial involving >18,000 patients hospitalized for ST-elevation ACS with scheduled primary percutaneous coronary intervention or for non-ST-elevation ACS. After loading doses of ticagrelor 180 mg or clopidogrel 300 mg in a double-blind, double-dummy fashion (with provision for additional 300 mg clopidogrel at percutaneous coronary intervention), patients will receive ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily or clopidogrel 75 mg once daily for 6 to 12 months on top of acetylsalicylic acid. The primary efficacy end point is time to first occurrence of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The primary safety variable is PLATO-defined major bleeding. An extensive substudy program will explore the pathophysiology of ACS, indicators of prognosis and response to treatment, mechanisms of effect and safety of the study medications, health economics, and quality of life. CONCLUSION: The PLATO study will provide a pivotal comparison of the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor with those of clopidogrel in ACS patients, together with extensive information on treatment outcomes in different subsets of ACS in a broad patient population.
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56.
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57.
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58.
  • James, Stefan K., et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes intended for non-invasive management : substudy from prospective randomised PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The BMJ. - : BMJ. - 1756-1833. ; 342, s. d3527-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To evaluate efficacy and safety outcomes in patients in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial who at randomisation were planned for a non-invasive treatment strategy. Design Pre-specified analysis of pre-randomisation defined subgroup of prospective randomised clinical trial. Setting 862 centres in 43 countries. Participants 5216 (28%) of 18 624 patients admitted to hospital for acute coronary syndrome who were specified as planned for non-invasive management. Interventions Randomised treatment with ticagrelor (n=2601) versus clopidogrel (2615). Main outcome measurements Primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke; their individual components; and PLATO defined major bleeding during one year. Results 2183 (41.9%) patients had coronary angiography during their initial hospital admission, 1065 (20.4%) had percutaneous coronary intervention, and 208 (4.0%) had coronary artery bypass surgery. Cumulatively, 3143 (60.3%) patients had been managed non-invasively by the end of follow-up. The incidence of the primary end point was lower with ticagrelor than with clopidogrel (12.0% (n=295) v 14.3% (346); hazard ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.73 to 1.00; P=0.04). Overall mortality was also lower (6.1% (147) v 8.2% (195); 0.75, 0.61 to 0.93; P=0.01). The incidence of total major bleeding (11.9% (272) v 10.3% (238); 1.17, 0.98 to 1.39; P=0.08) and non-coronary artery bypass grafting related major bleeding (4.0% (90) v 3.1% (71); 1.30, 0.95 to 1.77; P=0.10) was numerically higher with ticagrelor than with clopidogrel. Conclusions In patients with acute coronary syndrome initially intended for non-invasive management, the benefits of ticagrelor over clopidogrel were consistent with those from the overall PLATO results, indicating the broad benefits of P2Y12 inhibition with ticagrelor regardless of intended management strategy.
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59.
  • James, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel in Acute Coronary Syndromes in Relation to Renal Function Results From the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) Trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 122:11, s. 1056-1067
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Reduced renal function is associated with a poorer prognosis and increased bleeding risk in patients with acute coronary syndromes and may therefore alter the risk-benefit ratio with antiplatelet therapies. In the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel reduced the primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke at 12 months but with similar major bleeding rates. Methods and Results-Central laboratory serum creatinine levels were available in 15 202 (81.9%) acute coronary syndrome patients at baseline, and creatinine clearance, estimated by the Cockcroft Gault equation, was calculated. In patients with chronic kidney disease (creatinine clearance <60 mL/min; n = 3237), ticagrelor versus clopidogrel significantly reduced the primary end point to 17.3% from 22.0% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.90) with an absolute risk reduction greater than that of patients with normal renal function (n = 11 965): 7.9% versus 8.9% (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.02). In patients with chronic kidney disease, ticagrelor reduced total mortality (10.0% versus 14.0%; HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.89). Major bleeding rates, fatal bleedings, and non-coronary bypass-related major bleedings were not significantly different between the 2 randomized groups (15.1% versus 14.3%; HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.30; 0.34% versus 0.77%; HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.15 to 1.54; and 8.5% versus 7.3%; HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.68). The interactions between creatinine clearance and randomized treatment on any of the outcome variables were nonsignificant. Conclusions-In acute coronary syndrome patients with chronic kidney disease, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel significantly reduces ischemic end points and mortality without a significant increase in major bleeding but with numerically more non-procedure-related bleeding.
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60.
  • Kohli, Payal, et al. (författare)
  • Reduction in First and Recurrent Cardiovascular Events with Ticagrelor Compared with Clopidogrel in the PLATO Study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 127:6, s. 673-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:We sought to evaluate the effect of potent platelet inhibition following acute coronary syndrome on total (i.e. first and recurrent) occurrences of any of the primary outcome events (e.g. cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) as well as on other ischemic events, such as urgent revascularization, (severe) recurrent ischemia (SRI/RI), transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and arterial thrombotic events (ATE).METHODS AND RESULTS:In the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) study, 18,624 patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes randomly received ticagrelor (N=9333) or clopidogrel (N=9291). Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate time to first event and hazard ratios. Total events were compared using a Poisson regression model and time to second event or death was calculated with the Wei Lin Weissfeld method. Patients randomized to ticagrelor had 1057 total primary endpoint events vs. 1225 for patients on clopidogrel (rate ratio=0.86, 95% CI 0.79-0.93, p=0.003). The number of additional events was numerically lower for ticagrelor (189 vs. 205, p=0.40), resulting in a hazard for time to second event/death of 0.80 (95% CI 0.70-0.90, p<0.001) and a number needed to treat of 54. For CVD/MI/Stroke/SRI/RI/TIA/ATE, total events were fewer with ticagrelor (2030 vs. 2290, rate ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.82-0.95, p<0.001), with fewer recurrent events with ticagrelor (740 vs. 834, p=0.01) and a highly significant concurrent reduction in hazard for time to second event or death of 0.83 (95% CI 0.75-0.91, p<0.001). Recurrent PLATO major or TIMI major non-CABG bleeding events were infrequent and not different between the two therapies (p=0.96 and 0.38, respectively).CONCLUSIONS: In PLATO, treatment with ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel resulted in a reduction in total events, including first and subsequent recurrent cardiovascular events, when compared to clopidogrel. These types of analyses demonstrate an even greater absolute benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel than previously reported.CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION:http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00391872.
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