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61.
  • Lindholm, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome with or without revascularization : results from the PLATO trial
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 35:31, s. 2083-2093
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims The optimal platelet inhibition strategy for ACS patients managed without revascularization is unknown. We aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel in the non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) subgroup of the PLATO trial, in the total cohort, and in the subgroups managed with and without revascularization within 10 days of randomization. Methods and results We performed a retrospective analysis of the primary endpoint of cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/stroke. Among 18 624 PLATO patients, 11 080 (59%) were categorized as NSTE-ACS at randomization. During the initial 10 days, 74% had angiography, 46% PCI, and 5% CABG. In NSTE-ACS patients, the primary endpoint was reduced with ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel [10.0 vs. 12.3%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.74-0.93], as was myocardial infarction (6.6 vs. 7.7%; HR 0.86; 95% CI = 0.74-0.99), cardiovascular death (3.7 vs. 4.9%; HR 0.77; 95% CI = 0.64-0.93), and all-cause death (4.3 vs. 5.8%; HR 0.76; 95% CI = 0.64-0.90). Major bleeding rate was similar between treatment groups (13.4 vs. 12.6%; HR 1.07; 95% CI = 0.95-1.19), but ticagrelor was associated with an increase in non-CABG major bleeding (4.8 vs. 3.8%; HR 1.28; 95% CI = 1.05-1.56). Within the first 10 days, 5366 (48.4%) patients were managed without revascularization. Regardless of revascularization or not, ticagrelor consistently reduced the primary outcome (HR 0.86 vs. 0.85, interaction P = 0.93), and all-cause death (HR 0.75 vs. 0.73, interaction P = 0.89) with no significant increase in overall major bleeding. Conclusion In patients with NSTE-ACS, benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel in reducing ischaemic events and total mortality was consistent with the overall PLATO trial, independent of actually performed revascularization during the initial 10 days.
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62.
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63.
  • Lip, Gregory Y. H., et al. (författare)
  • Relationship of stroke and bleeding risk profiles to efficacy and safety of dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy in atrial fibrillation after percutaneous coronary intervention : An ancillary analysis from the RE-DUAL PCI trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : MOSBY-ELSEVIER. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 212, s. 13-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background In the RE-DUAL PCI trial of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), dabigatran dual therapy (110 or 150 mg bid, plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor) reduced International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis bleeding events compared with warfarin triple therapy, with noninferiority in overall thromboembolic events. This analysis assessed outcomes in relation to patient bleeding and stroke risk profiles, based on the modified HAS-BLED and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc scores. Methods The primary endpoint, major bleeding event (MBE) or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding event (CRNMBE), was compared across study arms in patients categorized by modified HAS-BLED score 0-2 or >= 3. The composite endpoint of death, thromboembolic event, and unplanned revascularization rates was compared in patients categorized by CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score 0-1, 2, or >= 3. Results Risk of MBE or CRNMBE was lower with dabigatran dual therapy (both doses) versus warfarin triple therapy, irrespective of modified HAS-BLED category (treatment-by-subgroup interaction P-value 0.584 and 0.273 for dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy, respectively, vs warfarin). Risk of the composite thromboembolic endpoint was similar across CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc categories and consistent with overall study results (interaction P-value 0.739 and 0.075 for dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy, respectively, vs warfarin). Higher HAS-BLED scores were associated with higher risks of bleeding in AF patients after PCI in a treatment-independent analysis. Conclusion Dabigatran dual therapy reduced bleeding events irrespective of bleeding risk category and demonstrated similar efficacy regardless of stroke risk category when compared with warfarin triple therapy.
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64.
  • Lowenstern, Angela, et al. (författare)
  • Platelet-related biomarkers and their response to inhibition with aspirin and p2y12-receptor antagonists in patients with acute coronary syndrome
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis. - 0929-5305 .- 1573-742X. ; 44:2, s. 145-153
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial showed that treatment with ticagrelor reduced the rate of death due to vascular causes, myocardial infarction and stroke when compared to clopidogrel in patients with ST-elevation or non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS). While the comparative benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel increased over time, event rates accrued in both groups during the study period. The purpose of our biomarker-based exploratory analysis was to determine whether long-term platelet inhibition may be associated with platelet adaptation. A sample of 4000 participants from the PLATO trial also consented to participate in a prospectively designed biomarker substudy. Blood samples were procured at baseline, immediately prior to hospital discharge and at 1 and 6 months. Markers of platelet activity, including platelet count, serum CD40-ligand and soluble P-selectin were analyzed. Mean levels were compared at discharge, 1 and 6 months following study drug initiation-first for all patients and subsequently stratified by treatment group. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the short-term change rate (baseline to 1 month) and long-term change rate (1-6 months) for each biomarker. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios for each change in biomarker over the two time periods examined: baseline to 1 month and 1 to 6 months. Prior to randomized treatment (baseline), sCD40 ligand and sP-selectin levels were elevated above the normal range of the assay (0.39 and 33.5 A μg/L, respectively). The mean level of each biomarker was significantly different at 1 month compared to baseline (p < 0.0001). When stratified by treatment group, at 1 month patients treated with ticagrelor had a larger increase in platelet count compared to those treated with clopidogrel (p < 0.0001). Similarly, when comparing biomarker levels for all patients at 6 months with those at 1 month, each differed significantly (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between treatment groups during this time period. The rate of change for both platelet count and sP-selectin were significantly different between baseline and 1 month when compared to the 1 to 6-month time period (p < 0.0001). When comparing treatment groups, the rate of increase in platelets from baseline to 1 month was greater for patients treated with ticagrelor (p < 0.0001). This was no longer observed in the 1 to 6-month interval. Using a Cox proportional hazard model, the increase in platelet count from 1 to 6 months was associated with ischemic-thrombotic events, while sCD40 ligand decrease from 1 to 6 months was associated with hemorrhagic events. There were no differences between treatment groups for the associations with clinical endpoints. Dynamic changes in platelet count, sCD-40 ligand and sP-selectin occur over time among patients with ACS. Platelet-directed therapy with a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor in combination with aspirin modestly impacts the expression of these biomarkers. Platelet count and sCD40 ligand may offer modest overall predictive value for future ischemic-thrombotic or hemorrhagic clinical events, respectively. The existence of a platelet adaptome and its overall clinical significance among patients at risk for thrombotic events will require a more in-depth and platelet-biology specific investigation.
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65.
  • Machiela, Mitchell J., et al. (författare)
  • Genetically predicted longer telomere length is associated with increased risk of B-cell lymphoma subtypes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 25:8, s. 1663-1676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Evidence from a small number of studies suggests that longer telomere length measured in peripheral leukocytes is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, these studies may be biased by reverse causation, confounded by unmeasured environmental exposures and might miss time points for which prospective telomere measurement would best reveal a relationship between telomere length and NHL risk. We performed an analysis of genetically inferred telomere length and NHL risk in a study of 10 102 NHL cases of the four most common B-cell histologic types and 9562 controls using a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising nine telomere length-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. This approach uses existing genotype data and estimates telomere length by weighing the number of telomere length-associated variant alleles an individual carries with the published change in kb of telomere length. The analysis of the telomere length GRS resulted in an association between longer telomere length and increased NHL risk [four B-cell histologic types combined; odds ratio (OR) = 1.49, 95% CI 1.22-1.82, P-value = 8.5 x 10(-5)]. Subtype-specific analyses indicated that chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) was the principal NHL subtype contributing to this association (OR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.93-3.51, P-value = 4.0 x 10(-10)). Significant interactions were observed across strata of sex for CLL/SLL and marginal zone lymphoma subtypes as well as age for the follicular lymphoma subtype. Our results indicate that a genetic background that favors longer telomere length may increase NHL risk, particularly risk of CLL/SLL, and are consistent with earlier studies relating longer telomere length with increased NHL risk.
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66.
  • Maeng, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Dabigatran Dual Therapy Versus Warfarin Triple Therapy Post-PCI in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Diabetes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JACC. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1936-8798 .- 1876-7605. ; 12:23, s. 2346-2355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy in patients with or without diabetes mellitus in the RE-DUAL PCI (Randomized Evaluation of Dual Antithrombotic Therapy With Dabigatran Versus Triple Therapy With Warfarin in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial.BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether dual therapy is as safe and efficacious as triple therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation with diabetes following percutaneous coronary intervention.METHODS: In RE-DUAL PCI, 2,725 patients with atrial fibrillation (993 with diabetes) who had undergone PCI were assigned to warfarin triple therapy (warfarin, clopidogrel or ticagrelor, and aspirin) or dabigatran dual therapy (dabigatran 110 mg or 150 mg twice daily and clopidogrel or ticagrelor). Median follow-up was 13 months. The primary outcome was the composite of major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, and the main efficacy outcome was the composite of death, thromboembolic events, or unplanned revascularization.RESULTS: Among patients with diabetes, the incidence of major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was 15.2% in the dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy group versus 27.5% in the warfarin triple therapy group (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35 to 0.67) and 23.8% in the dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy group versus 25.1% in the warfarin triple therapy group (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.22). Risk for major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was also reduced with both dabigatran doses among patients without diabetes (dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy: HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.70; dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy: HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.83). Risk for the efficacy endpoint was comparable between treatment groups for both patients with and those without diabetes. No interaction between treatment and diabetes subgroup could be observed, either for bleeding or for composite efficacy endpoints.CONCLUSIONS: In this subgroup analysis, dabigatran dual therapy had a lower risk for bleeding and a comparable rate of the efficacy endpoint compared with warfarin triple therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation with or without diabetes following percutaneous coronary intervention. 
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67.
  • Mahaffey, Kenneth W., et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor Compared With Clopidogrel by Geographic Region in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) Trial
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 124:5, s. 544-554
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-In the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial, a prespecified subgroup analysis showed a significant interaction between treatment and region (P = 0.045), with less effect of ticagrelor in North America than in the rest of the world. Methods and Results-Reasons for the interaction were explored independently by 2 statistical groups. Systematic errors in trial conduct were investigated. Statistical approaches evaluated the likelihood of play of chance. Cox regression analyses were performed to quantify how much of the regional interaction could be explained by patient characteristics and concomitant treatments, including aspirin maintenance therapy. Landmark Cox regressions at 8 time points evaluated the association of selected factors, including aspirin dose, with outcomes by treatment. Systematic errors in trial conduct were ruled out. Given the large number of subgroup analyses performed and that a result numerically favoring clopidogrel in at least 1 of the 4 prespecified regions could occur with 32% probability, chance alone cannot be ruled out. More patients in the United States (53.6%) than in the rest of the world (1.7%) took a median aspirin dose >= 300 mg/d. Of 37 baseline and postrandomization factors explored, only aspirin dose explained a substantial fraction of the regional interaction. In adjusted analyses, both Cox regression with median maintenance dose and landmark techniques showed that, in patients taking low-dose maintenance aspirin, ticagrelor was associated with better outcomes compared with clopidogrel, with statistical superiority in the rest of the world and similar outcomes in the US cohort. Conclusions-The regional interaction could arise from chance alone. Results of 2 independently performed analyses identified an underlying statistical interaction with aspirin maintenance dose as a possible explanation for the regional difference. The lowest risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke with ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel is associated with a low maintenance dose of concomitant aspirin.
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68.
  • Mahaffey, Kenneth W., et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor Effects on Myocardial Infarction and the Impact of Event Adjudication in the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) Trial
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 63:15, s. 1493-1499
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives This study sought to report the treatment effect of ticagrelor on myocardial infarction (MI) and the strategy for and impact of event adjudication in the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial. Background In PLATO, ticagrelor reduced cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Methods A CIinical events committee (CEC) prospectively defined and adjudicated all suspected MI events, on the basis of events reported by investigators and by triggers on biomarkers. Treatment comparisons used CEC-adjudicated data, and per protocol, exCIuded silent MI. Results Overall, 1,299 (610 ticagrelor, 689 CIopidogrel) MIs reported by the CEC occurred during the trial. Of these, 1,097 (504 ticagrelor, 593 CIopidogrel) contributed to the primary composite endpoint. Site investigators reported 1,198 (580 ticagrelor, 618 CIopidogrel) MIs. Ticagrelor significantly reduced overall MI rates (12-month CEC-adjudicated Kaplan-Meier rates: 5.8% ticagrelor, 6.9% CIopidogrel; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75 to 0.95). Nonprocedural MI (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.01) and MI related to percutaneous coronary intervention or stent thrombosis tended to be lower with ticagrelor. MIs related to coronary artery bypass graft surgery were few, but numerical excess was observed in patients assigned ticagrelor. Analyses of overall MIs using investigator-reported data showed similar results but did not reach statistical significance (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.00). ConCIusions In patients with ACS, ticagrelor significantly reduced the incidence of MI compared with CIopidogrel, with consistent results across most MI subtypes. CEC procedures identified more MI endpoints compared with site investigators. (A Comparison of Ticagrelor [AZD6140] and CIopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [PLATO]; NCT00391872)
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