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Sökning: WFRF:(Carpenter Stephen R.)

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  • Föregående 123[4]56Nästa
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  • Polasky, Stephen, et al. (författare)
  • Corridors of Clarity : Four Principles to Overcome Uncertainty Paralysis in the Anthropocene
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BioScience. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0006-3568 .- 1525-3244. ; 70:12, s. 1139-1144
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Global environmental change challenges humanity because of its broad scale, long-lasting, and potentially irreversible consequences. Key to an effective response is to use an appropriate scientific lens to peer through the mist of uncertainty that threatens timely and appropriate decisions surrounding these complex issues. Identifying such corridors of clarity could help understanding critical phenomena or causal pathways sufficiently well to justify taking policy action. To this end, we suggest four principles: Follow the strongest and most direct path between policy decisions on outcomes, focus on finding sufficient evidence for policy purpose, prioritize no-regrets policies by avoiding options with controversial, uncertain, or immeasurable benefits, aim for getting the big picture roughly right rather than focusing on details.
  • Scheffer, Marten, et al. (författare)
  • Dual thinking for scientists
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Ecology & Society. - 1708-3087. ; 20:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent studies provide compelling evidence for the idea that creative thinking draws upon two kinds of processes linked to distinct physiological features, and stimulated under different conditions. In short, the fast system-I produces intuition whereas the slow and deliberate system-II produces reasoning. System-I can help see novel solutions and associations instantaneously, but is prone to error. System-II has other biases, but can help checking and modifying the system-I results. Although thinking is the core business of science, the accepted ways of doing our work focus almost entirely on facilitating system-II. We discuss the role of system-I thinking in past scientific breakthroughs, and argue that scientific progress may be catalyzed by creating conditions for such associative intuitive thinking in our academic lives and in education. Unstructured socializing time, education for daring exploration, and cooperation with the arts are among the potential elements. Because such activities may be looked upon as procrastination rather than work, deliberate effort is needed to counteract our systematic bias.
  • Abercrombie, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Dark Matter benchmark models for early LHC Run-2 Searches : Report of the ATLAS/CMS Dark Matter Forum
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Physics of the Dark Universe. - : Elsevier BV. - 0953-8585 .- 2212-6864. ; 27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This document is the final report of the ATLAS-CMS Dark Matter Forum, a forum organized by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations with the participation of experts on theories of Dark Matter, to select a minimal basis set of dark matter simplified models that should support the design of the early LHC Run-2 searches. A prioritized, compact set of benchmark models is proposed, accompanied by studies of the parameter space of these models and a repository of generator implementations. This report also addresses how to apply the Effective Field Theory formalism for collider searches and present the results of such interpretations.
  • Bade, Darren L., et al. (författare)
  • Sources and fates of dissolved organic carbon in lakes as determined by whole-lake carbon isotope additions
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Biogeochemistry. - : Springer. - 1573-515X .- 0168-2563. ; 84:2, s. 115-129
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Four whole- lake inorganic C-13 addition experiments were conducted in lakes of differing trophic status. Inorganic C-13 addition enriched algal carbon in C-13 and changed the delta C-13- DOC by + 1.5 parts per thousand to + 9.5 parts per thousand, depending on the specific lake. This change in delta C-13- DOC represented a significant input of algal DOC that was not completely consumed by bacteria. We modeled the dynamics in delta C-13- DOC to estimate the fluxes of algal and terrestrial carbon to and from the DOC pool, and determine the composition of the standing stock. Two experiments in lightly stained, oligotrophic lakes indicated that algal production was the source of about 20% of the DOC pool. In the following year, the experiment was repeated in one of these lakes under conditions of nutrient enrichment, and in a third, more humic lake. Algal contributions to the DOC pool were 40% in the nutrient enriched lake and 5% in the more humic lake. Spectroscopic and elemental analyses corroborated the presence of increased algal DOC in the nutrient enriched lake. Natural abundance measurements of the delta C-13 of DOC in 32 lakes also revealed the dual contributions of both terrestrial and algal carbon to DOC. From these results, we suggest an approach for inferring the contribution of algal and terrestrial DOC using easily measurable parameters.
  • Bennett, Elena M., et al. (författare)
  • Bright spots : seeds of a good Anthropocene
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. - : Ecological Society of America. - 1540-9295 .- 1540-9309. ; 14:8, s. 441-448
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The scale, rate, and intensity of humans’ environmental impact has engendered broad discussion about how to find plausible pathways of development that hold the most promise for fostering a better future in the Anthropocene. However, the dominance of dystopian visions of irreversible environmental degradation and societal collapse, along with overly optimistic utopias and business-as-usual scenarios that lack insight and innovation, frustrate progress. Here, we present a novel approach to thinking about the future that builds on experiences drawn from a diversity of practices, worldviews, values, and regions that could accelerate the adoption of pathways to transformative change (change that goes beyond incremental improvements). Using an analysis of 100 initiatives, or “seeds of a good Anthropocene”, we find that emphasizing hopeful elements of existing practice offers the opportunity to: (1) understand the values and features that constitute a good Anthropocene, (2) determine the processes that lead to the emergence and growth of initiatives that fundamentally change human–environmental relationships, and (3) generate creative, bottom-up scenarios that feature well-articulated pathways toward a more positive future.
  • Bernes, Claes, et al. (författare)
  • What is the influence on water quality in temperate eutrophic lakes of a reduction of planktivorous and benthivorous fish? : A systematic review protocol
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Environmental Evidence. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 2047-2382 .- 2047-2382. ; 2:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In lakes that have become eutrophic due to sewage discharges or nutrient runoff from land, problems such as algal blooms and oxygen deficiency often persist even when nutrient supplies have been reduced. One reason is that phosphorus stored in the sediments can exchange with the water. There are indications that the high abundance of phytoplankton, turbid water and lack of submerged vegetation seen in many eutrophic lakes may represent a semi-stable state. For that reason, a shift back to more natural clear-water conditions could be difficult to achieve. In some cases, though, temporary mitigation of eutrophication-related problems has been accomplished through biomanipulation: stocks of zooplanktivorous fish have been reduced by intensive fishing, leading to increased populations of phytoplankton-feeding zooplankton. Moreover, reduction of benthivorous fish may result in lower phosphorus fluxes from the sediments. An alternative to reducing the dominance of planktivores and benthivores by fishing is to stock lakes with piscivorous fish. These two approaches have often been used in combination. The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive has recently led to more stringent demands for measures against eutrophication, and a systematic review could clarify whether biomanipulation is efficient as a measure of that kind. Methods: The review will examine primary field studies of how large-scale biomanipulation has affected water quality and community structure in eutrophic lakes or reservoirs in temperate regions. Such studies can be based on comparison between conditions before and after manipulation, on comparison between treated and nontreated water bodies, or both. Relevant outcomes include Secchi depth, concentrations of oxygen, nutrients, suspended solids and chlorophyll, abundance and composition of phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish, and coverage of submerged macrophytes.
  • Biggs, Reinette, et al. (författare)
  • Preparing for the future : teaching scenario planning at the graduate level
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. - : Wiley. - 1540-9295. ; 8:5, s. 267-273
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Are environmental science students developing the mindsets and obtaining the tools needed to help address the considerable challenges posed by the 21st century? Today's major environmental issues are characterized by high-stakes decisions and high levels of uncertainty. Although traditional scientific approaches are valuable, contemporary environmental issues also require new tools and new ways of thinking. We provide an example of how such new, or “post-normal”, approaches have been taught at the graduate level, through practical application of scenario planning. Surveyed students reported that they found the scenario planning course highly stimulating, thought-provoking, and inspiring. Key learning points included recognizing the need for multiple points of view when considering complex environmental issues, and better appreciating the pervasiveness of uncertainty. Collaborating with non-academic stakeholders was also particularly helpful. Most students left the course feeling more positive about the potential contribution they can make in addressing the environmental challenges that society faces. Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/080075
  • Brose, Ulrich, et al. (författare)
  • Body sizes of consumers and their resources
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Ecology. - : Ecological Society of America. - 0012-9658 .- 1939-9170. ; 86:9, s. 2545-2545
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Trophic information—who eats whom—and species’ body sizes are two of the most basic descriptions necessary to understand community structure as well as ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Consumer–resource body size ratios between predators and their prey, and parasitoids and their hosts, have recently gained increasing attention due to their important implications for species’ interaction strengths and dynamical population stability. This data set documents body sizes of consumers and their resources. We gathered body size data for the food webs of Skipwith Pond, a parasitoid community of grass-feeding chalcid wasps in British grasslands; the pelagic community of the Benguela system, a source web based on broom in the United Kingdom; Broadstone Stream, UK; the Grand Caric¸aie marsh at Lake Neuchaˆtel, Switzerland; Tuesday Lake, USA; alpine lakes in the Sierra Nevada of California; Mill Stream, UK; and the eastern Weddell Sea Shelf, Antarctica. Further consumer–resource body size data are included for planktonic predators, predatory nematodes, parasitoids, marine fish predators, freshwater invertebrates, Australian terrestrial consumers, and aphid parasitoids. Containing 16 807 records, this is the largest data set ever compiled for body sizes of consumers and their resources. In addition to body sizes, the data set includes information on consumer and resource taxonomy, the geographic location of the study, the habitat studied, the type of the feeding interaction (e.g., predacious, parasitic) and the metabolic categories of the species (e.g., invertebrate, ectotherm vertebrate). The present data set was gathered with the intent to stimulate research on effects of consumer–resource body size patterns on food-web structure, interaction-strength distributions, population dynamics, and community stability. The use of a common data set may facilitate cross-study comparisons and understanding of the relationships between different scientific approaches and models.
  • Brose, Ulrich, et al. (författare)
  • Consumer-resource body-size relationships in natural food webs
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Ecology. - : Ecological Society of America esa. - 0012-9658 .- 1939-9170. ; 87:10, s. 2411-2417
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It has been suggested that differences in body size between consumer and resource species may have important implications for interaction strengths, population dynamics, and eventually food web structure, function, and evolution. Still, the general distribution of consumer-'resource body-size ratios in real ecosystems, and whether they vary systematically among habitats or broad taxonomic groups, is poorly understood. Using a unique global database on consumer and resource body sizes, we show that the mean body-size ratios of aquatic herbivorous and detritivorous consumers are several orders of magnitude larger than those of carnivorous predators. Carnivorous predator-prey body-size ratios vary across different habitats and predator and prey types (invertebrates, ectotherm, and endotherm vertebrates). Predator-prey body-size ratios are on average significantly higher (1) in freshwater habitats than in marine or terrestrial habitats, (2) for vertebrate than for invertebrate predators, and (3) for invertebrate than for ectotherm vertebrate prey. If recent studies that relate body-size ratios to interaction strengths are general, our results suggest that mean consumer-resource interaction strengths may vary systematically across different habitat categories and consumer types.
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