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21.
  • James, Stefan K., et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes intended for non-invasive management : substudy from prospective randomised PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal. - 1756-1833. ; 342, s. d3527-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To evaluate efficacy and safety outcomes in patients in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial who at randomisation were planned for a non-invasive treatment strategy. Design Pre-specified analysis of pre-randomisation defined subgroup of prospective randomised clinical trial. Setting 862 centres in 43 countries. Participants 5216 (28%) of 18 624 patients admitted to hospital for acute coronary syndrome who were specified as planned for non-invasive management. Interventions Randomised treatment with ticagrelor (n=2601) versus clopidogrel (2615). Main outcome measurements Primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke; their individual components; and PLATO defined major bleeding during one year. Results 2183 (41.9%) patients had coronary angiography during their initial hospital admission, 1065 (20.4%) had percutaneous coronary intervention, and 208 (4.0%) had coronary artery bypass surgery. Cumulatively, 3143 (60.3%) patients had been managed non-invasively by the end of follow-up. The incidence of the primary end point was lower with ticagrelor than with clopidogrel (12.0% (n=295) v 14.3% (346); hazard ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.73 to 1.00; P=0.04). Overall mortality was also lower (6.1% (147) v 8.2% (195); 0.75, 0.61 to 0.93; P=0.01). The incidence of total major bleeding (11.9% (272) v 10.3% (238); 1.17, 0.98 to 1.39; P=0.08) and non-coronary artery bypass grafting related major bleeding (4.0% (90) v 3.1% (71); 1.30, 0.95 to 1.77; P=0.10) was numerically higher with ticagrelor than with clopidogrel. Conclusions In patients with acute coronary syndrome initially intended for non-invasive management, the benefits of ticagrelor over clopidogrel were consistent with those from the overall PLATO results, indicating the broad benefits of P2Y12 inhibition with ticagrelor regardless of intended management strategy.
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22.
  • James, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel in Acute Coronary Syndromes in Relation to Renal Function Results From the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) Trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 122:11, s. 1056-1067
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Reduced renal function is associated with a poorer prognosis and increased bleeding risk in patients with acute coronary syndromes and may therefore alter the risk-benefit ratio with antiplatelet therapies. In the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel reduced the primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke at 12 months but with similar major bleeding rates. Methods and Results-Central laboratory serum creatinine levels were available in 15 202 (81.9%) acute coronary syndrome patients at baseline, and creatinine clearance, estimated by the Cockcroft Gault equation, was calculated. In patients with chronic kidney disease (creatinine clearance <60 mL/min; n = 3237), ticagrelor versus clopidogrel significantly reduced the primary end point to 17.3% from 22.0% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.90) with an absolute risk reduction greater than that of patients with normal renal function (n = 11 965): 7.9% versus 8.9% (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.02). In patients with chronic kidney disease, ticagrelor reduced total mortality (10.0% versus 14.0%; HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.89). Major bleeding rates, fatal bleedings, and non-coronary bypass-related major bleedings were not significantly different between the 2 randomized groups (15.1% versus 14.3%; HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.30; 0.34% versus 0.77%; HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.15 to 1.54; and 8.5% versus 7.3%; HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.68). The interactions between creatinine clearance and randomized treatment on any of the outcome variables were nonsignificant. Conclusions-In acute coronary syndrome patients with chronic kidney disease, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel significantly reduces ischemic end points and mortality without a significant increase in major bleeding but with numerically more non-procedure-related bleeding.
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23.
  • James, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes and diabetes: a substudy from the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press. - 1522-9645 .- 0195-668X. ; 31:24, s. 3006-3016
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have high platelet reactivity and are at increased risk of ischaemic events and bleeding post-acute coronary syndromes (ACS). In the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial, ticagrelor reduced the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, but with similar rates of major bleeding compared with clopidogrel. We aimed to investigate the outcome with ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel in patients with DM or poor glycaemic control. We analysed patients with pre-existing DM (n = 4662), including 1036 patients on insulin, those without DM (n = 13 951), and subgroups based on admission levels of haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c; n = 15 150). In patients with DM, the reduction in the primary composite endpoint (HR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.76-1.03), all-cause mortality (HR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.66-1.01), and stent thrombosis (HR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.36-1.17) with no increase in major bleeding (HR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.81-1.12) with ticagrelor was consistent with the overall cohort and without significant diabetes status-by-treatment interactions. There was no heterogeneity between patients with or without ongoing insulin treatment. Ticagrelor reduced the primary endpoint, all-cause mortality, and stent thrombosis in patients with HbA1c above the median (HR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.70-0.91; HR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.65-0.93; and HR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.39-1.00, respectively) with similar bleeding rates (HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12). Ticagrelor, when compared with clopidogrel, reduced ischaemic events in ACS patients irrespective of diabetic status and glycaemic control, without an increase in major bleeding events.
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24.
  • Kjekshus, John, et al. (författare)
  • Rosuvastatin in older patients with systolic heart failure.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The New England journal of medicine. - 1533-4406. ; 357:22, s. 2248-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Patients with systolic heart failure have generally been excluded from statin trials. Acute coronary events are uncommon in this population, and statins have theoretical risks in these patients. METHODS: A total of 5011 patients at least 60 years of age with New York Heart Association class II, III, or IV ischemic, systolic heart failure were randomly assigned to receive 10 mg of rosuvastatin or placebo per day. The primary composite outcome was death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Secondary outcomes included death from any cause, any coronary event, death from cardiovascular causes, and the number of hospitalizations. RESULTS: As compared with the placebo group, patients in the rosuvastatin group had decreased levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (difference between groups, 45.0%; P<0.001) and of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (difference between groups, 37.1%; P<0.001). During a median follow-up of 32.8 months, the primary outcome occurred in 692 patients in the rosuvastatin group and 732 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.02; P=0.12), and 728 patients and 759 patients, respectively, died (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.05; P=0.31). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the coronary outcome or death from cardiovascular causes. In a prespecified secondary analysis, there were fewer hospitalizations for cardiovascular causes in the rosuvastatin group (2193) than in the placebo group (2564) (P<0.001). No excessive episodes of muscle-related or other adverse events occurred in the rosuvastatin group. CONCLUSIONS: Rosuvastatin did not reduce the primary outcome or the number of deaths from any cause in older patients with systolic heart failure, although the drug did reduce the number of cardiovascular hospitalizations. The drug did not cause safety problems. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00206310.)
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25.
  • Kotsia, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Extent of coronary artery disease and outcomes after ticagrelor administration in patients with an acute coronary syndrome : Insights from the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 168:1, s. 68-75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Extensive coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with higher risk. In this substudy of the PLATO trial, we examined the effects of randomized treatment on outcome events and safety in relation to the extent of CAD. Methods Patients were classified according to presence of extensive CAD (defined as 3-vessel disease, left main disease, or prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery). The trial's primary and secondary end points were compared using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Among 15,388 study patients for whom the extent of CAD was known, 4,646 (30%) had extensive CAD. Patients with extensive CAD had more high-risk characteristics and experienced more clinical events during follow-up. They were less likely to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (58% vs 79%, P < .001) but more likely to undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery (16% vs 2%, P < .001). Ticagrelor, compared with clopidogrel, reduced the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in patients with extensive CAD (14.9% vs 17.6%, hazard ratio [HR] 0.85 [0.73-0.98]) similar to its reduction in those without extensive CAD (6.8% vs 8.0%, HR 0.85 [0.74-0.98], P-interaction = .99). Major bleeding was similar with ticagrelor vs clopidogrel among patients with (25.7% vs 25.5%, HR 1.02 [0.90-1.15]) and without (7.3% vs 6.4%, HR 1.14 [0.98-1.33], P-interaction = .24) extensive CAD. Conclusions Patients with extensive CAD have higher rates of recurrent cardiovascular events and bleeding. Ticagrelor reduced ischemic events to a similar extent both in patients with and without extensive CAD, with bleeding rates similar to clopidogrel.
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26.
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27.
  • Lindholm, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome with or without revascularization : results from the PLATO trial
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 35:31, s. 2083-2093
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims The optimal platelet inhibition strategy for ACS patients managed without revascularization is unknown. We aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel in the non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) subgroup of the PLATO trial, in the total cohort, and in the subgroups managed with and without revascularization within 10 days of randomization. Methods and results We performed a retrospective analysis of the primary endpoint of cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/stroke. Among 18 624 PLATO patients, 11 080 (59%) were categorized as NSTE-ACS at randomization. During the initial 10 days, 74% had angiography, 46% PCI, and 5% CABG. In NSTE-ACS patients, the primary endpoint was reduced with ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel [10.0 vs. 12.3%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.74-0.93], as was myocardial infarction (6.6 vs. 7.7%; HR 0.86; 95% CI = 0.74-0.99), cardiovascular death (3.7 vs. 4.9%; HR 0.77; 95% CI = 0.64-0.93), and all-cause death (4.3 vs. 5.8%; HR 0.76; 95% CI = 0.64-0.90). Major bleeding rate was similar between treatment groups (13.4 vs. 12.6%; HR 1.07; 95% CI = 0.95-1.19), but ticagrelor was associated with an increase in non-CABG major bleeding (4.8 vs. 3.8%; HR 1.28; 95% CI = 1.05-1.56). Within the first 10 days, 5366 (48.4%) patients were managed without revascularization. Regardless of revascularization or not, ticagrelor consistently reduced the primary outcome (HR 0.86 vs. 0.85, interaction P = 0.93), and all-cause death (HR 0.75 vs. 0.73, interaction P = 0.89) with no significant increase in overall major bleeding. Conclusion In patients with NSTE-ACS, benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel in reducing ischaemic events and total mortality was consistent with the overall PLATO trial, independent of actually performed revascularization during the initial 10 days.
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28.
  • Ohman, E. Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Clinically significant bleeding with low-dose rivaroxaban versus aspirin, in addition to P2Y12 inhibition, in acute coronary syndromes (GEMINI-ACS-1) : a double-blind, multicentre, randomised trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 389:10081, s. 1799-1808
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor, is the standard antithrombotic treatment following acute coronary syndromes. The factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban reduced mortality and ischaemic events when added to DAPT, but caused increased bleeding. The safety of a dual pathway antithrombotic therapy approach combining low-dose rivaroxaban (in place of aspirin) with a P2Y12 inhibitor has not been assesssed in acute coronary syndromes. We aimed to assess rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily versus aspirin 100 mg daily, in addition to clopidogrel or ticagrelor (chosen at investigator discretion before randomisation), for patients with acute coronary syndromes started within 10 days after presentation and continued for 6-12 months.Methods In this double-blind, multicentre, randomised trial (GEMINI-ACS-1) done at 371 clinical centres in 21 countries, eligible patients were older than 18 years with unstable angina, non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), with positive cardiac biomarkers and either ischaemic electrocardiographic changes or an atherosclerotic culprit lesion identified during angiography. Participants were randomly assigned (1: 1) within 10 days after admission for the index acute coronary syndromes event to either aspirin or rivaroxaban based on a computer-generated randomisation schedule. Randomisation was balanced by using randomly permuted blocks with size of four and was stratified based on the background P2Y12 inhibitor (clopidogrel or ticagrelor) intended to be used at the time of randomisation. Investigators and patients were masked to treatment assignment. Patients received a minimum of 180 days of double-blind treatment with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily or aspirin 100 mg daily. The choice of clopidogrel or ticagrelor during trial conduct was not randomised and was based on investigator preference. The primary endpoint was thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) clinically significant bleeding not related to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG; major, minor, or requiring medical attention) up to day 390. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02293395.Findings Between April 22, 2015, and Oct 14, 2016, 3037 patients with acute coronary syndromes were randomly assigned; 1518 to receive aspirin and 1519 to receive rivaroxaban. 1704 patients (56%) were in the ticagrelor and 1333 (44%) in the clopidogrel strata. Median duration of treatment was 291 days (IQR 239-354). TIMI non-CABG clinically significant bleeding was similar with rivaroxaban versus aspirin therapy (total 154 patients [5%]; 80 participants [5%] of 1519 vs 74 participants [5%] of 1518; HR 1.09 [95% CI 0.80-1.50]; p=0.5840).Interpretation A dual pathway antithrombotic therapy approach combining low-dose rivaroxaban with a P2Y12 inhibitor for the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes had similar risk of clinically significant bleeding as aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor. A larger, adequately powered trial would be required to definitively assess the efficacy and safety of this approach.
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29.
  • Steg, P. Gabriel, et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor in Patients with Stable Coronary Disease and Diabetes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOC. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 381:14, s. 1309-1320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes were randomly assigned to receive either ticagrelor plus aspirin or placebo plus aspirin. At 40 months, the incidence of the composite efficacy outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke was lower with ticagrelor than with placebo; the frequency of major bleeding was higher with ticagrelor. Background Patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus who have not had a myocardial infarction or stroke are at high risk for cardiovascular events. Whether adding ticagrelor to aspirin improves outcomes in this population is unclear. Methods In this randomized, double-blind trial, we assigned patients who were 50 years of age or older and who had stable coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus to receive either ticagrelor plus aspirin or placebo plus aspirin. Patients with previous myocardial infarction or stroke were excluded. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding as defined by the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) criteria. Results A total of 19,220 patients underwent randomization. The median follow-up was 39.9 months. Permanent treatment discontinuation was more frequent with ticagrelor than placebo (34.5% vs. 25.4%). The incidence of ischemic cardiovascular events (the primary efficacy outcome) was lower in the ticagrelor group than in the placebo group (7.7% vs. 8.5%; hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 0.99; P=0.04), whereas the incidence of TIMI major bleeding was higher (2.2% vs. 1.0%; hazard ratio, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.82 to 2.94; P<0.001), as was the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (0.7% vs. 0.5%; hazard ratio, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.48; P=0.005). There was no significant difference in the incidence of fatal bleeding (0.2% vs. 0.1%; hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% CI, 0.87 to 4.15; P=0.11). The incidence of an exploratory composite outcome of irreversible harm (death from any cause, myocardial infarction, stroke, fatal bleeding, or intracranial hemorrhage) was similar in the ticagrelor group and the placebo group (10.1% vs. 10.8%; hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.02). Conclusions In patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes without a history of myocardial infarction or stroke, those who received ticagrelor plus aspirin had a lower incidence of ischemic cardiovascular events but a higher incidence of major bleeding than those who received placebo plus aspirin. (Funded by AstraZeneca; THEMIS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01991795.).
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30.
  • Tricoci, Pierluigi, et al. (författare)
  • Vorapaxar with or without clopidogrel after non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes : Results from the Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome trial
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 168:6, s. 869-877.e1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Protease-activated receptor 1 antagonism with vorapaxar represents a novel strategy for platelet inhibition. In TRACER, vorapaxar was compared with placebo plus standard of care among 12,944 patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. We anticipated that most patients would have received clopidogrel as part of standard care. We investigated the modification of vorapaxar's effect associated with clopidogrel use over time. Methods The marginal structural model method was used to estimate causal modification of vorapaxar effect by use of clopidogrel over time. The primary outcomes were the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke and Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries moderate or severe bleeding. The event accrual period excluded the time during which clopidogrel was clinically warranted. Results Among 12,887 patients who received study medication, 11,117 (86.3%) received clopidogrel before randomization, of whom 38.5% stopped later in the trial (median time to stoppage 200 days with placebo; interquartile range [IQR] 14-367) (186 days with vorapaxar; IQR 17-366). In total, 1,770 (13.7%) patients were not on clopidogrel at randomization, of whom 47.8% started afterward (median time to start 2 days; IQR 2-4). During the period of event accrual, vorapaxar was associated with a 26% reduction in the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke when used with clopidogrel (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% CI 0.60-0.91) and a 24% reduction when used without clopidogrel (HR 0.76; 95% CI 0.56-1.02) (interaction; P = .89). The hazard of Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries bleeding with vorapaxar was not significantly different without clopidogrel (HR 1.33; 95% CI 0.81-2.20) or with clopidogrel (HR 1.09; 95% CI 0.76-1.56) (interaction; P = .53). Conclusions We observed no interaction between vorapaxar and clopidogrel after non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes on efficacy or safety outcomes, supporting a complementary role of protease-activated receptor 1 and P2Y(12) antagonism.
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