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61.
  • Dehghan, M., et al. (författare)
  • Association of egg intake with blood lipids, cardiovascular disease, and mortality in 177,000 people in 50 countries
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 111:4, s. 795-803
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Eggs are a rich source of essential nutrients, but they are also a source of dietary cholesterol. Therefore, some guidelines recommend limiting egg consumption. However, there is contradictory evidence on the impact of eggs on diseases, largely based on studies conducted in high-income countries. Objectives: Our aim was to assess the association of egg consumption with blood lipids, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality in large global studies involving populations from low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Methods: We studied 146,011 individuals from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Egg consumption was recorded using country-specific validated FFQs. We also studied 31,544 patients with vascular disease in 2 multinational prospective studies: ONTARGET (Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global End Point Trial) and TRANSCEND (Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACEI Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease). We calculated HRs using multivariable Cox frailty models with random intercepts to account for clustering by study center separately within each study. Results: In the PURE study, we recorded 14,700 composite events (8932 deaths and 8477 CVD events). In the PURE study, after excluding those with history of CVD, higher intake of egg (>= 7 egg/wk compared with <1 egg/wk intake) was not significantly associated with blood lipids, composite outcome (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.04; P-trend = 0.74), total mortality (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.15; P-trend = 0.38), or major CVD (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.01; P-trend = 0.20). Similar results were observed in ONTARGET/TRANSCEND studies for composite outcome (HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.25; P-trend = 0.09), total mortality (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.24; P-trend = 0.55), and major CVD(HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.73, 1.29; P-trend = 0.12). Conclusions: In 3 large international prospective studies including similar to 177,000 individuals, 12,701 deaths, and 13,658 CVD events from 50 countries in 6 continents, we did not find significant associations between egg intake and blood lipids, mortality, or major CVD events.
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62.
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63.
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64.
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65.
  • Miller, V., et al. (författare)
  • Availability, affordability, and consumption of fruits and vegetables in 18 countries across income levels: findings from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Lancet Global Health. - 2214-109X. ; 4:10, s. E695-E703
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Several international guidelines recommend the consumption of two servings of fruits and three servings of vegetables per day, but their intake is thought to be low worldwide. We aimed to determine the extent to which such low intake is related to availability and affordability. Methods We assessed fruit and vegetable consumption using data from country-specific, validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, which enrolled participants from communities in 18 countries between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2013. We documented household income data from participants in these communities; we also recorded the diversity and non-sale prices of fruits and vegetables from grocery stores and market places between Jan 1, 2009, and Dec 31, 2013. We determined the cost of fruits and vegetables relative to income per household member. Linear random effects models, adjusting for the clustering of households within communities, were used to assess mean fruit and vegetable intake by their relative cost. Findings Of 143 305 participants who reported plausible energy intake in the food frequency questionnaire, mean fruit and vegetable intake was 3.76 servings (95% CI 3.66-3.86) per day. Mean daily consumption was 2.14 servings (1.93-2.36) in low-income countries (LICs), 3.17 servings (2.99-3.35) in lower-middle-income countries (LMICs), 4.31 servings (4.09-4.53) in upper-middle-income countries (UMICs), and 5.42 servings (5.13-5.71) in high-income countries (HICs). In 130 402 participants who had household income data available, the cost of two servings of fruits and three servings of vegetables per day per individual accounted for 51.97% (95% CI 46.06-57.88) of household income in LICs, 18.10% (14.53-21.68) in LMICs, 15.87% (11.51-20.23) in UMICs, and 1.85% (-3.90 to 7.59) in HICs (p(trend) = 0.0001). In all regions, a higher percentage of income to meet the guidelines was required in rural areas than in urban areas (p<0.0001 for each pairwise comparison). Fruit and vegetable consumption among individuals decreased as the relative cost increased (p(trend) = 0.00040). Interpretation The consumption of fruit and vegetables is low worldwide, particularly in LICs, and this is associated with low aff ordability. Policies worldwide should enhance the availability and aff ordability of fruits and vegetables.
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66.
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67.
  • Bhavadharini, B., et al. (författare)
  • White Rice Intake and Incident Diabetes: A Study of 132,373 Participants in 21 Countries
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetes care. - 0149-5992. ; 43:11, s. 2643-2650
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE Previous prospective studies on the association of white rice intake with incident diabetes have shown contradictory results but were conducted in single countries and predominantly in Asia. We report on the association of white rice with risk of diabetes in the multinational Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data on 132,373 individuals aged 35-70 years from 21 countries were analyzed. White rice consumption (cooked) was categorized as <150, >= 150 to <300, >= 300 to <450, and >= 450 g/day, based on one cup of cooked rice = 150 g. The primary outcome was incident diabetes. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a multivariable Cox frailty model. RESULTS During a mean follow-up period of 9.5 years, 6,129 individuals without baseline diabetes developed incident diabetes. In the overall cohort, higher intake of white rice (>= 450 g/day compared with <150 g/day) was associated with increased risk of diabetes (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.02-1.40;Pfor trend = 0.003). However, the highest risk was seen in South Asia (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.13-2.30;Pfor trend = 0.02), followed by other regions of the world (which included South East Asia, Middle East, South America, North America, Europe, and Africa) (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.08-1.86;Pfor trend = 0.01), while in China there was no significant association (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.77-1.40;Pfor trend = 0.38). CONCLUSIONS Higher consumption of white rice is associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes with the strongest association being observed in South Asia, while in other regions, a modest, nonsignificant association was seen.
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68.
  • de Vries, Paul S., et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association study identifies new loci for factor VII and implicates factor VII in ischemic stroke etiology
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Blood. - : AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. - 0006-4971 .- 1528-0020. ; 133:9, s. 967-977
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Factor VII (FVII) is an important component of the coagulation cascade. Few genetic loci regulating FVII activity and/or levels have been discovered to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 9 genome-wide association studies of plasma FVII levels (7 FVII activity and 2 FVII antigen) among 27 495 participants of European and African ancestry. Each study performed ancestry-specific association analyses. Inverse variance weighted meta-analysis was performed within each ancestry group and then combined for a trans-ancestry meta-analysis. Our primary analysis included the 7 studies that measured FVII activity, and a secondary analysis included all 9 studies. We provided functional genomic validation for newly identified significant loci by silencing candidate genes in a human liver cell line (HuH7) using small-interfering RNA and then measuring F7 messenger RNA and FVII protein expression. Lastly, we used meta-analysis results to perform Mendelian randomization analysis to estimate the causal effect of FVII activity on coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke (IS), and venous thromboembolism. We identified 2 novel (REEP3 and JAZF1-AS1) and 6 known loci associated with FVII activity, explaining 19.0% of the phenotypic variance. Adding FVII antigen data to the meta-analysis did not result in the discovery of further loci. Silencing REEP3 in HuH7 cells upregulated FVII, whereas silencing JAZF1 downregulated FVII. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest that FVII activity has a positive causal effect on the risk of IS. Variants at REEP3 and JAZF1 contribute to FVII activity by regulating F7 expression levels. FVII activity appears to contribute to the etiology of IS in the general population.
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69.
  • Miller, V., et al. (författare)
  • Fruit, vegetable, and legume intake, and cardiovascular disease and deaths in 18 countries (PURE): a prospective cohort study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 0140-6736. ; 390:10107, s. 2037-2049
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The association between intake of fruits, vegetables, and legumes with cardiovascular disease and deaths has been investigated extensively in Europe, the USA, Japan, and China, but little or no data are available from the Middle East, South America, Africa, or south Asia. Methods We did a prospective cohort study (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology [PURE] in 135 335 individuals aged 35 to 70 years without cardiovascular disease from 613 communities in 18 low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries in seven geographical regions: North America and Europe, South America, the Middle East, south Asia, China, southeast Asia, and Africa. We documented their diet using country-specific food frequency questionnaires at baseline. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect information about demographic factors, socioeconomic status (education, income, and employment), lifestyle (smoking, physical activity, and alcohol intake), health history and medication use, and family history of cardiovascular disease. The follow-up period varied based on the date when recruitment began at each site or country. The main clinical outcomes were major cardiovascular disease (defined as death from cardiovascular causes and non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure), fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal and non-fatal strokes, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality. Cox frailty models with random effects were used to assess associations between fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption with risk of cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Findings Participants were enrolled into the study between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013. For the current analysis, we included all unrefuted outcome events in the PURE study database through March 31, 2017. Overall, combined mean fruit, vegetable and legume intake was 3.91 (SD 2.77) servings per day. During a median 7.4 years (5.5-9.3) of follow-up, 4784 major cardiovascular disease events, 1649 cardiovascular deaths, and 5796 total deaths were documented. Higher total fruit, vegetable, and legume intake was inversely associated with major cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality in the models adjusted for age, sex, and centre (random effect). The estimates were substantially attenuated in the multivariable adjusted models for major cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR] 0.90, 95% CI 0.74-1.10, p(trend) = 0.1301), myocardial infarction (0.99, 0.74-1.31;p(trend) = 0.2033), stroke (0.92, 0.67-1.25;p(trend) = 0.7092), cardiovascular mortality (0.73, 0.53-1.02; p(trend) = 0.0568), non-cardiovascular mortality (0.84, 0.68-1.04; p trend = 0.0038), and total mortality (0.81, 0.68-0.96; p(trend) < 0.0001). The HR for total mortality was lowest for three to four servings per day (0.78, 95% CI 0.69-0.88) compared with the reference group, with no further apparent decrease in HR with higher consumption. When examined separately, fruit intake was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular, non-cardiovascular, and total mortality, while legume intake was inversely associated with non-cardiovascular death and total mortality (in fully adjusted models). For vegetables, raw vegetable intake was strongly associated with a lower risk of total mortality, whereas cooked vegetable intake showed a modest benefit against mortality. Interpretation Higher fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption was associated with a lower risk of non-cardiovascular, and total mortality. Benefits appear to be maximum for both non-cardiovascular mortality and total mortality at three to four servings per day (equivalent to 375-500 g/day).
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70.
  • Pattaro, Cristian, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic associations at 53 loci highlight cell types and biological pathways relevant for kidney function
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reduced glomerular filtration rate defines chronic kidney disease and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), combining data across 133,413 individuals with replication in up to 42,166 individuals. We identify 24 new and confirm 29 previously identified loci. Of these 53 loci, 19 associate with eGFR among individuals with diabetes. Using bioinformatics, we show that identified genes at eGFR loci are enriched for expression in kidney tissues and in pathways relevant for kidney development and transmembrane transporter activity, kidney structure, and regulation of glucose metabolism. Chromatin state mapping and DNase I hypersensitivity analyses across adult tissues demonstrate preferential mapping of associated variants to regulatory regions in kidney but not extra-renal tissues. These findings suggest that genetic determinants of eGFR are mediated largely through direct effects within the kidney and highlight important cell types and biological pathways.
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