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Sökning: WFRF:(Dharmage S. C.)

  • Resultat 11-20 av 31
  • Föregående 1[2]34Nästa
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11.
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12.
  • Svanes, C., et al. (författare)
  • Father's environment before conception and asthma risk in his children: a multi-generation analysis of the Respiratory Health In Northern Europe study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 46:1, s. 235-245
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Whereas it is generally accepted that maternal environment plays a key role in child health, emerging evidence suggests that paternal environment before conception also impacts child health. We aimed to investigate the association between children's asthma risk and parental smoking and welding exposures prior to conception. Methods: In a longitudinal, multi-country study, parents of 24 168 offspring aged 2-51 years provided information on their life-course smoking habits, occupational exposure to welding and metal fumes, and offspring's asthma before/after age 10 years and hay fever. Logistic regressions investigated the relevant associations controlled for age, study centre, parental characteristics (age, asthma, education) and clustering by family. Results: Non-allergic early-onset asthma (asthma without hay fever, present in 5.8%) was more common in the offspring with fathers who smoked before conception {odds ratio [OR] = 1.68 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18-2.41]}, whereas mothers' smoking before conception did not predict offspring asthma. The risk was highest if father started smoking before age 15 years [3.24 (1.67-6.27)], even if he stopped more than 5 years before conception [2.68 (1.17-6.13)]. Fathers' pre-conception welding was independently associated with non-allergic asthma in his offspring [1.80 (1.29-2.50)]. There was no effect if the father started welding or smoking after birth. The associations were consistent across countries. Conclusions: Environmental exposures in young men appear to influence the respiratory health of their offspring born many years later. Influences during susceptible stages of spermatocyte development might be important and needs further investigation in humans. We hypothesize that protecting young men from harmful exposures may lead to improved respiratory health in future generations.
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13.
  • Triebner, K., et al. (författare)
  • Describing the status of reproductive ageing simply and precisely: A reproductive ageing score based on three questions and validated with hormone levels
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library Science. - 1932-6203. ; 15:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Equation 6. Quadratic logistic function approximating the function mu(B)(with age in years). Equation 1. Proportion of women who have regular menstruation for each number of reported menstruations in the last year(with period = number of periods per year, x = number of women answering "Yes" to the question: "Do you have regular periods?", y = number of women answering "No, they have been irregular for a few months" and z = number of women answering "No, my periods have stopped", e.g. x(11) = number of women reporting regular menstruation among those who report 11 menstruations in the last 12 months). Equation 5. Biquadratic exponential function mu(A)depending of the number of periods. Equation 3. Age modification by smoking and oophorectomy. Equation 2. Proportion of women whose menstruations have already stopped, for each reported year of age(with age = age in years, x = number of women answering "Yes" to the question: "Do you have regular periods?", y = number of women answering "No, they have been irregular for a few months", z = number of women answering "No, my periods have stopped", e.g. x(40) = number of women reporting regular menstruations among those who are 40 years old). Equation 7. Final formula to calculate the reproductive ageing score (RAS)(with period being the number of periods per year and age as the age in years, modified according to smoking status and oophorectomy). Objective Most women live to experience menopause and will spend 4-8 years transitioning from fertile age to full menstrual stop. Biologically, reproductive ageing is a continuous process, but by convention, it is defined categorically as pre-, peri- and postmenopause; categories that are sometimes supported by measurements of sex hormones in blood samples. We aimed to develop and validate a new tool, a reproductive ageing score (RAS), that could give a simple and yet precise description of the status of reproductive ageing, without hormone measurements, to be used by health professionals and researchers. Methods Questionnaire data on age, menstrual regularity and menstrual frequency was provided by the large multicentre population-based RHINE cohort. A continuous reproductive ageing score was developed from these variables, using techniques of fuzzy mathematics, to generate a decimal number ranging from 0.00 (nonmenopausal) to 1.00 (postmenopausal). The RAS was then validated with sex hormone measurements (follicle stimulating hormone and 17 beta-estradiol) and interview-data provided by the large population-based ECRHS cohort, using receiver-operating characteristics (ROC). Results The RAS, developed from questionnaire data of the RHINE cohort, defined with high precision and accuracy the menopausal status as confirmed by interview and hormone data in the ECRHS cohort. The area under the ROC curve was 0.91 (95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.90-0.93) to distinguish nonmenopausal women from peri- and postmenopausal women, and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.83-0.88) to distinguish postmenopausal women from nonmenopausal and perimenopausal women. Conclusions The RAS provides a useful and valid tool for describing the status of reproductive ageing accurately, on a continuous scale from 0.00 to 1.00, based on simple questions and without requiring blood sampling. The score allows for a more precise differentiation than the conventional categorisation in pre-, peri- and postmenopause. This is useful for epidemiological research and clinical trials. Equation 4. The reproductive ageing score as an aggregation function of mu(A)and mu(B).
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14.
  • Bertelsen, R. J., et al. (författare)
  • Clinical markers of asthma and IgE assessed in parents before conception predict asthma and hayfever in the offspring
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - : WILEY. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 47:5, s. 627-638
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mice models suggest epigenetic inheritance induced by parental allergic disease activity. However, we know little of how parental disease activity before conception influences offspring's asthma and allergy in humans.Objective: We aimed to assess the associations of parental asthma severity, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and total and specific IgEs, measured before conception vs. after birth, with offspring asthma and hayfever.Methods: The study included 4293 participants (mean age 34, 47% men) from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) with information on asthma symptom severity, BHR, total and specific IgEs from 1991 to 1993, and data on 9100 offspring born 1972–2012. Adjusted relative risk ratios (aRRR) for associations of parental clinical outcome with offspring allergic disease were estimated with multinomial logistic regressions.Results: Offspring asthma with hayfever was more strongly associated with parental BHR and specific IgE measured before conception than after birth [BHR: aRRR = 2.96 (95% CI: 1.92, 4.57) and 1.40 (1.03, 1.91), respectively; specific IgEs: 3.08 (2.13, 4.45) and 1.83 (1.45, 2.31), respectively]. This was confirmed in a sensitivity analysis of a subgroup of offspring aged 11–22 years with information on parental disease activity both before and after birth.Conclusion & Clinical Relevance: Parental BHR and specific IgE were associated with offspring asthma and hayfever, with the strongest associations observed with clinical assessment before conception as compared to after birth of the child. If the hypothesis is confirmed in other studies, parental disease activity assessed before conception may prove useful for identifying children at risk for developing asthma with hayfever.
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15.
  • Campbell, B, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of growing up on a farm on adult lung function and allergic phenotypes : an international population-based study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 72:3, s. 236-244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • RATIONALE: Evidence has suggested that exposure to environmental or microbial biodiversity in early life may impact subsequent lung function and allergic disease risk.OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of childhood living environment and biodiversity indicators on atopy, asthma and lung function in adulthood.METHODS AND MEASUREMENTS: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey II investigated ∼10 201 participants aged 26-54 years from 14 countries, including participants' place of upbringing (farm, rural environment or inner city) before age 5 years. A 'biodiversity score' was created based on childhood exposure to cats, dogs, day care, bedroom sharing and older siblings. Associations with lung function, bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR), allergic sensitisation, asthma and rhinitis were analysed.MAIN RESULTS: As compared with a city upbringing, those with early-life farm exposure had less atopic sensitisation (adjusted OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.58), atopic BHR (0.54 (0.35 to 0.83)), atopic asthma (0.47 (0.28 to 0.81)) and atopic rhinitis (0.43 (0.32 to 0.57)), but not non-atopic outcomes. Less pronounced protective effects were observed for rural environment exposures. Women with a farm upbringing had higher FEV1 (adjusted difference 110 mL (64 to 157)), independent of sensitisation and asthma. In an inner city environment, a higher biodiversity score was related to less allergic sensitisation.CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report beneficial effects of growing up on a farm on adult FEV1. Our study confirmed the beneficial effects of early farm life on sensitisation, asthma and rhinitis, and found a similar association for BHR. In persons with an urban upbringing, a higher biodiversity score predicted less allergic sensitisation, but to a lesser magnitude than a childhood farm environment.
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16.
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17.
  • Johannessen, Ane, et al. (författare)
  • Being overweight in childhood, puberty, or early adulthood : Changing asthma risk in the next generation?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 145:3, s. 791-799
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Overweight status and asthma have increased during the last decades. Being overweight is a known risk factor for asthma, but it is not known whether it might also increase asthma risk in the next generation.Objective: We aimed to examine whether parents being overweight in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood is associated with asthma in their offspring.Methods: We included 6347 adult offspring (age, 18-52 years) investigated in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) multigeneration study of 2044 fathers and 2549 mothers (age, 37-66 years) investigated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) study. Associations of parental overweight status at age 8 years, puberty, and age 30 years with offspring's childhood overweight status (potential mediator) and offspring's asthma with or without nasal allergies (outcomes) was analyzed by using 2-level logistic regression and 2-level multinomial logistic regression, respectively. Counterfactual-based mediation analysis was performed to establish whether observed associations were direct or indirect effects mediated through the offspring's own overweight status.Results: We found statistically significant associations between both fathers' and mothers' childhood overweight status and offspring's childhood overweight status (odds ratio, 2.23 [95% CI, 1.45-3.42] and 2.45 [95% CI, 1.86-3.22], respectively). We also found a statistically significant effect of fathers' onset of being overweight in puberty on offspring's asthma without nasal allergies (relative risk ratio, 2.31 [95% CI, 1.23-4.33]). This effect was direct and not mediated through the offspring's own overweight status. No effect on offspring's asthma with nasal allergies was found.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that metabolic factors long before conception can increase asthma risk and that male puberty is a time window of particular importance for offspring's health.
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18.
  • Triebner, K., et al. (författare)
  • Menopause as a predictor of new-onset asthma: A longitudinal Northern European population study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 137:1, s. 50-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is limited and conflicting evidence on the effect of menopause on asthma. Objectives: We sought to study whether the incidence of asthma and respiratory symptoms differ by menopausal status in a longitudinal population-based study with an average follow-up of 12 years. Methods: The Respiratory Health in Northern Europe study provided questionnaire data pertaining to respiratory and reproductive health at baseline (1999-2001) and follow-up (2010-2012). The study cohort included women aged 45 to 65 years at follow-up, without asthma at baseline, and not using exogenous hormones (n = 2322). Menopausal status was defined as nonmenopausal, transitional, early postmenopausal, and late postmenopausal. Associations with asthma (defined by the use of asthma medication, having asthma attacks, or both) and respiratory symptoms scores were analyzed by using logistic (asthma) and negative binomial (respiratory symptoms) regressions, adjusting for age, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, education, and study center. Results: The odds of new-onset asthma were increased in women who were transitional (odds ratio, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.09-5.30), early postmenopausal (odds ratio, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.06-4.20), and late postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.31-9.05) at follow-up compared with nonmenopausal women. The risk of respiratory symptoms increased in early postmenopausal (coefficient, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.06-0.75) and late postmenopausal (coefficient, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.15-1.23) women. These findings were consistent irrespective of smoking status and across study centers. Conclusions: New-onset asthma and respiratory symptoms increased in women becoming postmenopausal in a longitudinal population-based study. Clinicians should be aware that respiratory health might deteriorate in women during reproductive aging. RAMSON MJ, 1991, JOURNAL OF ASTHMA, V28, P129
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20.
  • Knudsen, G. T. M., et al. (författare)
  • Parents' smoking onset before conception as related to body mass index and fat mass in adult offspring: Findings from the RHINESSA generation study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 15:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Emerging evidence suggests that parents' preconception exposures may influence offspring health. We aimed to investigate maternal and paternal smoking onset in specific time windows in relation to offspring body mass index (BMI) and fat mass index (FMI). We investigated fathers (n = 2111) and mothers (n = 2569) aged 39-65 years, of the population based RHINE and ECRHS studies, and their offspring aged 18-49 years (n = 6487, mean age 29.6 years) who participated in the RHINESSA study. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight, and FMI was estimated from bioelectrical impedance measures in a subsample. Associations with parental smoking were analysed with generalized linear regression adjusting for parental education and clustering by study centre and family. Interactions between offspring sex were analysed, as was mediation by parental pack years, parental BMI, offspring smoking and offspring birthweight. Fathers' smoking onset before conception of the offspring (onset >= 15 years) was associated with higher BMI in the offspring when adult (beta 0.551, 95%CI: 0.174-0.929, p = 0.004). Mothers' preconception and postnatal smoking onset was associated with higher offspring BMI (onset <15 years: beta 1.161, 95%CI 0.378-1.944; onset >= 15 years: beta 0.720, 95%CI 0.293-1.147; onset after offspring birth: beta 2.257, 95%CI 1.220-3.294). However, mediation analysis indicated that these effects were fully mediated by parents' postnatal pack years, and partially mediated by parents' BMI and offspring smoking. Regarding FMI, sons of smoking fathers also had higher fat mass (onset <15 years beta 1.604, 95%CI 0.269-2.939; onset >= 15 years beta 2.590, 95%CI 0.544-4.636; and onset after birth beta 2.736, 95%CI 0.621-4.851). There was no association between maternal smoking and offspring fat mass. We found that parents' smoking before conception was associated with higher BMI in offspring when they reached adulthood, but that these effects were mediated through parents' pack years, suggesting that cumulative smoking exposure during offspring's childhood may elicit long lasting effects on offspring BMI.
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  • Resultat 11-20 av 31
  • Föregående 1[2]34Nästa

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