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  • Lerendegui-Marco, J., et al. (författare)
  • New detection systems for an enhanced sensitivity in key stellar (n,γ) measurements
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: EPJ Web of Conferences. - : EDP Sciences. - 2100-014X. ; 279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neutron capture cross-section measurements are fundamental in the study of astrophysical phenomena, such as the slow neutron capture (s-) process of nucleosynthesis operating in red-giant and massive stars. However, neutron capture measurements via the time-of-flight (TOF) technique on key s-process nuclei are often challenging. Difficulties arise from the limited mass (∼mg) available and the high sample-related background in the case of the unstable s-process branching points. Measurements on neutron magic nuclei, that act as s-process bottlenecks, are affected by low (n,γ) cross sections and a dominant neutron scattering background. Overcoming these experimental challenges requires the combination of facilities with high instantaneous flux, such as n_TOFEAR2, with detection systems with an enhanced detection sensitivity and high counting rate capabilities. This contribution reviews some of the latest detector developments in detection systems for (n,γ) measurements at n_TOF, such as i-TED, an innovative detection system which exploits the Compton imaging technique to reduce the dominant neutron scattering background and s-TED, a highly segmented total energy detector intended for high flux facilities. The discussion will be illustrated with results of the first measurement of key the s-process branching-point reaction 79Se(n,γ).
  • Lerendegui-Marco, J., et al. (författare)
  • New perspectives for neutron capture measurements in the upgraded CERN-n_TOF Facility
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: 15th International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology, ND2022. - : EDP Sciences.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The n_TOF facility has just undergone in 2021 a major upgrade with the installation of its third generation spallation target that has been designed to optimize the performance of the two n_TOF time-of-flight lines. This contribution describes the key features and limitations for capture measurements in the two beam lines prior to the target upgrade and presents first results of (n,gamma) measurements carried out as part of the commissioning of the upgraded facility. In particular, the energy resolution, a key factor for both increasing the signal-to background ratio and obtaining accurate resonance parameters, has been clearly improved for the 20 m long vertical beam-line with the new target design while keeping the remarkably high resolution of the long beamline n_TOF-EAR1. The improvements in the n_TOF neutron beam-lines need to be accompanied by improvements in the instrumentation. A review is given on recent detector R&D projects aimed at tackling the existing challenges and further improving the capabilities of this facility.
  • Massimi, C., et al. (författare)
  • Neutron-induced cross section measurements
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: EPJ Web of Conferences. - : EDP Sciences. - 2100-014X. ; 279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neutron-induced cross sections represent the main nuclear input to models of stellar and Big-Bang nucleosynthesis. While (n,γ) reactions are relevant for the formation of elements heavier than iron, (n,p) and (n,α) reactions can play an important role in specific cases. The time-of-flight method is routinely used at n_TOF to experimentally determine the cross section data. In addition, recent upgrades of the facility will allow the use of activation techniques as well, possibly opening the way to a systematic study of neutron interaction with radioactive isotopes. In the last 20 years n_TOF has provided a large amount of experimental data for Nuclear Astrophysics. Our plan is to carry on challenging measurements and produce nuclear data in the next decades as well.
  • Mastromarco, M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the Gd-160(n, gamma) cross section at n_TOF and its medical implications
  • 2023
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neutron-capture reactions on gadolinium isotopes play an important role in several fields of physics, in particular in nuclear Astrophysics for the understanding of the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements (beyond iron) in stars via the s- and r-processes [1] and in nuclear technology. Another important application of gadolinium is linked to the production of terbium, that offers a set of clinically interesting isotopes for theranostics, characterized by complementary physical decay characteristics. In particular, the low -energy beta(-) emitter terbium-161 is very similar to lutetium-177 in terms of half-life (6.89 d), beta(-) - energy and chemical properties. Being a significant emitter of conversion/Auger electrons, greater therapeutic effect can therefore be expected in comparison to Lu-177 [2, 3]. For this reason, in the last decade, the study of the neutron capture reaction Gd-160(n,,gamma)(161) Gd and the subsequent beta(-) - decay in terbium-161 is getting particular attention. As the nuclear data on the Gd-160 neutron capture reaction are quite scarce and inconsistent, a new measurement of the capture cross section of Gd-160 at the CERN neutron Time -Of-Flight facilty was performed in order to provide high resolution, high -accuracy data on this important reaction, in the energy range from thermal to hundreds of keV. In this contribution, the preliminary results of the n_TOF measurement are presented.
  • Patronis, N., et al. (författare)
  • Status report of the n_TOF facility after the 2nd CERN long shutdown period
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: EPJ TECHNIQUES AND INSTRUMENTATION. - : Springer Nature. - 2195-7045. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the second long shutdown period of the CERN accelerator complex (LS2, 2019-2021), several upgrade activities took place at the n_TOF facility. The most important have been the replacement of the spallation target with a next generation nitrogen-cooled lead target. Additionally, a new experimental area, at a very short distance from the target assembly (the NEAR Station) was established. In this paper, the core commissioning actions of the new installations are described. The improvement in the n_TOF infrastructure was accompanied by several detector development projects. All these upgrade actions are discussed, focusing mostly on the future perspectives of the n_TOF facility. Furthermore, some indicative current and future measurements are briefly reported.
  • Arking, D. E., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic association study of QT interval highlights role for calcium signaling pathways in myocardial repolarization
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 46:8, s. 826-836
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal mendelian long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Using a genome-wide association and replication study in up to 100,000 individuals, we identified 35 common variant loci associated with QT interval that collectively explain ∼ 8-10% of QT-interval variation and highlight the importance of calcium regulation in myocardial repolarization. Rare variant analysis of 6 new QT interval-associated loci in 298 unrelated probands with LQTS identified coding variants not found in controls but of uncertain causality and therefore requiring validation. Several newly identified loci encode proteins that physically interact with other recognized repolarization proteins. Our integration of common variant association, expression and orthogonal protein-protein interaction screens provides new insights into cardiac electrophysiology and identifies new candidate genes for ventricular arrhythmias, LQTS and SCD. © 2014 Nature America, Inc.
  • Mucciola, R., et al. (författare)
  • Neutron capture and total cross-section measurements on Mo-94'95'96 at n_TOF and GELINA
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: 15th International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology, ND2022. - : EDP Sciences.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Capture and total cross section measurements for 94'95'96 MO have been performed at the neutron time -of-flight facilities, n_TOF at CERN and GELINA at JRC-Geel. The measurements were performed using isotopically enriched samples with an enrichment above 95% for each of the (94'95'96)M0 isotopes. The capture measurements were performed at n_TOF using C6D6 detectors and a new sTED detector. The transmission measurements were performed at a 10 m station of GELINA using a Li-6 glass neutron detector. Preliminary results of these measurements are presented.
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