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Sökning: WFRF:(Domingo G) > (2020-2022)

  • Resultat 21-27 av 27
  • Föregående 12[3]
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21.
  • Yates, James A. Fellows, et al. (författare)
  • The evolution and changing ecology of the African hominid oral microbiome
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : NATL ACAD SCIENCES. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 118:20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The oral microbiome plays key roles in human biology, health, and disease, but little is known about the global diversity, variation, or evolution of this microbial community. To better understand the evolution and changing ecology of the human oral microbiome, we analyzed 124 dental biofilm metagenomes from humans, including Neanderthals and Late Pleistocene to present-day modern humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas, as well as New World howler monkeys for comparison. We find that a core microbiome of primarily biofilm structural taxa has been maintained throughout African hominid evolution, and these microbial groups are also shared with howler monkeys, suggesting that they have been important oral members since before the catarrhine-platyrrhine split ca. 40 Mya. However, community structure and individual microbial phylogenies do not closely reflect host relationships, and the dental biofilms of Homo and chimpanzees are distinguished by major taxonomic and functional differences. Reconstructing oral metagenomes from up to 100 thousand years ago, we show that the microbial profiles of both Neanderthals and modern humans are highly similar, sharing functional adaptations in nutrient metabolism. These include an apparent Homo-specific acquisition of salivary amylase-binding capability by oral streptococci, suggesting microbial coadaptation with host diet. We additionally find evidence of shared genetic diversity in the oral bacteria of Neanderthal and Upper Paleolithic modern humans that is not observed in later modern human populations. Differences in the oral microbiomes of African hominids provide insights into human evolution, the ancestral state of the human microbiome, and a temporal framework for understanding microbial health and disease.
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25.
  • May, Sally K., et al. (författare)
  • New Insights into the Rock Art of Anbangbang Gallery, Kakadu National Park
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of field archaeology. - : Taylor & Francis Group. - 0093-4690 .- 2042-4582. ; 45:2, s. 120-134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents findings from a recent study of the Anbangbang Gallery in the Burrungkuy (Nourlangie) site complex of Kakadu National Park, Australia. Using new technologies alongside established methods for rock art documentation, we discuss the complexity and uniqueness of Anbangbang Gallery as an icon of Australian rock art. We have taken a comprehensive approach to our investigations, deliberately linking new technologies and scientific analysis with other archaeological and anthropological research methods. In particular, using evidence from a detailed site recording, oral histories, and pXRF analysis, we explore aspects of the site chronology, the nature of painting activity, and the retouching and repainting of earlier imagery. The findings force us to rethink the existing interpretative narrative for Anbangbang Gallery, the motivations behind previously held beliefs relating to recent rock art, and the implications this has had for ongoing conservation work in the region.
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26.
  • Pemberton, Hugh G., et al. (författare)
  • Quantification of amyloid PET for future clinical use : a state-of-the-art review
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - : Springer. - 1619-7070.
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology is one of the earliest detectable brain changes in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. The overall load and spatial distribution of brain Aβ can be determined in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET), for which three fluorine-18 labelled radiotracers have been approved for clinical use. In clinical practice, trained readers will categorise scans as either Aβ positive or negative, based on visual inspection. Diagnostic decisions are often based on these reads and patient selection for clinical trials is increasingly guided by amyloid status. However, tracer deposition in the grey matter as a function of amyloid load is an inherently continuous process, which is not sufficiently appreciated through binary cut-offs alone. State-of-the-art methods for amyloid PET quantification can generate tracer-independent measures of Aβ burden. Recent research has shown the ability of these quantitative measures to highlight pathological changes at the earliest stages of the AD continuum and generate more sensitive thresholds, as well as improving diagnostic confidence around established binary cut-offs. With the recent FDA approval of aducanumab and more candidate drugs on the horizon, early identification of amyloid burden using quantitative measures is critical for enrolling appropriate subjects to help establish the optimal window for therapeutic intervention and secondary prevention. In addition, quantitative amyloid measurements are used for treatment response monitoring in clinical trials. In clinical settings, large multi-centre studies have shown that amyloid PET results change both diagnosis and patient management and that quantification can accurately predict rates of cognitive decline. Whether these changes in management reflect an improvement in clinical outcomes is yet to be determined and further validation work is required to establish the utility of quantification for supporting treatment endpoint decisions. In this state-of-the-art review, several tools and measures available for amyloid PET quantification are summarised and discussed. Use of these methods is growing both clinically and in the research domain. Concurrently, there is a duty of care to the wider dementia community to increase visibility and understanding of these methods.
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  • Resultat 21-27 av 27
  • Föregående 12[3]

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