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Sökning: WFRF:(Drevon Christian A)

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  • Föregående 12[3]4Nästa
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21.
  • Rokling-Andersen, Merethe H, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of long-term exercise and diet intervention on plasma adipokine concentrations.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The American journal of clinical nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 86:5, s. 1293-301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In a randomized, controlled, 2 x 2 factorial trial on the effect of long-term changes in diet and exercise, a significant reduction in body weight and fat mass was observed. Alterations in leptin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations were previously reported from this study. OBJECTIVE: We examined the separate and combined effects of a 1-y exercise and diet intervention on several adipokines; adiponectin, interleukin-6 and -8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, hepatocyte growth factor, nerve growth factor, C-reactive protein, and resistin. DESIGN: One hundred eighty-eight men with several risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease were randomly allocated to 4 groups: diet, exercise, combined diet and exercise, and control. RESULTS: Plasma adiponectin concentrations remained unchanged, whereas body mass index and fat mass decreased after dietary changes and an increase in physical activity. In the control group, adiponectin concentrations were reduced. Analyzed according to the factorial design, only diet intervention had a significant (P = 0.03) positive effect on plasma adiponectin relative to control, and this effect was largely explained by changes in fat mass. After adjustment for change in percentage body fat, there were significant positive effects on tumor necrosis factor-alpha in all 3 intervention groups (P = 0.01 for the diet group, 0.03 for the exercise group, and 0.05 for the combined diet and exercise group). Minor changes were observed for the other adipokines. Neither baseline concentrations of nor changes in adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were significantly correlated to the other adipokines, whereas concentrations of and changes in the other adipokines were significantly correlated. CONCLUSION: Diet intervention had a significant positive effect on adiponectin concentrations, which is largely explained by a reduction in fat mass.
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22.
  • Shaw, Danielle I, et al. (författare)
  • LIPGENE food-exchange model for alteration of dietary fat quantity and quality in free-living participants from eight European countries
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition. - 0007-1145 .- 1475-2662. ; 101:5, s. 750-759
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Controlled human intervention trials are required to confirm the hypothesis that dietary fat quality may influence insulin action. The aim was to develop a food-exchange model, suitable for use in free-living volunteers, to investigate the effects of four experimental diets distinct in fat quantity and quality: high SFA (HSFA); high MUFA (HMUFA) and two low-fat (LF) diets, one supplemented with 1.24 g EPA and DHA/d (LFn-3). A theoretical food-exchange model was developed. The average quantity of exchangeable fat was calculated as the sum of fat provided by added fats (spreads and oils), milk, cheese, biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries using data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of UK adults. Most of the exchangeable fat was replaced by specifically designed study foods. Also critical to the model was the use of carbohydrate exchanges to ensure the diets were isoenergetic. Volunteers from eight centres across Europe completed the dietary intervention. Results indicated that compositional targets were largely achieved with significant differences in fat quantity between the high-fat diets (39.9 (sem 0.6) and 38.9 (sem 0.51) percentage energy (%E) from fat for the HSFA and HMUFA diets respectively) and the low-fat diets (29.6 (sem 0.6) and 29.1 (sem 0.5) %E from fat for the LF and LFn-3 diets respectively) and fat quality (17.5 (sem 0.3) and 10.4 (sem 0.2) %E from SFA and 12.7 (sem 0.3) and 18.7 (sem 0.4) %E MUFA for the HSFA and HMUFA diets respectively). In conclusion, a robust, flexible food-exchange model was developed and implemented successfully in the LIPGENE dietary intervention trial.
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23.
  • Walhovd, Kristine B., et al. (författare)
  • Education and Income Show Heterogeneous Relationships to Lifespan Brain and Cognitive Differences Across European and US Cohorts
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex. - : Oxford University Press. - 1047-3211 .- 1460-2199. ; 32:4, s. 839-854
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Higher socio-economic status (SES) has been proposed to have facilitating and protective effects on brain and cognition. We ask whether relationships between SES, brain volumes and cognitive ability differ across cohorts, by age and national origin. European and US cohorts covering the lifespan were studied (4-97 years, N = 500 000; 54 000 w/brain imaging). There was substantial heterogeneity across cohorts for all associations. Education was positively related to intracranial (ICV) and total gray matter (GM) volume. Income was related to ICV, but not GM. We did not observe reliable differences in associations as a function of age. SES was more strongly related to brain and cognition in US than European cohorts. Sample representativity varies, and this study cannot identify mechanisms underlying differences in associations across cohorts. Differences in neuroanatomical volumes partially explained SES-cognition relationships. SES was more strongly related to ICV than to GM, implying that SES-cognition relations in adulthood are less likely grounded in neuroprotective effects on GM volume in aging. The relatively stronger SES-ICV associations rather are compatible with SES-brain volume relationships being established early in life, as ICV stabilizes in childhood. The findings underscore that SES has no uniform association with, or impact on, brain and cognition.
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24.
  • Yubero-Serrano, Elena M, et al. (författare)
  • Insulin resistance determines a differential response to changes in dietary fat modification on metabolic syndrome risk factors : the LIPGENE study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 102:6, s. 1509-1517
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Previous data support the benefits of reducing dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on insulin resistance (IR) and other metabolic risk factors. However, whether the IR status of those suffering from metabolic syndrome (MetS) affects this response is not established.OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether the degree of IR influences the effect of substituting high-saturated fatty acid (HSFA) diets by isoenergetic alterations in the quality and quantity of dietary fat on MetS risk factors.DESIGN: In this single-blind, parallel, controlled, dietary intervention study, MetS subjects (n = 472) from 8 European countries classified by different IR levels according to homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were randomly assigned to 4 diets: an HSFA diet; a high-monounsaturated fatty acid (HMUFA) diet; a low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate (LFHCC) diet supplemented with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (1.2 g/d); or an LFHCC diet supplemented with placebo for 12 wk (control). Anthropometric, lipid, inflammatory, and IR markers were determined.RESULTS: Insulin-resistant MetS subjects with the highest HOMA-IR improved IR, with reduced insulin and HOMA-IR concentrations after consumption of the HMUFA and LFHCC n-3 diets (P < 0.05). In contrast, subjects with lower HOMA-IR showed reduced body mass index and waist circumference after consumption of the LFHCC control and LFHCC n-3 diets and increased HDL cholesterol concentrations after consumption of the HMUFA and HSFA diets (P < 0.05). MetS subjects with a low to medium HOMA-IR exhibited reduced blood pressure, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol levels after the LFHCC n-3 diet and increased apolipoprotein A-I concentrations after consumption of the HMUFA and HSFA diets (all P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Insulin-resistant MetS subjects with more metabolic complications responded differently to dietary fat modification, being more susceptible to a health effect from the substitution of SFAs in the HMUFA and LFHCC n-3 diets. Conversely, MetS subjects without IR may be more sensitive to the detrimental effects of HSFA intake. The metabolic phenotype of subjects clearly determines response to the quantity and quality of dietary fat on MetS risk factors, which suggests that targeted and personalized dietary therapies may be of value for its different metabolic features. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00429195.
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25.
  • Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M., et al. (författare)
  • Combining traditional dietary assessment methods with novel metabolomics techniques: Present efforts by the Food Biomarker Alliance
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. - 0029-6651 .- 1475-2719. ; 76:4, s. 619-627
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • FFQ, food diaries and 24 h recall methods represent the most commonly used dietary assessment tools in human studies on nutrition and health, but food intake biomarkers are assumed to provide a more objective reflection of intake. Unfortunately, very few of these biomarkers are sufficiently validated. This review provides an overview of food intake biomarker research and highlights present research efforts of the Joint Programming Initiative 'A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life' (JPI-HDHL) Food Biomarkers Alliance (FoodBAll). In order to identify novel food intake biomarkers, the focus is on new food metabolomics techniques that allow the quantification of up to thousands of metabolites simultaneously, which may be applied in intervention and observational studies. As biomarkers are often influenced by various other factors than the food under investigation, FoodBAll developed a food intake biomarker quality and validity score aiming to assist the systematic evaluation of novel biomarkers. Moreover, to evaluate the applicability of nutritional biomarkers, studies are presently also focusing on associations between food intake biomarkers and diet-related disease risk. In order to be successful in these metabolomics studies, knowledge about available electronic metabolomics resources is necessary and further developments of these resources are essential. Ultimately, present efforts in this research area aim to advance quality control of traditional dietary assessment methods, advance compliance evaluation in nutritional intervention studies, and increase the significance of observational studies by investigating associations between nutrition and health.
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26.
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27.
  • Fjell, Anders M., et al. (författare)
  • Self-reported sleep relates to hippocampal atrophy across the adult lifespan : results from the Lifebrain consortium
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Sleep. - : Oxford University Press. - 0161-8105 .- 1550-9109. ; 43:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Poor sleep is associated with multiple age-related neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric conditions. The hippocampus plays a special role in sleep and sleep-dependent cognition, and accelerated hippocampal atrophy is typically seen with higher age. Hence, it is critical to establish how the relationship between sleep and hippocampal volume loss unfolds across the adult lifespan.Methods: Self-reported sleep measures and MRI-derived hippocampal volumes were obtained from 3105 cognitively normal participants (18–90 years) from major European brain studies in the Lifebrain consortium. Hippocampal volume change was estimated from 5116 MRIs from 1299 participants for whom longitudinal MRIs were available, followed up to 11 years with a mean interval of 3.3 years. Cross-sectional analyses were repeated in a sample of 21,390 participants from the UK Biobank.Results: No cross-sectional sleep—hippocampal volume relationships were found. However, worse sleep quality, efficiency, problems, and daytime tiredness were related to greater hippocampal volume loss over time, with high scorers showing 0.22% greater annual loss than low scorers. The relationship between sleep and hippocampal atrophy did not vary across age. Simulations showed that the observed longitudinal effects were too small to be detected as age-interactions in the cross-sectional analyses.Conclusions: Worse self-reported sleep is associated with higher rates of hippocampal volume decline across the adult lifespan. This suggests that sleep is relevant to understand individual differences in hippocampal atrophy, but limited effect sizes call for cautious interpretation.
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28.
  • Friedman, Barbara Bodorkos, et al. (författare)
  • Are People Ready for Personalized Brain Health? Perspectives of Research Participants in the Lifebrain Consortium
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Gerontologist. - : Oxford University Press. - 0016-9013 .- 1758-5341. ; 60:6, s. E374-E383
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A healthy brain is central to physical and mental well-being. In this multi-site, qualitative study, we investigated views and attitudes of adult participants in brain research studies on the brain and personalized brain health as well as interest in maintaining a healthy brain.DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted individual interviews with 44 adult participants in brain research cohorts of the Lifebrain consortium in Spain, Norway, Germany, and the United Kingdom. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and coded using a cross-country codebook. The interview data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.RESULTS: Most participants did not focus on their own brain health and expressed uncertainty regarding how to maintain it. Those actively focusing on brain health often picked one specific strategy like diet or memory training. The participants were interested in taking brain health tests to learn about their individual risk of developing brain diseases, and were willing to take measures to maintain their brain health if personalized follow-up was provided and the measures had proven impact. The participants were interested in more information on brain health. No differences in responses were identified between age groups, sex, or countries.DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Concise, practical, personalized, and evidence-based information about the brain may promote brain health. Based on our findings, we have launched an ongoing global brain health survey to acquire more extensive, quantitative, and representative data on public perception of personalized brain health.
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29.
  • Gulseth, Hanne L., et al. (författare)
  • Dietary fat modifications and blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome in the LIPGENE dietary intervention study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition. - 0007-1145 .- 1475-2662. ; 104:2, s. 160-163
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hypertension is a key feature of the metabolic syndrome. Lifestyle and dietary changes may affect blood pressure (BP), but the knowledge of the effects of dietary fat modification in subjects with the metabolic syndrome is limited. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of an isoenergetic change in the quantity and quality of dietary fat on BP in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. In a 12-week European multi-centre, parallel, randomised controlled dietary intervention trial (LIPGENE), 486 subjects were assigned to one of the four diets distinct in fat quantity and quality: two high-fat diets rich in saturated fat or monounsaturated fat and two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets with or without 1.2 g/d of very long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation. There were no overall differences in systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP or pulse pressure (PP) between the dietary groups after the intervention. The high-fat diet rich in saturated fat had minor unfavourable effects on SBP and PP in males.
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30.
  • Jans, Anneke, et al. (författare)
  • Transcriptional Metabolic Inflexibility in Skeletal Muscle Among Individuals With Increasing Insulin Resistance
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Obesity. - 1930-7381 .- 1930-739X. ; 19:11, s. 2158-2166
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Disturbances in skeletal muscle lipid metabolism may play an important role in development of insulin resistance (IR). The aim was to investigate transcriptional control of skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) metabolism in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) with varying degrees of insulin sensitivity (S(I)). 122 individuals with MetS (NCEP-ATP III criteria) at age 35-70 years, BMI 27-38 kg/m(2) were studied (subgroup EU-LIPGENE study). Individuals were divided into quartiles of S(I) measured during a frequently sampled insulin modified intravenous glucose tolerance test. Skeletal muscle normalized mRNA expression levels of genes important in skeletal muscle FA handling were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR. The expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2), diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1), and nuclear respiration factor (NRF) was higher in the lowest two quartiles of S(I) (<50th) compared with the highest two quartiles of S(I) (>50th). Interestingly, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1 alpha), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha), and muscle carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1b (mCPT1), important for oxidative metabolism, showed a complex mRNA expression profile; levels were lower in both the most "insulin sensitive" (IS) as well as the most "IR" individuals. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA was reduced in the lowest quartile of S(I). Enhanced gene expression of SREBP1c and ACC2 in the IR state suggests a tendency towards FA storage rather than oxidation. From the lower expression of PGC1 alpha, PPAR alpha, and mCPT1 in both the most "IS" as well as the most "IR" individuals, it may be speculated that "IS" subjects do not need to upregulate these genes to have a normal FA oxidation, whereas the most "IR" individuals are inflexible in upregulating these genes.
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  • Föregående 12[3]4Nästa
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