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31.
  • Morris, William F., et al. (författare)
  • Biotic and anthropogenic forces rival climatic/abiotic factors in determining global plant population growth and fitness
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 117:2, s. 1107-1112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiple, simultaneous environmental changes, in climatic/abiotic factors, interacting species, and direct human influences, are impacting natural populations and thus biodiversity, ecosystem services, and evolutionary trajectories. Determining whether the magnitudes of the population impacts of abiotic, biotic, and anthropogenic drivers differ, accounting for their direct effects and effects mediated through other drivers, would allow us to better predict population fates and design mitigation strategies. We compiled 644 paired values of the population growth rate (A) from high and low levels of an identified driver from demographic studies of terrestrial plants. Among abiotic drivers, natural disturbance (not climate), and among biotic drivers, interactions with neighboring plants had the strongest effects on A. However, when drivers were combined into the 3 main types, their average effects on A did not differ. For the subset of studies that measured both the average and variability of the driver, A was marginally more sensitive to 1 SD of change in abiotic drivers relative to biotic drivers, but sensitivity to biotic drivers was still substantial. Similar impact magnitudes for abiotic/biotic/anthropogenic drivers hold for plants of different growth forms, for different latitudinal zones, and for biomes characterized by harsher or milder abiotic conditions, suggesting that all 3 drivers have equivalent impacts across a variety of contexts. Thus, the best available information about the integrated effects of drivers on all demographic rates provides no justification for ignoring drivers of any of these 3 types when projecting ecological and evolutionary responses of populations and of biodiversity to environmental changes.
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32.
  • Nicole, Florence, et al. (författare)
  • Interdependent effects of habitat quality and climate on population growth of an endangered plant
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Ecology. - 0022-0477 .- 1365-2745. ; 99:5, s. 1211-1218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. To predict the viability of populations, it is essential to clarify how performance depends both on large-scale environmental changes, such as climate warming, and on the local habitat. However, in spite of their potential importance, effects of interactions between large-scale environmental changes and the local environment on population viability have rarely been examined. 2. We investigated how population dynamics of the endangered alpine plant Dracocephalum austriacum depend on local habitat quality and climatic variation, as well as how effects of climate depend on local habitat. We used lasso regression shrinkage and integral projection models to identify effects on vital rates and population growth rates in seven populations over seven annual transitions. 3. Populations on steeper slopes had lower survival and stochastic population growth rate than populations on more gentle slopes. In years with low spring temperatures and high summer temperatures, survival and population growth rate were lower. In addition, the negative effects of high summer temperatures did depend on local habitat quality, being more negative in populations on steeper slopes. 4. Combining the net positive effects of high spring temperature and the net negative effects of high summer temperature on plant vital rates with predicted climate change over the next 30 years suggested that effects on D. austriacum would be relatively small. 5. Synthesis. Our results show that different aspects of a warmer climate may have opposing effects on populations, and that climatic effects may depend on local habitat quality. Such interactive effects should be accounted for when determining effects of large-scale environmental changes on population and community dynamics.
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33.
  • Römer, Gesa, et al. (författare)
  • Drivers of large-scale spatial demographic variation in a perennial plant
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Ecosphere. - 2150-8925 .- 2150-8925. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To understand how the environment drives spatial variation in population dynamics, we need to assess the effects of a large number of potential drivers on vital rates (survival, growth, and reproduction) and explore these relationships over large geographical areas and broad environmental gradients. In this study, we examined the effects of a wide variety of abiotic and biotic environmental factors on the demography of the forest understory herb Actaea spicata between 2017 and 2019 at 40 sites across Sweden, including the northern range margin of its distribution. We assessed the effects of potential environmental drivers on vital rates using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) and then quantified the impact of each important driver on population growth rate (λ) using integral projection models (IPMs). Population dynamics of A. spicata were mostly driven by environmental factors affecting survival and growth, such as air humidity, soil depth, and forest tree species composition, and thus, those drivers jointly determined the realized niche of the species. Soil pH had a strong effect on the flowering probability, while the effect on λ was relatively small. In addition to identifying specific drivers for A. spicata’s population dynamics, our study illustrates the impact that spatial variation in environmental conditions can have on λ. Assessing the effects of a broad range of potential drivers, as done in this study, is important not only to quantify the relative importance of different drivers for population dynamics but also to understand species distributions and abundance patterns.
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34.
  • Sherman, Danielle A., et al. (författare)
  • Sex and the cost of reproduction through the life course of an extremely long-lived herb
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Oecologia. - 0029-8549 .- 1432-1939. ; 191:2, s. 369-375
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite being central concepts for life history theory, little is known about how reproductive effort and costs vary with individual age once plants have started to reproduce. We conducted a 5-year field study and estimated age-dependent reproductive effort for both sexes in the extraordinarily long-lived dioecious plant Borderea pyrenaica. We also evaluated costs of reproduction on vital rates for male and female plants, both by examining effects of differences in individual reproductive effort under natural conditions, and by conducting a flower removal experiment, aimed at decreasing reproductive effort. Reproductive effort was fairly constant and independent of age for males, which may reflect a strategy of adjusting overall reproductive output by spreading reproduction over the life course. Females had a higher total effort, which first increased and then decreased with age. The latter may be a response to an increasing reproductive value-an inverse of a terminal investment-or a sign of reproductive senescence due to an age-related physiological decline. Seed production was lower in plants with higher previous reproductive effort and this effect increased with age. We found no evidence for costs of reproduction on other vital rates for either sex. Experimental flower removal only resulted in progressively more negative effects on flower production in older male plants, whereas female vital rates were unaffected. Overall, this study demonstrates that not only sex, but also age influences resource allocation trade-offs and, thus, plant life history evolution.
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35.
  • Sletvold, Nina, et al. (författare)
  • Climate warming alters effects of management on population viability of threatened species : results from a 30-year experimental study on a rare orchid
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 19:9, s. 2729-2738
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate change is expected to influence the viability of populations both directly and indirectly, via species interactions. The effects of large-scale climate change are also likely to interact with local habitat conditions. Management actions designed to preserve threatened species therefore need to adapt both to the prevailing climate and local conditions. Yet, few studies have separated the direct and indirect effects of climatic variables on the viability of local populations and discussed the implications for optimal management. We used 30years of demographic data to estimate the simultaneous effects of management practice and among-year variation in four climatic variables on individual survival, growth and fecundity in one coastal and one inland population of the perennial orchid Dactylorhiza lapponica in Norway. Current management, mowing, is expected to reduce competitive interactions. Statistical models of how climate and management practice influenced vital rates were incorporated into matrix population models to quantify effects on population growth rate. Effects of climate differed between mown and control plots in both populations. In particular, population growth rate increased more strongly with summer temperature in mown plots than in control plots. Population growth rate declined with spring temperature in the inland population, and with precipitation in the coastal population, and the decline was stronger in control plots in both populations. These results illustrate that both direct and indirect effects of climate change are important for population viability and that net effects depend both on local abiotic conditions and on biotic conditions in terms of management practice and intensity of competition. The results also show that effects of management practices influencing competitive interactions can strongly depend on climatic factors. We conclude that interactions between climate and management should be considered to reliably predict future population viability and optimize conservation actions.
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36.
  • van der Meer, Sascha, et al. (författare)
  • Differential effects of abandonment on the demography of the grassland perennial Succisa pratensis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Population Ecology. - 1438-3896 .- 1438-390X. ; 56:1, s. 151-160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abandonment of traditional land-use practices can have strong effects on the abundance of species occurring in agricultural landscapes. However, the precise mechanisms by which individual performance and population dynamics are affected are still poorly understood. To assess how abandonment affects population dynamics of Succisa pratensis we used data from a 4-year field study in both abandoned and traditionally grazed areas in moist and mesic habitats to parameterize integral projection models. Abandoned populations had a lower long-term stochastic population growth rate (lambda (S) = 0.90) than traditionally managed populations (lambda (S) = 1.08), while lambda (S) did not differ between habitat types. The effect of abandonment differed significantly between years and had opposed effects on different vital rates. Individuals in abandoned populations experienced higher mortality rates and lower seedling establishment, but had higher growth rates and produced more flower heads per plant. Population viability analyses, based on a population survey of the whole study area in combination with our demographic models, showed that 32 % of the populations face a high risk of extinction (> 80 %) within 20 years. These results suggest that immediate changes in management are needed to avoid extinctions and further declines in population sizes. Stochastic elasticity analyses and stochastic life table response experiments indicated that management strategies would be most effective if they increase survival of small plants as well as seedling establishment, while maintaining a high seed production. This may be achieved by varying the grazing intensity between years or excluding grazers when plants are flowering.
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37.
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38.
  • Andersson, Petter, et al. (författare)
  • Plant patch structure influences plant fitness via antagonistic and mutualistic interactions but in different directions
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Oecologia. - 0029-8549 .- 1432-1939. ; 180:4, s. 1175-1182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plant patch structure and environmental context can influence the outcome of antagonistic and mutualistic plant-insect interactions, leading to spatially variable fitness effects for plants. We investigated the effects of herbivory and pollen limitation on plant reproductive performance in 28 patches of the self-compatible perennial herb Scrophularia nodosa and assessed how such effects varied with plant patch size, plant density and tree cover. Both antagonistic and mutualistic interactions had strong effects on plant reproductive performance. Leaf feeding from herbivores reduced both fruit production and seed germination, and leaf herbivory increased with plant patch size. Experimentally hand-pollinated flowers produced more seeds than open-pollinated flowers, and pollen limitation was more severe in patches with fewer plants. Our study on S. nodosa is one of few which documents that plant patch structure influences the outcome of both antagonistic and mutualistic plant-insect interactions. The results thus provide an example of how variation in plant patch structure and environmental factors can lead to spatially variable fitness effects from mutualistic and antagonistic interactions.
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39.
  • Andersson, Petter, 1975- (författare)
  • The importance of search behavior and movements for spatial distributions of herbivorous insects
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Insect populations commonly show large spatial variation in density, and much variation have been shown to be explained by the search behavior applied by the insect when locating habitat patches. This thesis explores the importance of odor-mediated attraction for immigration rates of herbivorous insects in relation to the size of the patches and the density of host plants within the patches. By using electroantennogram and measuring moth antennal responses to sex pheromones and thereby estimating the relative odor-mediated attraction from odor patches in field experiments (Paper I, III), I show that the length of the odor plumes emanating from the patches increase proportional with the square-root of the number of odor sources. In laboratory and field experiments (with the weevils Cionus scrophulariae and C. tuberculosus and the host plant figwort Scrophularia nodosa; Paper II) and meta-analyses on multiple insect herbivores (Paper III), I examined whether the relative increase in plume length could also predict the immigration rates of olfactory searching insects in relation to patches with increasing area and increasing density of host plants. The experiments (Paper II) and meta-analyses (Paper III) showed that the observed immigration rates of olfactory searching insects was well predicted by the relative increase in plume length, as estimated from the electroantennogram measurements (Paper I, III). The importance of immigration rates, relative to the effect of emigration and local growth was also investigated for the Cionus weevils in natural S. nodosa patches (Paper IV). This study showed that the density-patch size relationships of the weevils during early season were predicted by the net scaling of emigration and immigration rates, and differences in density-patch size relationships between the two species could be explained by inter-specific differences in their emigration rates from small patches. In conclusion, this thesis shows that search behavior can be used to predict immigration rates and spatial distributions of insects, with implications for pest control, conservation ecology and general ecological theory.
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40.
  • Arnell, Matilda, 1987- (författare)
  • Distribution patterns of fleshy-fruited woody plants at local and regional scales
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Fleshy-fruited woody plants share a long history with humans, providing us with food and wood material. Because of this relation, we have actively moved some of these plants across landscapes and continents. In Sweden, these species are often found in open and semi-open habitats such as forest edges, their fruits are most often dispersed by birds and their flowers are, with some exceptions, pollinated by insects.  In this thesis my overall aim was to map and analyse distribution patterns of fleshy-fruited woody plants in Sweden to expand our knowledge on the mechanisms governing their distributions. First, I mapped a population of the early flowering, fleshy-fruited shrub Daphne mezereum (common mezeron, tibast) and surveyed the reproduction and fruit removal of all individuals (chapter I). My main aim was to investigate to what extent reproduction and fruit removal was affected by local distribution patterns. Secondly, I mapped local distribution patterns of fleshy-fruited woody species and analysed spatial associations between life stages and species (chapter II). My main aim was to relate these spatial associations to predictions of how bird dispersal would shape the local distribution patterns and the hypothesis that birds create ‘wild orchards’. Thirdly, I digitized historical maps and surveyed fleshy-fruited woody species along transects across landscapes (chapter III). My aim was to examine the hypothesis that these species accumulate in open and semi open habitats created by human land use. Fourthly, I estimated range filling of woody plants in Sweden at a 1 km2 resolution (chapter IV). My aim was to compare these estimates among species with different dispersal systems to understand the effect of dispersal on the occupancy of woody species at regional scales.I found the distribution patterns of these species to be affected by past and present land use, supporting the hypothesis that these plants accumulate in open habitats. Occurrences of species in this guild in todays’ forest are positively related to past human land use (chapter III) and the density of D. mezereum increases with decreasing distances to forest edges (chapter I). This accumulation may in part be explained by the positive effect of forest edges on reproduction and fruit removal (chapter I). I further found local distribution patterns of this guild and the individual species to be aggregated (chapter I and II), and spatial associations between saplings and reproductive individuals to support the ‘orchard’ hypothesis (chapter II). The aggregated pattern of fruit-bearing individuals was positively related to fruit removal whereas aggregated flowering individuals was negatively related to fruit set (chapter I). On the regional scale, I found these species to occupy climatically suitable areas, or fill their potential ranges, to a less extent that wind dispersed trees and shrubs (chapter IV), which may indicate dispersal limitation.In conclusion, the behaviour of birds and humans have shaped, and still shape the current distribution of fleshy-fruited trees and shrubs in Sweden, resulting in accumulation in open habitats and locally aggregated distribution patterns. Changing land-use practices and potential mismatches between fruit maturation and bird dispersal with a changing climate may thus result in even lower chances of these species to fill their potential ranges, due to habitat losses and dispersal limitations at local and regional scales.  
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