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Sökning: WFRF:(Ehrlén Johan) > (2015-2019) > (2015)

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1.
  • Ehrlén, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Flowering schedule in a perennial plant; life-history trade-offs, seed predation, and total offspring fitness
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Ecology. - 0012-9658 .- 1939-9170. ; 96:8, s. 2280-2288
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Optimal timing of reproduction within a season may be influenced by several abiotic and biotic factors. These factors sometimes affect different components of fitness, making assessments of net selection difficult. We used estimates of offspring fitness to examine how pre-dispersal seed predation influences selection on flowering schedule in an herb with a bimodal flowering pattern, Actaea spicata. Within individuals, seeds from flowers on early terminal inflorescences had a higher germination rate and produced larger seedlings than seeds from flowers on late basal inflorescences. Reproductive value, estimated using demographic integral projection models and accounting for size-dependent differences in future performance, was two times higher for intact seeds from early flowers than for seeds from late flowers. Fruits from late flowers were, however, much more likely to escape seed predation than fruits from early flowers. Reproductive values of early and late flowers balanced at a predation intensity of 63%. Across 15 natural populations, the strength of selection for allocation to late flowers was positively correlated with mean seed predation intensity. Our results suggest that the optimal shape of the flowering schedule, in terms of the allocation between early and late flowers, is determined by the trade-off between offspring number and quality, and that variation in antagonistic interactions among populations influences the balancing of this trade-off. At the same time they illustrate that phenotypic selection analyses that fail to account for differences in offspring fitness might be misleading.
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2.
  • Bisang, Irene, et al. (författare)
  • No evidence of sexual niche partitioning in a dioecious moss with raresexual reproduction
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Annals of Botany. - 0305-7364 .- 1095-8290.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Aims. Roughly half of the species of bryophytes have separate sexes (dioecious) and half are hermaphroditic (monoecious). This variation has major consequences for the ecology and evolution of the different species. In some sexually reproducing dioecious bryophytes, sex ratio has been shown to vary with environmental conditions. This study focuses on the dioecious wetland moss Drepanocladus trifarius, which rarely produces sexual branches or sporophytes and lacks apparent secondary sex characteristics, and examines whether genetic sexes exhibit different habitat preferences, i.e. whether sexual niche partitioning occurs.Methods. A total of 277 shoots of D. trifarius were randomly sampled at 214 locations and 12 environmental factors were quantified at each site. Sex was assigned to the individual shoots collected in the natural environments, regardless of their reproductive status, using a specifically designed molecular marker associated with female sex.Key Results. Male and female shoots did not differ in shoot biomass, the sexes were randomly distributed with respect to each other, and environmental conditions at male and female sampling locations did not differ. Collectively, this demonstrates a lack of sexual niche segregation. Adult genetic sex ratio was female-biased, with 28 females for every male individual.Conclusions. The results show that although the sexes of D. trifarius did not differ with regard to annual growth, spatial distribution or habitat requirements, the genetic sex ratio as nevertheless significantly female-biased. This supports the notion that factors other than sex-related differences in reproductive costs and sexual dimorphism can also drive the evolution of biased sex ratios in plants
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3.
  • Ehrlén, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Predicting changes in the distribution and abundance of species under environmental change
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Ecology Letters. - 1461-023X .- 1461-0248. ; 18:3, s. 303-314
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Environmental changes are expected to alter both the distribution and the abundance of organisms. A disproportionate amount of past work has focused on distribution only, either documenting historical range shifts or predicting future occurrence patterns. However, simultaneous predictions of abundance and distribution across landscapes would be far more useful. To critically assess which approaches represent advances towards the goal of joint predictions of abundance and distribution, we review recent work on changing distributions and on effects of environmental drivers on single populations. Several methods have been used to predict changing distributions. Some of these can be easily modified to also predict abundance, but others cannot. In parallel, demographers have developed a much better understanding of how changing abiotic and biotic drivers will influence growth rate and abundance in single populations. However, this demographic work has rarely taken a landscape perspective and has largely ignored the effects of intraspecific density. We advocate a synthetic approach in which population models accounting for both density dependence and effects of environmental drivers are used to make integrated predictions of equilibrium abundance and distribution across entire landscapes. Such predictions would constitute an important step forward in assessing the ecological consequences of environmental changes.
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4.
  • Ehrlén, Johan (författare)
  • Selection on flowering time in a life-cycle context
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Oikos. - 0030-1299 .- 1600-0706. ; 124:1, s. 92-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The main way in which plants can exert control over their local environment is by the timing of different events within their life cycles. Regarding timing of flowering as an integrated part of both the annual cycle and of the whole life cycle, rather than as an isolated event, has important implications for how we assess selection on timing of reproduction and interpret existing phenological patterns in perennial plants. I argue that: 1) we have little unequivocal evidence of pollinator-mediated selection on flowering time, but perhaps more evidence of antagonist-mediated selection; 2) much of selection on flowering time might occur before flowers have developed and after reproduction; 3) vital rates of non-flowering individuals can influence the strength and direction of selection on flowering time, and 4) differences in the direction of selection on flowering date between years might well correspond to consistent selection on the mechanisms determining flowering time. Overall, a life cycle perspective on timing of flowering is likely to facilitate the identification of selective agents and the understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying spatial and temporal variation in selection as well as to enable more accurate predictions of responses to environmental change.
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5.
  • Elmhagen, Bodil, et al. (författare)
  • Interacting effects of change in climate, human population, land use, and water use on biodiversity and ecosystem services
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Ecology & Society. - 1708-3087. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human population growth and resource use, mediated by changes in climate, land use, and water use, increasingly impact biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. However, impacts of these drivers on biodiversity and ecosystem services are rarely analyzed simultaneously and remain largely unknown. An emerging question is how science can improve the understanding of change in biodiversity and ecosystem service delivery and of potential feedback mechanisms of adaptive governance. We analyzed past and future change in drivers in south-central Sweden. We used the analysis to identify main research challenges and outline important research tasks. Since the 19th century, our study area has experienced substantial and interlinked changes; a 1.6 degrees C temperature increase, rapid population growth, urbanization, and massive changes in land use and water use. Considerable future changes are also projected until the mid-21st century. However, little is known about the impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services so far, and this in turn hampers future projections of such effects. Therefore, we urge scientists to explore interdisciplinary approaches designed to investigate change in multiple drivers, underlying mechanisms, and interactions over time, including assessment and analysis of matching-scale data from several disciplines. Such a perspective is needed for science to contribute to adaptive governance by constantly improving the understanding of linked change complexities and their impacts.
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6.
  • Hylander, Kristoffer, et al. (författare)
  • Microrefugia : Not for everyone
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Ambio. - 0044-7447 .- 1654-7209. ; 44, s. s60-S68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microrefugia are sites that support populations of species when their ranges contract during unfavorable climate episodes. Here, we review and discuss two aspects relevant for microrefugia. First, distributions of different species are influenced by different climatic variables. Second, climatic variables differ in the degree of local decoupling from the regional climate. Based on this, we suggest that only species limited by climatic conditions decoupled from the regional climate can benefit from microrefugia. We argue that this restriction has received little attention in spite of its importance for microrefugia as a mechanism for species resilience (the survival of unfavorable episodes and subsequent range expansion). Presence of microrefugia will depend on both the responses of individual species to local climatic variation and how climate-forcing factors shape the correlation between local and regional climate across space and time.
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7.
  • König, Malin A. E., et al. (författare)
  • Timing of flowering and intensity of attack by a butterfly herbivore in a polyploid herb
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution. - 2045-7758 .- 2045-7758. ; 5:9, s. 1863-1872
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Timing of plant development both determines the abiotic conditions that the plant experiences and strongly influences the intensity of interactions with other organisms. Plants and herbivores differ in their response to environmental cues, and spatial and temporal variation in environmental conditions might influence the synchrony between host plants and herbivores, and the intensity of their interactions. We investigated whether differences in first day of flowering among and within 21 populations of the polyploid herb Cardamine pratensis influenced the frequency of oviposition by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines during four study years. The proportion of plants that became oviposited upon differed among populations, but these differences were not related to mean flowering phenology within the population in any of the four study years. Attack rates in the field were also not correlated with resistance to oviposition estimated under controlled conditions. Within populations, the frequency of butterfly attack was higher in early-flowering individuals in two of the four study years, while there was no significant relationship in the other 2years. Larger plants were more likely to become oviposited upon in all 4years. The effects of first flowering day and size on the frequency of butterfly attack did not differ among populations. The results suggest that differences in attack intensities among populations are driven mainly by differences in the environmental context of populations while mean differences in plant traits play a minor role. The fact that within populations timing of flowering influenced the frequency of herbivore attack only in some years and suggests that herbivore-mediated selection on plant phenology differs among years, possibly because plants and herbivores respond differently to environmental cues.
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8.
  • Navarro-Cano, Jose A., et al. (författare)
  • Climate change, phenology, and butterfly host plant utilization
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Ambio. - 0044-7447 .- 1654-7209. ; 44:S!, s. S78-S88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Knowledge of how species interactions are influenced by climate warming is paramount to understand current biodiversity changes. We review phenological changes of Swedish butterflies during the latest decades and explore potential climate effects on butterfly-host plant interactions using the Orange tip butterfly Anthocharis cardamines and its host plants as a model system. This butterfly has advanced its appearance dates substantially, and its mean flight date shows a positive correlation with latitude. We show that there is a large latitudinal variation in host use and that butterfly populations select plant individuals based on their flowering phenology. We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist. This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants. However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.
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9.
  • Posledovich, Diana, 1984- (författare)
  • Effects of climate on phenological synchrony between butterflies and their host plants
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Shifts in species’ phenologies and phenological asynchronies between the interacting organisms have received a lot of attention in the context of climate change. Changes in temporal overlap between species, caused by phenological asynchrony, make species depending on one another become so separated in time that they can no longer interact. This may have important consequences both for single species, like fluctuations in abundances, and for the functioning of whole communities by creating mismatches between trophic levels and rearrangements of community structure. This thesis focuses on the impact of temperatures on spring timing and phenological synchrony in a herbivorous insect – host plant system, consisting of the orange tipbutterfly Anthocharis cardamines and five of its Brassicaceae host plant species. Paper I demonstrates that diapause duration and winter thermal conditions can determine the timing of spring emergence in the herbivore, and these traits may differ between species with different feeding strategies. In paper II we show that thermal reaction norms of post-winterdevelopment of A. cardamines display cogradient latitudinal variation.Paper III shows that temperature-mediated phenological plasticity of A. cardamines butterflies and a majority of the most used host plant species is similar within populations originating from different latitudes. Thus, the species’ timing appeared well conserved in response to thermal variation. In paper IV we explored the importance of the butterfly’s adult emergence and thermal conditions on the succeeding part of the butterfly’s life-cycle – larval development. The outcome from the interaction was examined for both the insect and the plant side. The degree in phenological overlap between the female butterflies and host plants as well as temperatures during larval development were found to influence larval development but had no effect on plant reproductive fitness. The four papers of the presented thesis demonstrate that developmental preadaptations, evolvedin a herbivore to maintain phenological synchrony with host plants across yearly variation of spring conditions, can prevent disruption of the interaction under a wide range of temperatures. This indicates that temporary constrained interactions are not always vulnerable to decoupling, particularly if they involve generalist strategy.
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10.
  • Posledovich, Diana, et al. (författare)
  • Latitudinal variation in diapause duration and post-winter development in two pierid butterflies in relation to phenological specialization
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Oecologia. - 0029-8549 .- 1432-1939. ; 177:1, s. 181-190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diapause plays a central role in insect life cycles by allowing survival during adverse seasonal conditions as well as synchronizing life cycles with the period of mate and food availability. Seasonal timing is expected to be particularly important for species that are dependent on resources available during a short time window-so-called phenological specialists-and latitudinal clines in seasonality are expected to favor local adaptation in phenological timing. However, to what degree latitudinal variation in diapause dynamics and post-winter development due to such local adaptation is influenced by the degree of phenological specialization is not well known. We experimentally studied two pierid butterfly species and found that the phenological specialist Anthocharis cardamines had shorter diapause duration than the phenological generalist Pieris napi along a latitudinal gradient in Sweden. Moreover, diapause duration increased with latitude in P. napi but not in A. cardamines. Sensitivity of the two species to winter thermal conditions also differed; additional cold temperature during the winter period shortened diapause duration for P. napi pupae but not for A. cardamines pupae. In both species, post-winter pupal development was faster after longer periods of cold conditions, and more southern populations developed faster than northern populations. Post-winter development was also invariably faster at higher temperatures in both species. We argue that the observed differences in diapause dynamics between the two species might be explained by the difference in phenological specialization that influences the costs of breaking diapause too early in the season.
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