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  • Ong, Ken K., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation in LIN28B is associated with the timing of puberty
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 41:6, s. 729-733
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The timing of puberty is highly variable(1). We carried out a genome-wide association study for age at menarche in 4,714 women and report an association in LIN28B on chromosome 6 (rs314276, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.33, P = 1.5 x 10(-8)). In independent replication studies in 16,373 women, each major allele was associated with 0.12 years earlier menarche (95% CI = 0.08-0.16; P = 2.8 x 10(-10); combined P = 3.6 x 10(-16)). This allele was also associated with earlier breast development in girls (P = 0.001; N = 4,271); earlier voice breaking (P = 0.006, N = 1,026) and more advanced pubic hair development in boys (P = 0.01; N = 4,588); a faster tempo of height growth in girls (P = 0.00008; N = 4,271) and boys (P = 0.03; N = 4,588); and shorter adult height in women (P = 3.6 x 10(-7); N = 17,274) and men (P = 0.006; N = 9,840) in keeping with earlier growth cessation. These studies identify variation in LIN28B, a potent and specific regulator of microRNA processing(2), as the first genetic determinant regulating the timing of human pubertal growth and development.
  • Pickering, John W., et al. (författare)
  • Rapid Rule-out of Acute Myocardial Infarction With a Single High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T Measurement Below the Limit of Detection A Collaborative Meta-analysis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Annals of Internal Medicine. - 0003-4819 .- 1539-3704. ; 166:10, s. 715-724
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: High-sensitivity assays for cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) are sometimes used to rapidly rule out acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Purpose: To estimate the ability of a single hs-cTnT concentration below the limit of detection (<0.005 mu g/L) and a nonischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) to rule out AMI in adults presenting to the emergency department (ED) with chest pain. Data Sources: EMBASE and MEDLINE without language restrictions (1 January 2008 to 14 December 2016). Study Selection: Cohort studies involving adults presenting to the ED with possible acute coronary syndrome in whom an ECG and hs-cTnT measurements were obtained and AMI outcomes adjudicated during initial hospitalization. Data Extraction: Investigators of studies provided data on the number of low-risk patients (no new ischemia on ECG and hs-cTnT measurements <0.005 mu g/L) and the number who had AMI during hospitalization (primary outcome) or a major adverse cardiac event (MACE) or death within 30 days (secondary outcomes), by risk classification (low or not low risk). Two independent epidemiologists rated risk of bias of studies. Data Synthesis: Of 9241 patients in 11 cohort studies, 2825 (30.6%) were classified as low risk. Fourteen (0.5%) low-risk patients had AMI. Sensitivity of the risk classification for AMI ranged from 87.5% to 100% in individual studies. Pooled estimated sensitivity was 98.7% (95% CI, 96.6% to 99.5%). Sensitivity for 30-day MACEs ranged from 87.9% to 100%; pooled sensitivity was 98.0% (CI, 94.7% to 99.3%). No low-risk patients died. Limitation: Few studies, variation in timing and methods of reference standard troponin tests, and heterogeneity of risk and prevalence of AMI across studies. Conclusion: A single hs-cTnT concentration below the limit of detection in combination with a nonischemic ECG may successfully rule out AMI in patients presenting to EDs with possible emergency acute coronary syndrome.
  • Smith, P B, et al. (författare)
  • Cultural values, sources of guidance, and their relevance to managerial behavior - A 47-nation study
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. - : Sage Publications. - 0022-0221 .- 1552-5422. ; 33:2, s. 188-208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Data are presented showing how middle managers in 47 countries report handling eight specific work events. The data are used to test the ability of cultural value dimensions derived from the work of Hofstede. Trompenaars, and Schwartz to predict the specific sources of guidance on which managers rely. Focusing on sources of guidance is expected to provide a more precise basis than do generalized measures of values for understanding the behaviors that prevail within different cultures. Values are strongly predictive of reliance on those sources of guidance that are relevant to vertical relationships within organizations. Hock ever, values are less successful in predicting reliance on peers and on more tacit sources of guidance. Explaining national differences in these neglected aspects of organizational processes will require greater sensitivity to the culture-specific contexts within which they occur.
  • Wientzek, Angelika, et al. (författare)
  • Cross-Sectional Associations of Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Anthropometry in European Adults
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Obesity. - : Wiley. - 1930-7381 .- 1930-739X. ; 22:5, s. E127-E134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To quantify the independent associations between objectively measured physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and anthropometry in European men and women. Methods: 2,056 volunteers from 12 centers across Europe were fitted with a heart rate and movement sensor at 2 visits 4 months apart for a total of 8 days. CRF (ml/kg/min) was estimated from an 8 minute ramped step test. A cross-sectional analysis of the independent associations between objectively measured PA (m/s(2)/d), moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (% time/d), sedentary time (% time/d), CRF, and anthropometry using sex stratified multiple linear regression was performed. Results: In mutually adjusted models, CRF, PA, and MVPA were inversely associated with all anthropometric markers in women. In men, CRF, PA, and MVPA were inversely associated with BMI, whereas only CRF was significantly associated with the other anthropometric markers. Sedentary time was positively associated with all anthropometric markers, however, after adjustment for CRF significant in women only. Conclusion: CRF, PA, MVPA, and sedentary time are differently associated with anthropometric markers in men and women. CRF appears to attenuate associations between PA, MVPA, and sedentary time. These observations may have implications for prevention of obesity.
  • Bellas, Juan, et al. (författare)
  • Monitoring of organic compounds and trace metals during a dredging episode in the Gota Alv Estuary (SW Sweden) using caged mussels
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Water Air and Soil Pollution. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0049-6979 .- 1573-2932. ; 181:1-4, s. 265-279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The concentrations of selected trace metals, organotins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in caged blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) during dredging operations in the Gota Alv Estuary (SW Sweden). Maximum values of pollutants in mussel tissues were found after the dredging started. Our results showed that the dredging caused mobilization of organotins from the sediments to the water column during the experimental period. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and cluster analysis were applied to compare and establish relationships between levels of pollutants in mussels and sampling sites during the experimental period. In order to evaluate the biological effects of contaminants, genotoxic damage was measured using the Comet assay, and its potential application for environmental monitoring is discussed.
  • Brooke, Hannah L, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in time-segment specific physical activity between ages 10 and 14 years : A longitudinal observational study.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. - : Elsevier BV. - 1440-2440 .- 1878-1861. ; 19:1, s. 29-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Describe (1) time-segment specific changes in physical activity (PA) into adolescence, (2) differences in change in PA between specific time-segments (weekdays-weekends, in-school-out-of-school, out-of-school-weekends, lesson-time-lunch-time), and (3) associations of change in time-segment specific with overall PA.DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study (4-year follow-up).METHODS: Children from the SPEEDY study (n=769, 42% boys) had PA measured by accelerometer for at least three days at ages 10.2±0.3, 11.2±0.3 and 14.3±0.3years. Changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA (ΔMVPA, minutes ≥2000counts/minute [cpm]) and total PA (ΔTPA, average cpm) during weekdays, weekends, in-school, out-of-school, lesson-times and lunch-times, were tested using three level (age, individual, school) mixed-effects linear regression. Differences in ΔMVPA/ΔTPA between time-segments were tested using time-segment×age interaction terms. Associations of four-year time-segment specific ΔMVPA/ΔTPA with four-year overall ΔMVPA/ΔTPA were tested using two level (time-segment specific ΔMVPA/ΔTPA, school) mixed-effects linear regression.RESULTS: MVPA and TPA declined in all time-segments, except lesson-time MVPA. Annual ΔMVPA and, for boys only, ΔTPA was greater on weekends than weekdays (beta±SE for interaction term: boys, -3.53±0.83min, -29.64±7.64cpm; girls, -2.20±0.64min) and out-of-school (boys, -4.36±0.79min, -19.36±8.46cpm; girls, -2.44±0.63min). ΔMVPA and ΔTPA during lunch-time was greater than during lesson-time (boys, -0.96±0.20min, -36.43±6.55cpm; girls, -0.90±0.13min, -38.72±4.40cpm). ΔTPA was greater out-of-school than in-school (boys, -19.89±6.71cpm; girls, -18.46±6.51cpm). For all time-segments, four-year ΔMVPA/ΔTPA was positively associated with four-year overall ΔMVPA/ΔTPA (all p<0.042), except for girl's in-school and lunch-time TPA.CONCLUSIONS: Interventions focused on PA maintenance could target all time-segments, but weekends and out-of-school may be particularly advantageous due to the relatively large declines observed.
  • Brooke, Hannah L, et al. (författare)
  • More of the same or a change of scenery : an observational study of variety and frequency of physical activity in British children.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1471-2458. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Physical activity is important for children's health, but successful physical activity promotion is challenging. Whether performing many different types of activities (Variety) is associated with higher physical activity independent of the number of activity sessions (Frequency) is unknown, but this information could inform physical activity promotion and public health strategies in children.METHODS: In the SPEEDY study we measured moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA; ≥2000 counts/minute) over 7 days using GT1M Actigraph accelerometers in 1700 children from Norfolk, UK (56% girls, Mean ± SD 10.3 ± 0.3 years-old). Children reported participation in 28 leisure-time activities over the previous 7 days. Sex differences in activity participation were assessed using multilevel logistic regression, clustered by school. Associations of log-transformed MVPA with z-score-Variety (number of different activities/week) and z-score-Frequency (sum of all activity sessions/week) were examined using multilevel linear regression, adjusted for age, sex, parental education and age-standardised BMI.RESULTS: Children's activity participation often reflected gender stereotypes. Mean ± SD Variety was 10.8 ± 5.0 activities/week, and Frequency was 24.2±15.0 sessions/week. In separate models lnMVPA had similar strength, positive associations with z-score-Variety and z-score-Frequency (Exp β(95% CI); Variety 1.04(1.02-1.06), Frequency 1.04(1.02-1.06)). lnMVPA was not associated with z-score-Variety independent of z-score-Frequency (Variety 1.01(0.98-1.04), Frequency 1.03(1.00-1.06)).CONCLUSIONS: Future physical activity interventions and public health strategies could allow for gender specific activity preferences and could target both Variety and Frequency of activities participated in by children.
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