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181.
  • Wittke, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Genotype–Phenotype Relations for the Atypical Parkinsonism Genes : MDSGene Systematic Review
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0885-3185. ; 36:7, s. 1499-1510
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This Movement Disorder Society Genetic mutation database Systematic Review focuses on monogenic atypical parkinsonism with mutations in the ATP13A2, DCTN1, DNAJC6, FBXO7, SYNJ1, and VPS13C genes. We screened 673 citations and extracted genotypic and phenotypic data for 140 patients (73 families) from 77 publications. In an exploratory fashion, we applied an automated classification procedure via an ensemble of bootstrap-aggregated (“bagged”) decision trees to distinguish these 6 forms of monogenic atypical parkinsonism and found a high accuracy of 86.5% (95%CI, 86.3%–86.7%) based on the following 10 clinical variables: age at onset, spasticity and pyramidal signs, hypoventilation, decreased body weight, minimyoclonus, vertical gaze palsy, autonomic symptoms, other nonmotor symptoms, levodopa response quantification, and cognitive decline. Comparing monogenic atypical with monogenic typical parkinsonism using 2063 data sets from Movement Disorder Society Genetic mutation database on patients with SNCA, LRRK2, VPS35, Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1 mutations, the age at onset was earlier in monogenic atypical parkinsonism (24 vs 40 years; P = 1.2647 × 10−12) and levodopa response less favorable than in patients with monogenic typical presentations (49% vs 93%). In addition, we compared monogenic to nonmonogenic atypical parkinsonism using data from 362 patients with progressive supranuclear gaze palsy, corticobasal degeneration, multiple system atrophy, or frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Although these conditions share many clinical features with the monogenic atypical forms, they can typically be distinguished based on their later median age at onset (64 years; IQR, 57–70 years). In conclusion, age at onset, presence of specific signs, and degree of levodopa response inform differential diagnostic considerations and genetic testing indications in atypical forms of parkinsonism.
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182.
  • Ygland, Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Slowly progressive dementia caused by MAPT R406W mutations : longitudinal report on a new kindred and systematic review
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy. - : BioMed Central. - 1758-9193. ; 10
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The MAPT c.1216C > T (p.Arg406Trp; R406W) mutation is a known cause of frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 tau with Alzheimer's disease-like clinical features. Methods: We compiled clinical data from a new Swedish kindred with R406W mutation. Seven family members were followed longitudinally for up to 22 years. Radiological examinations were performed in six family members and neuropathological examinations in three. We systematically reviewed the literature and compiled clinical, radiological, and neuropathological data on 63 previously described R406W heterozygotes and 3 homozygotes. Results: For all cases combined, the median age of onset was 56 years and the median disease duration was 13 years. Memory impairment was the most frequent symptom, behavioral disturbance and language impairment were less common, and Parkinsonism was rare. Disease progression was most often slow. The most frequent clinical diagnosis was Alzheimer's disease. R406W homozygotes had an earlier age at onset and a higher frequency of behavioral symptoms and Parkinsonism than heterozygotes. In the new Swedish kindred, a consistent imaging finding was ventromedial temporal lobe atrophy, which was evident also in early disease stages as a widening of the collateral sulcus with ensuing atrophy of the parahippocampal gyrus. Unlike previously published R406W carriers, all three autopsied patients from the novel family showed neuropathological similarities with progressive supranuclear palsy, with predominant four-repeat (exon 10+) tau isoform (4R) tauopathy and neurofibrillary tangles accentuated in the basal-medial temporal lobe. Amyloid-beta pathology was absent. Conclusions: Dominance of 4R over three-repeat (exon 10-) tau isoforms contrasts with earlier reports of R406W patients and was not sufficiently explained by the presence of H1/H2 haplotypes in two of the autopsied patients. R406W patients often show a long course of disease with marked memory deficits. Both our neuropathological results and our imaging findings revealed that the ventromedial temporal lobes were extensively affected in the disease. We suggest that this area may represent the point of origin of tau deposition in this disease with relatively isolated tauopathy.
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