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  • Clayton, Emma L., et al. (författare)
  • Early microgliosis precedes neuronal loss and behavioural impairment in mice with a frontotemporal dementia-causing CHMP2B mutation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906. ; 26:5, s. 873-887
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Frontotemporal dementia (FTD)-causing mutations in the CHMP2B gene lead to the generation of mutant C-terminally truncated CHMP2B. We report that transgenic mice expressing endogenous levels of mutant CHMP2B developed late-onset brain volume loss associated with frank neuronal loss and FTD-like changes in social behaviour. These data are the first to show neurodegeneration in mice expressing mutant CHMP2B and indicate that our mouse model is able to recapitulate neurodegenerative changes observed in FTD. Neuroinflammation has been increasingly implicated in neurodegeneration, including FTD. Therefore, we investigated neuroinflammation in our CHMP2B mutant mice. We observed very early microglial proliferation that develops into a clear pro-inflammatory phenotype at late stages. Importantly, we also observed a similar inflammatory profile in CHMP2B patient frontal cortex. Aberrant microglial function has also been implicated in FTD caused by GRN, MAPT and C9orf72 mutations. The presence of early microglial changes in our CHMP2B mutant mice indicates neuroinflammation may be a contributing factor to the neurodegeneration observed in FTD.
  • Cronberg, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • Neuron-specific enolase correlates with other prognostic markers after cardiac arrest.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1526-632X. ; 77:7, s. 623-630
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a recommended treatment for survivors of cardiac arrest. Prognostication is complicated since sedation and muscle relaxation are used and established indicators of a poor prognosis are lacking. This prospective, observational study describes the pattern of commonly used prognostic markers in a hypothermia-treated cohort of cardiac arrest patients with prolonged coma. METHODS: Among 111 consecutive patients, 19 died, 58 recovered, and 34 were in coma 3 days after normothermia (4.5 days after cardiac arrest), defined as prolonged coma. All patients were monitored with continuous amplitude-integrated EEG and repeated samples of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were collected. In patients with prolonged coma, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and brain MRI were performed. A postmortem brain investigation was undertaken in patients who died. RESULTS: Six of the 17 patients (35%) with NSE levels <33 μg/L at 48 hours regained the capacity to obey verbal commands. By contrast, all 17 patients with NSE levels >33 failed to recover consciousness. In the >33 NSE group, all 10 studied with MRI had extensive brain injury on diffusion-weighted images, 12/16 lacked cortical responses on SSEP, and all 6 who underwent autopsy had extensive severe histologic damage. NSE levels also correlated with EEG pattern, but less uniformly, since 11/17 with NSE <33 had an electrographic status epilepticus (ESE), only one of whom recovered. A continuous EEG pattern correlated to NSE <33 and awakening. CONCLUSIONS: NSE correlates well with other markers of ischemic brain injury. In patients with no other signs of brain injury, postanoxic ESE may explain a poor outcome.
  • Dragancea, Irina, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of induced hypothermia and delayed prognostication on the mode of death after cardiac arrest.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - : Elsevier. - 1873-1570. ; 84:3, s. 337-342
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Brain injury is considered the main cause of death in patients who are hospitalized after cardiac arrest (CA). Induced hypothermia is recommended as neuroprotective treatment after (CA) but may affect prognostic parameters. We evaluated the effect of delayed neurological prognostication on the mode of death in hypothermia-treated CA-survivors. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study at a Swedish university hospital, analyzing all in-hospital and out-of-hospital CA-patients treated with hypothermia during a 5-year period. Cause of death was categorized as brain injury, cardiac disorder or other. Multimodal neurological prognostication and decision on level of care was performed in comatose patients 72hours after rewarming. Neurological function was evaluated by Cerebral Performance Categories scale (CPC). RESULTS: Among 162 patients, 76 survived to hospital discharge, 65 of whom had a good neurological outcome (CPC 1-2), and 11 were severely disabled (CPC 3). No patient was in vegetative state. The cause of death was classified as brain injury in 61 patients, cardiac disorder in 14 and other in 11. Four patients were declared brain dead and became organ donors. They were significantly younger (median 40 years) and with long time to ROSC. Active intensive care was withdrawn in 50 patients based on a statement of poor neurological prognosis at least 72h after rewarming. These patients died, mainly from respiratory complications, at a median 7 days after CA. CONCLUSION: Following induced hypothermia and delayed neurological prognostication, brain injury remains the main cause of death after CA. Most patients with a poor prognosis statement died within two weeks.
  • Durmo, Faris, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of Amide proton transfer weighted (APTw) MRI for pre-surgical prediction of final diagnosis in gliomas
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 15:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Radiological assessment of primary brain neoplasms, both high (HGG) and low grade tumors (LGG), based on contrast-enhancement alone can be inaccurate. We evaluated the radiological value of amide proton transfer weighted (APTw) MRI as an imaging complement for pre-surgical radiological diagnosis of brain tumors.METHODS: Twenty-six patients were evaluated prospectively; (22 males, 4 females, mean age 55 years, range 26-76 years) underwent MRI at 3T using T1-MPRAGE pre- and post-contrast administration, conventional T2w, FLAIR, and APTw imaging pre-surgically for suspected primary/secondary brain tumor. Assessment of the additional value of APTw imaging compared to conventional MRI for correct pre-surgical brain tumor diagnosis. The initial radiological pre-operative diagnosis was based on the conventional contrast-enhanced MR images. The range, minimum, maximum, and mean APTw signals were evaluated. Conventional normality testing was performed; with boxplots/outliers/skewness/kurtosis and a Shapiro-Wilk's test. Mann-Whitney U for analysis of significance for mean/max/min and range APTw signal. A logistic regression model was constructed for mean, max, range and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves calculated for individual and combined APTw signals.RESULTS: Conventional radiological diagnosis prior to surgery/biopsy was HGG (8 patients), LGG (12 patients), and metastasis (6 patients). Using the mean and maximum: APTw signal would have changed the pre-operative evaluation the diagnosis in 8 of 22 patients (two LGGs excluded, two METs excluded). Using a cut off value of >2.0% for mean APTw signal integral, 4 of the 12 radiologically suspected LGG would have been diagnosed as high grade glioma, which was confirmed by histopathological diagnosis. APTw mean of >2.0% and max >2.48% outperformed four separate clinical radiological assessments of tumor type, P-values = .004 and = .002, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Using APTw-images as part of the daily clinical pre-operative radiological evaluation may improve diagnostic precision in differentiating LGGs from HGGs, with potential improvement of patient management and treatment.
  • Durmo, Faris, et al. (författare)
  • Brain Tumor Characterization Using Multibiometric Evaluation of MRI
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Tomography : a journal for imaging research. - : Grapho Publications LLC. - 2379-1381. ; 4:1, s. 14-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim was to evaluate volume, diffusion, and perfusion metrics for better presurgical differentiation between high-grade gliomas (HGG), low-grade gliomas (LGG), and metastases (MET). For this retrospective study, 43 patients with histologically verified intracranial HGG (n = 18), LGG (n = 10), and MET (n = 15) were chosen. Preoperative magnetic resonance data included pre- and post-gadolinium contrast-enhanced T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recover, cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), fractional anisotropy, and apparent diffusion coefficient maps used for quantification of magnetic resonance biometrics by manual delineation of regions of interest. A binary logistic regression model was applied for multiparametric analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Statistically significant differences were found for normalized-ADC-tumor (nADC-T), normalized-CBF-tumor (nCBF-T), normalized-CBV-tumor (nCBV-T), and normalized-CBF-edema (nCBF-E) between LGG and HGG, and when these metrics were combined, HGG could be distinguished from LGG with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The only metric to distinguish HGG from MET was the normalized-ADC-E with a sensitivity of 68.8% and a specificity of 80%. LGG can be distinguished from MET by combining edema volume (Vol-E), Vol-E/tumor volume (Vol-T), nADC-T, nCBF-T, nCBV-T, and nADC-E with a sensitivity of 93.3% and a specificity of 100%. The present study confirms the usability of a multibiometric approach including volume, perfusion, and diffusion metrics in differentially diagnosing brain tumors in preoperative patients and adds to the growing body of evidence in the clinical field in need of validation and standardization.
  • Durmo, Faris, et al. (författare)
  • Multivoxel 1H-MR Spectroscopy Biometrics for Preoprerative Differentiation Between Brain Tumors
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Tomography : a journal for imaging research. - : Grapho Publications LLC. - 2379-1381. ; 4:4, s. 172-181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) biometrics for preoperative differentiation and prognosis of patients with brain metastases (MET), low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma (HGG). In total, 33 patients (HGG, 14; LGG, 9; and 10 MET) were included. 1H-MRS imaging (MRSI) data were assessed and neurochemical profiles for metabolites N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) + NAAG(NAA), Cr + PCr(total creatine, tCr), Glu + Gln(Glx), lactate (Lac), myo-inositol(Ins), GPC + PCho(total choline, tCho), and total lipids, and macromolecule (tMM) signals were estimated. Metabolites were reported as absolute concentrations or ratios to tCho or tCr levels. Voxels of interest in an MRSI matrix were labeled according to tissue. Logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. Across HGG, LGG, and MET, average Ins/tCho was shown to be prognostic for overall survival (OS): low values (≤1.29) in affected hemisphere predicting worse OS than high values (>1.29), (log rank < 0.007). Lip/tCho and Ins/tCho combined showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for both HGG/LGG (P < .001) and LGG/MET (P < .001) measured in nonenhancing/contrast-enhancing lesional tissue. Combining tCr/tCho in perilesional edema with tCho/tCr and NAA/tCho from ipsilateral normal- appearing tissue yielded 100% sensitivity and 81.8% specificity (P < .002) for HGG/MET. Best single biomarker: Ins/tCho for HGG/LGG and total lipid/tCho for LGG/MET showed 100% sensitivity and 75% and 100% specificity, respectively. HGG/MET; NAA/tCho showed 75% sensitivity and 84.6% specificity. Multivoxel 1H-MRSI provides prognostic information for OS for HGG/LGG/MET and a multibiometric approach for differentiation may equal or outperform single biometrics.
  • Eckermann, Marina, et al. (författare)
  • 3d phase-contrast nanotomography of unstained human skin biopsies may identify morphological differences in the dermis and epidermis between subjects
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Skin Research and Technology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0909-752X. ; 27:3, s. 316-323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Enteric neuropathy is described in most patients with gastrointestinal dysmotility and may be found together with reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). The aim of this pilot study was to assess whether three-dimensional (3d) imaging of skin biopsies could be used to examine various tissue components in patients with gastrointestinal dysmotility. Material and methods: Four dysmotility patients of different etiology and two healthy volunteers were included. From each subject, two 3-mm punch skin biopsies were stained with antibodies against protein gene product 9.5 or evaluated as a whole with two X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) setups, a laboratory µCT setup and a dedicated synchrotron radiation nanoCT end-station. Results: Two patients had reduced IENFD, and two normal IENFD, compared with controls. µCT and X-ray phase-contrast holographic nanotomography scanned whole tissue specimens, with optional high-resolution scans revealing delicate structures, without differentiation of various fibers and cells. Irregular architecture of dermal fibers was observed in the patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and the patient with idiopathic dysmotility showed an abundance of mesenchymal ground substance. Conclusions: 3d phase-contrast tomographic imaging may be useful to illustrate traits of connective tissue dysfunction in various organs and to demonstrate whether disorganized dermal fibers could explain organ dysfunction.
  • Ek Olofsson, Henric, et al. (författare)
  • Are cortical microvascular raspberries caused by cerebral hypoperfusion? An exploratory pathological study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Cerebral Circulation - Cognition and Behavior. ; 2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: This retrospective study investigated a cortical microvascular formation, termed a ‘raspberry’ due to its appearance under a bright-field microscope. We examined whether there is support for the hypothesis that raspberry formation is an angiogenic process induced by cerebral hypoperfusion. Materials and Methods: Raspberries were manually quantified in haematoxylin and eosin-stained cortical sections from the anterior frontal lobe of deceased individuals who had undergone a diagnostic neuropathological examination at the Department of Pathology, Lund, Sweden, during April 2019–January 2021. Subjects represented consecutively received cases during this 22-month period. The raspberry density was compared between subjects according to variables collected from medical records and autopsy reports: age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, orthostatic hypotension, chronic heart failure, acute circulatory failure, aortic atherosclerosis, atherosclerosis of the basal cerebral arteries (referred to as ‘cerebral atherosclerosis’), cerebral small vessel disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cerebral infarction, and ischaemic white matter disease. Results: 62 subjects were included. The mean age was 71.9 years (range 46–97 years). 21 subjects (33.9%) were female. Independent-samples t-test showed a higher raspberry density in subjects with cerebral atherosclerosis (p = 0.029; 95% CI 0.7, 11.6 raspberries/cm²). The higher raspberry density in subjects with cerebral atherosclerosis remained in multiple linear regression (p = 0.003; 95% CI 2.3, 11.1 raspberries/cm²). Conclusion: This exploratory study indicates that cortical raspberries could be associated with cerebral atherosclerosis. The remaining results were inconclusive but motivate further examination of variables such as acute circulatory failure.
  • Ekman, Linnéa, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of small nerve fiber dysfunction in type 2 diabetes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6314. ; 141:1, s. 38-46
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To assess potential correlations between intraepidermal nerve fiber densities (IENFD), graded with light microscopy, and clinical measures of peripheral neuropathy in elderly male subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), respectively. Materials and methods: IENFD was assessed in thin sections of skin biopsies from distal leg in 86 men (71-77 years); 24 NGT, 15 IGT, and 47 T2DM. Biopsies were immunohistochemically stained for protein gene product (PGP) 9.5, and intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF) were quantified manually by light microscopy. IENFD was compared between groups with different glucose tolerance and related to neurophysiological tests, including nerve conduction study (NCS; sural and peroneal nerve), quantitative sensory testing (QST), and clinical examination (Total Neuropathy Score; Neuropathy Symptom Score and Neuropathy Disability Score). Results: Absent IENF was seen in subjects with T2DM (n = 10; 21%) and IGT (n = 1; 7%) but not in NGT. IENFD correlated weakly negatively with HbA1c (r = −.268, P =.013) and Total Neuropathy Score (r = −.219, P =.042). Positive correlations were found between IENFD and sural nerve amplitude (r =.371, P =.001) as well as conduction velocity of both the sural (r =.241, P =.029) and peroneal nerve (r =.258, P =.018). Proportions of abnormal sural nerve amplitude became significantly higher with decreasing IENFD. No correlation was found with QST. Inter-rater reliability of IENFD assessment was good (ICC = 0.887). Conclusions: Signs of neuropathy are becoming more prevalent with decreasing IENFD. IENFD can be meaningfully evaluated in thin histopathological sections using the presented technique to detect neuropathy.
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