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  • Ekman, Linnéa, et al. (författare)
  • Temporal trend of small nerve fibre degeneration in people with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0742-3071 .- 1464-5491.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: We investigated the long-term temporal trend of intraepidermal nerve fibre density (IENFD) and the association between changes in IENFD and metabolic factors in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 66 participants were enrolled in this longitudinal population-based study, at baseline consisting of 35 individuals (median 61 years) without diabetes and 31 individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Participants underwent clinical and electrophysiological examinations, as well as a skin biopsy both at baseline and at the follow-up visit (mean 8.1 ± 0.5 years). IENFD was assessed in thin sections of 5 μm, stained with the protein gene product 9.5-antibody and compared between the groups. Results: IENFD decreased during the period in both groups, with a greater decline in the group without diabetes than in type 2 diabetes (−2.3 and −0.6 fibres/mm respectively; p < 0.001). While IENFD at baseline was significantly reduced in type 2 diabetes relative to people without (p < 0.001), no difference in IENFD was found between groups at the follow-up (p = 0.183). Linear mixed model analysis indicated that age, weight and HbA1c were associated with decrease in IENFD in the total population (p < 0.007). IENFD also decreased with increasing age and weight, but not with HbA1c, in the separate groups (p < 0.049). Conclusions: Despite lower IENFD levels at baseline in type 2 diabetes, IENFD was equal between the groups at follow-up. A decrease in IENFD is to a limited extent affected by body weight, and HbA1c, but age seems to be the long-term determinant of IENFD in an elderly population.
  • El-Sayed, Najib M., et al. (författare)
  • The genome sequence of Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Science. - 1095-9203. ; 309:5733, s. 409-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Whole-genome sequencing of the protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi revealed that the diploid genome contains a predicted 22,570 proteins encoded by genes, of which 12,570 represent allelic pairs. Over 50% of the genome consists of repeated sequences, such as retrotransposons and genes for large families of surface molecules, which include trans-sialidases, mucins, gp63s, and a large novel family (>1300 copies) of mucin-associated surface protein (MASP) genes. Analyses of the T. cruzi, T. brucei, and Leishmania major (Tritryp) genomes imply differences from other eukaryotes in DNA repair and initiation of replication and reflect their unusual mitochondrial DNA. Although the Tritryp lack several classes of signaling molecules, their kinomes contain a large and diverse set of protein kinases and phosphatases; their size and diversity imply previously unknown interactions and regulatory processes, which may be targets for intervention.
  • Elfving, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Ectopic recurrence of a craniopharyngioma in a 15-year-old girl 9 years after surgery and conventional radiotherapy: case report.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Child's Nervous System. - : Springer. - 1433-0350. ; 27, s. 845-851
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This 15-year-old girl was operated due to an ectopic recurrence of a craniopharyngioma along the previous surgical route. She presented with a sellar craniopharyngioma at the age of 4 years and underwent a right subfrontal craniotomy. Two and a half years later she had a local recurrence in the sella that was resected along the same surgical route. Postoperative cranial radiotherapy was administered with 50 Gy divided into 28 fractions. Nine years later, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a local recurrence within the sella together with a supraorbital cystic mass. Both tumors were surgically removed. Microscopic examination revealed recurrence of an adamantinous craniopharyngioma at both localisations. Histopathological preparations showed a higher MIB-1 index at the simultaneous recurrences in the sella and in the frontal lobe and also an elevated focal p53 expression, compared to previous operations, suggesting a transformation to a more aggressive tumor. This is the first case report of ectopic recurrence in a child that had received conventional radiotherapy of 50 Gy to the sella. Careful intra-operative procedure is probably crucial for preventing ectopic recurrences. The future will reveal if the transsphenoidal surgical route will put an end to ectopic tumor recurrence in patients with a craniopharyngioma.
  • Endisch, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Evaluated by Brain Autopsy and Neuroprognostication after Cardiac Arrest
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMA Neurology. - : American Medical Association. - 2168-6149. ; 77:11, s. 1430-1439
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Neuroprognostication studies are potentially susceptible to a self-fulfilling prophecy as investigated prognostic parameters may affect withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy. Objective: To compare the results of prognostic parameters after cardiac arrest (CA) with the histopathologically determined severity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) obtained from autopsy results. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a retrospective, 3-center cohort study of all patients who died following cardiac arrest during their intensive care unit stay and underwent autopsy between 2003 and 2015, postmortem brain histopathologic findings were compared with post-CA brain computed tomographic imaging, electroencephalographic (EEG) findings, somatosensory-evoked potentials, and serum neuron-specific enolase levels obtained during the intensive care unit stay. Data analysis was conducted from 2015 to 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The severity of HIE was evaluated according to the selective eosinophilic neuronal death (SEND) classification and patients were dichotomized into categories of histopathologically severe and no/mild HIE. Results: Of 187 included patients, 117 were men (63%) and median age was 65 (interquartile range, 58-74) years. Severe HIE was found in 114 patients (61%) and no/mild HIE was identified in 73 patients (39%). Severe HIE was found in all 21 patients with bilaterally absent somatosensory-evoked potentials, all 15 patients with gray-white matter ratio less than 1.10 on brain computed tomographic imaging, all 9 patients with suppressed EEG, 15 of 16 patients with burst-suppression EEG, and all 29 patients with neuron-specific enolase levels greater than 67 μg/L more than 48 hours after CA without confounders. Three of 7 patients with generalized periodic discharges on suppressed background and 1 patient with burst-suppression EEG had a SEND 1 score (<30% dead neurons) in the cerebral cortex, but higher SEND scores (>30% dead neurons) in other oxygen-sensitive brain regions. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, histopathologic findings suggested severe HIE after cardiac arrest in patients with bilaterally absent cortical somatosensory-evoked potentials, gray-white matter ratio less than 1.10, highly malignant EEG, and serum neuron-specific enolase concentration greater than 67 μg/L.
  • Englund Dimitrova, Birgitta, 1946-, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive aspects of community interpreting : Toward a process model
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Reembedding Translation Process Research. - Amsterdam : John Benjamins Publishing Company. - 9789027258748 - 9789027266347 ; , s. 195-214
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article discusses cognitive aspects of professional community interpreting. We give an overview of earlier research into community interpreting, arguing that cognitive aspects have largely been neglected. We propose that in building a model of the mental processes of the community interpreter, different kinds of monitoring are a crucial and pervasive component. Monitoring contributes to and enables the double function of the interpreter: translating and managing the interaction of the interpreted encounter. We furthermore stress the importance of the notion of professional self-concept for explaining the interpreter’s decision-making and exemplify this by analyzing turn-taking in two Swedish-Spanish interpreted encounters.
  • Englund Dimitrova, Birgitta, 1946-, et al. (författare)
  • Retrospection in interpreting and translation: explaining the process?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Monografías de Traducción e Interpretación MonTi Special Issue (ed. R. Muñoz Martín). - Alicante : Universitat d'Alacant. - 1889-4178. ; 1:1, s. 177-200
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For studying the processes involved in translation and in interpreting, retrospection is one of the few research methods equally suitable for both areas. At the first workshop on research methods in process-oriented research, in Graz in 2009, we presented the results of a pilot study of retrospection as a research method, published as Englund Dimitrova and Tiselius (2009). The study involved data from two groups (15 years of professional experience vs. no professional experience), each with 3+3 subjects (interpreter subjects vs. translator subjects, all with Swedish as their L1). The source text was a 10-minute plenary speech in English from the European Parliament, interpreted simultaneously into Swedish. For the translation data, the translator subjects translated the original European Parliament transcript of the speech, 1,093 words, writing in Translog. After the task, subjects did immediate retrospection. The first analysis of the data indicated that a challenge when using retrospection is that subjects tend to report having forgotten about some of their processes. In this paper we report an analysis of the process data in relation to the retrospective protocols. Our focus is on reported problems and the occurrences of problem indicators in the process. It was found that most reported problems are confirmed by the presence of problem indicators in the process. However, the majority of problem indicators found in the process do not correspond to any reported problem. Hence, the subjects’ problem reports can only explain a limited number of the potential problems in the process. The need for further research into retrospection as a research method in Translation Studies is pointed out.
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