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  • Föregående 1[2]34567...8Nästa
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11.
  • Attanasio, Andrea F, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Hypopituitary Growth Hormone (GH)-Deficient Patients Before and After GH Replacement.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 95, s. 74-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context and Objective: Metabolic and body compositional consequences of GH deficiency (GHD) in adults are associated with a phenotype similar to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Patients: We assessed MetS prevalence in adult GHD patients (n = 2531) enrolled in the Hypopituitary Control and Complications Study. Prevalence was assessed at baseline and after 3 yr of GH replacement in a subset of 346 adult-onset patients. Results: Baseline MetS crude prevalence was 42.3%; age-adjusted prevalence in the United States and Europe was 51.8 and 28.6% (P < 0.001), respectively. In the United States, age-adjusted prevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than in a general population survey. Increased MetS risk at baseline was observed for age 40 yr or older (adjusted relative risk 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.17-1.53, P < 0.001), females (1.15, 1.05-1.25, P = 0.002), and adult onset (1.77, 1.44-2.18, P < 0.001). In GH-treated adult-onset patients, MetS prevalence was not changed after 3 yr (42.5-45.7%, P = 0.172), but significant changes were seen for waist circumference (62.1-56.9%, P = 0.008), fasting glucose (26.0-32.4%, P < 0.001), and blood pressure (59.8-69.7%, P < 0.001). Significantly increased risk of MetS at yr 3 was associated with baseline MetS (adjusted relative risk 4.09, 95% confidence interval 3.02-5.53, P < 0.001) and body mass index 30 kg/m(2) or greater (1.53, 1.17-1.99, P = 0.002) and increased risk (with a P value < 0.1) for GH dose 600 mug/d or greater (1.18, 95% confidence interval 0.98-1.44, P = 0.088). Conclusion: MetS prevalence in GHD patients was higher than in the general population in the United States and higher in the United States than Europe. Prevalence was unaffected by GH replacement, but baseline MetS status and obesity were strong predictors of MetS after GH treatment.
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12.
  • Björk, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • The utility of the GHRH-arginine test for diagnosing GH deficiency in adults with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with cranial irradiation.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 90:11, s. 6048-6054
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: The insulin tolerance test ( ITT) is the current standard diagnostic test for the diagnosis of adult GH deficiency ( GHD), but alternative tests, such as the GHRH- arginine test, have been proposed. Objective: We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of the GHRH- arginine test using ITT as the gold standard in diagnosing GHD in a group of young adults treated with cranial irradiation ( CRT) for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia ( ALL). We estimated the positive and negative predictive values of the GHRH- arginine test among patients as well as a number of individual characteristics and therapy- related factors during both the GHRH- arginine test and ITT. Design: Forty- three young adults, treated for childhood ALL with 18 - 30 Gy CRT and chemotherapy, were studied, and comparison was made with matched controls. Results and Conclusions: We evaluated four different cutoff levels for GHD in the GHRH- arginine test: 5, 7.5, 9, and 16.5 mu g/ liter. Using 7.5 mu g/liter as the cutoff yielded high specificity ( 94%), but at the same time the sensitivity was only 66%, which leads to a low negative predictive value ( 27%). In contrast, a failed GH response to the GHRH- arginine test accurately reflects the presence of radiationinduced GHD, illustrated by a high positive predictive value ( 95% at 7.5 mu g/ liter). Only age at CRT and body mass index remained significant predictors of the peak GH during the GHRH- arginine test. Because a high proportion of GHD patients show a normal response to the GHRH- arginine test, it cannot be used reliably to exclude GHD in these patients. Complementary ITT is also warranted to confirm GHD in obese patients.
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13.
  • Bülow, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • High incidence of mental disorders, reduced mental well-being and cognitive function in hypopituitary women with GH deficiency treated for pituitary disease
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Clinical Endocrinology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2265. ; 56:2, s. 183-193
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown possible neuroendocrine effects of GH. In the present study we investigated the incidence of mental disorders and the prevalence of mental distress and cognitive dysfunction in hypopituitary women with untreated GH deficiency compared to population-based controls.DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Thirty-three hypopituitary women with a median age of 64 years (range 39--77 years) were investigated cross-sectionally, without any change in hormone substitutions. Twenty-nine of the patients had been operated for a pituitary tumour, 25 had received radiotherapy and 15 had visual dysfunction. The patients were with a very high probability GH deficient, as 29 had subnormal IGF-I levels and the other four were GH deficient as assessed by an insulin tolerance test. The patients were compared with 33 controls matched for sex, age, smoking habits, educational level and residence.MEASUREMENTS: The incidence of mental disorders was calculated from the date of diagnosed hypopituitarism to the time of the present investigation. Mental well-being was assessed by three self-rating questionnaires: the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI) and the social network concept. The subjects were examined with neuropsychological tests of vocabulary (SRB:1 vocabulary test), perceptual speed (WAIS-R Digit Symbol), spatial ability (WAIS-R Block Design), verbal memory (Cronholm--Molander verbal memory test), spatial learning (Austin Maze Test) and reaction time (APT Two-way Reaction Time and APT Inhibition).RESULTS: The hypopituitary women had a higher incidence of mental disorders than the controls; Incidence Rate Ratio 4.5 (95% CI 1.0--21). The Global Severity Index, i.e. the average score of all 90 questions of the SCL-90, was higher in patients (P = 0.001), and the patients had significantly more symptoms of somatization, anxiety, depression, obsession--compulsion, hostility--irritability, phobic and psychotic symptoms (all P less-than-or-equal 0.04). Moreover, 14 patients compared to four controls were classified as possible cases of mental distress according to the SCL-90 (P = 0.006). The patients experienced lower availability of both social attachment (P = 0.02) and integration (P = 0.001), but there were no group differences in the adequacy of these dimensions or in emotional support. The patients had lower scores in four of seven neuropsychological tests (all P less-than-or-equal 0.04).CONCLUSIONS: The hypopituitary women had a higher incidence of mental disorders, more symptoms of mental distress and increased prevalence of cognitive dysfunction. The impaired results in the patients could possibly be explained by several factors, such as transfrontal surgery, radiotherapy, visual dysfunction and unphysiological hormone substitution. Moreover, it is probable that GH deficiency contributed, but placebo-controlled double-blind studies are warranted to investigate whether the psychological dysfunction is reversible on GH substitution.
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14.
  • Bulow, B., et al. (författare)
  • Increased leptin and tumour necrosis factor alpha per unit fat mass in hypopituitary women without growth hormone treatment
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - : Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology. - 1479-683X. ; 145:6, s. 737-742
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The adipocyte products, leptin and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha are associated with atherosclerotic diseases and may be factors contributing to the enhanced cardiovascular risk in hypopituitary patients with growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Objective: To investigate whether leptin and TNF alpha are increased in a group of hypopituitary women previously found to have increased cardiovascular morbidity, and to compare them with matched individuals of the same sex and age and with similar body composition. Design and Patients: Thirty-three GH-deficient women with a median age of 64 years (range 39-77 years) were investigated cross-sectionally. The patients were compared with 33 controls matched for sex, age, smoking habits, educational level and residence. Methods: Body composition was measured by bioimpedance analysis. Fasting concentrations of leptin, TNF alpha and insulin were analysed in patients and controls. Results: There was no significant difference in body mass index or fat mass between patients and controls (both P greater than or equal to 0.4). Serum leptin did not differ significantly between patients and controls. However, when serum leptin concentrations were expressed per kilogram fat mass, the patients had significantly greater concentrations (P = 0.01). Serum TNF alpha and TNF alpha per kilogram fat mass were also significantly greater in the patients (both P = 0.001). In contrast, serum insulin did not differ significantly between patients and controls. In the patients, serum leptin concentrations correlated positively with kilogram fat mass (r = 0.54, P = 0.002). Leptin concentration per kilogram fat mass was positively correlated with insulin (r = 0.40. P = 0.03). Conclusions: In contrast to serum concentrations of TNF alpha. serum leptin did not differ from that in controls, implying that leptin is not a major contributor to the previously found increase in cardiovascular morbidity in the hypopituitary women investigated. However, the patients had increased leptin concentrations per unit fat mass, indicating an altered adipocyte secretory function in this group.
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15.
  • Bülow, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Individualized low-dose growth hormone (GH) treatment in GH-deficient adults with childhood-onset disease: metabolic effects during fasting and hypoglycemia
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Metabolism, Clinical and Experimental. - : Elsevier. - 1532-8600. ; 48:8, s. 10-1003
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Growth hormone (GH) has insulin-antagonistic effects, and GH secretion is augmented during fasting and hypoglycemia. In the present study, 10 patients aged 21 to 28 years with childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) were studied during a 24-hour fast and a hypoglycemic glucose clamp before and after 9 months of GH replacement. During the 24-hour fast, blood glucose, serum insulin, and serum free fatty acid (FFA) levels were measured. In the hypoglycemic clamp, the counterregulatory hormones (plasma catecholamines, serum glucagon, and serum cortisol), serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), serum FFA, and glucose uptake were measured. The GH dose was adjusted to the response of serum IGF-I, and the median GH dose was 0.14 IU/kg/wk (range, 0.08 to 0.19). At the end of the study, serum IGF-I levels were normalized in all but one patient, in whom serum IGF-I was above the normal range. Nine months of GH treatment did not cause any significant changes in the blood glucose level, insulin to glucose ratio, or serum FFA level during the 24-hour fast, and none of the patients experienced hypoglycemia either before or after GH treatment. However, GH therapy resulted in increased insulin resistance during hypoglycemia, without changes in the counterregulatory hormonal responses, serum IGFBP-1, or serum FFA.
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16.
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17.
  • Bülow, B, et al. (författare)
  • The gender differences in growth hormone-binding protein and leptin persist in 80-year-old men and women and is not caused by sex hormones.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Clinical Endocrinology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2265. ; 59:4, s. 6-482
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • objective Leptin and growth hormone-binding protein (GHBP) both show gender differences that might be explained by sex hormones. To study the potential relevance of oestradiol and testosterone, we have examined 80-year-old subjects in whom oestradiol is higher in men than in women. The interrelationships between leptin, insulin, GHBP and fat mass in this age group were also investigated. design and subjects Ninety-four subjects (55 females and 39 males), all 80 years old, were investigated in a community-based study. None of the investigated subjects was being treated for diabetes mellitus and none of the women had oestrogen replacement. methods Levels of testosterone, oestradiol, SHBG, IGF-I, GHBP, glucose, insulin and leptin were analysed. Body composition was measured with bioimpedance analysis (BIA). results As in younger age groups, serum leptin, the ratio leptin/kilogram fat mass and serum GHBP were higher in the women (all, P <= 0·007), although serum oestradiol was higher in the men (P < 0·001). There were no significant associations between sex hormones and leptin or GHBP either in women or in men (all, r < 0·13, P > 0·1). Leptin correlated to kilogram fat mass in both women (r = 0·55, P < 0·001) and men (r = 0·47, P = 0·003), but in contrast, there were no significant correlations between GHBP and fat mass and GHBP and IGF-I, either in women or in men (all, r < 0·24, P > 0·2). Insulin and leptin were significantly associated with GHBP, both in women (r = 0·48, P < 0·001 and r = 0·43, P = 0·001, respectively) and in men (r = 0·40, P = 0·01 and r = 0·34, P = 0·03, respectively). conclusions Although the 80-year-old men had higher oestradiol levels than the women, the women had higher levels of leptin and GHBP. There were no correlations between sex hormones and leptin and GHBP, which indicates that the gender differences are not caused by sex hormones in old age. In contrast to studies in younger subjects, GHBP did not correlate to fat mass in the investigated 80-year-old men and women. In the older subjects investigated, as in younger subjects, GHBP was significantly correlated with leptin and insulin.
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18.
  • Child, Christopher J., et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of primary cancers in GH-treated adult hypopituitary patients: an analysis from the Hypopituitary Control and Complications Study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - : Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology. - 1479-683X. ; 165:2, s. 217-223
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: GH and IGFs have mitogenic properties, causing speculation that GH treatment could increase risk of malignancy. While studies in GH-treated childhood cancer survivors have suggested a slight increase in second neoplasms, studies in GH-treated adults have been equivocal. Design: Incidence of de novo and second cancers was evaluated in 6840 GH-treated and 940 non GH-treated adult patients in the Hypopituitary Control and Complications Study pharmacoepidemiological database. Methods: Evident cancer cases were evaluated in the main analysis, with sensitivity analyses including probable and possible cancers. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for cancers were calculated using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results for the USA and GLOBOCAN for all other countries. Results: During the mean follow-up of 3.7 years/GH-treated patient, 142 evident cancer cases were identified, giving an overall SIR of 0.88 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-1.04); 95% CIs included the value of 1.0 for each country examined. The SIR for GH-treated patients from the USA (71 cases) was 0.94 (95% CI 0.73-1.18), and for non GH-treated patients from the USA (27 cases) was 1.16 (95% CI 0.76-1.69). For GH-treated patients from the USA aged < 35 years, the SIR (six cases) was 3.79 (1.39-8.26), with SIR not elevated for all other age categories; SIR for patients from the USA with childhood onset (CO) GH deficiency (GHD) was 2.74 (95% CI 1.18-5.41). The SIR for colorectal cancer in GH-treated patients (11 cases) was 0.60 (95% CI 0.30-1.08). Conclusions: With relatively short follow-up, the overall primary cancer risk in 6840 patients receiving GH as adults was not increased. Elevated SIRs were found for subgroups in the USA cohort defined by age < 35 years or CO GHD.
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19.
  • Child, Christopher J, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence of Primary Cancers and Intracranial Tumour Recurrences in Growth Hormone-Treated and Untreated Adult Hypopituitary Patients: Analyses from HypoCCS.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - : Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology. - 1479-683X. ; 172:6, s. 779-790
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Speculation remains that growth hormone (GH) treatment is associated with increased neoplasia risk. Studies in GH-treated childhood cancer survivors suggested higher rates of second neoplasms, while cancer risk data for GH-treated and untreated hypopituitary adults have been variable. We present primary cancer risk data from the Hypopituitary Control and Complications Study (HypoCCS) with a focus on specific cancers, and assessment of recurrence rates for pituitary adenoma (PA) and craniopharyngioma (CP).
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20.
  • Elfving, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Ectopic recurrence of a craniopharyngioma in a 15-year-old girl 9 years after surgery and conventional radiotherapy: case report.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Child's Nervous System. - : Springer. - 1433-0350. ; 27, s. 845-851
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This 15-year-old girl was operated due to an ectopic recurrence of a craniopharyngioma along the previous surgical route. She presented with a sellar craniopharyngioma at the age of 4 years and underwent a right subfrontal craniotomy. Two and a half years later she had a local recurrence in the sella that was resected along the same surgical route. Postoperative cranial radiotherapy was administered with 50 Gy divided into 28 fractions. Nine years later, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a local recurrence within the sella together with a supraorbital cystic mass. Both tumors were surgically removed. Microscopic examination revealed recurrence of an adamantinous craniopharyngioma at both localisations. Histopathological preparations showed a higher MIB-1 index at the simultaneous recurrences in the sella and in the frontal lobe and also an elevated focal p53 expression, compared to previous operations, suggesting a transformation to a more aggressive tumor. This is the first case report of ectopic recurrence in a child that had received conventional radiotherapy of 50 Gy to the sella. Careful intra-operative procedure is probably crucial for preventing ectopic recurrences. The future will reveal if the transsphenoidal surgical route will put an end to ectopic tumor recurrence in patients with a craniopharyngioma.
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