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  • Pälike, Heiko, et al. (författare)
  • A Cenozoic record of the equatorial Pacific carbonate compensation depth
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 488:7413, s. 609-614
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate are regulated on geological timescales by the balance between carbon input from volcanic and metamorphic outgassing and its removal by weathering feedbacks; these feedbacks involve the erosion of silicate rocks and organic-carbon-bearing rocks. The integrated effect of these processes is reflected in the calcium carbonate compensation depth, which is the oceanic depth at which calcium carbonate is dissolved. Here we present a carbonate accumulation record that covers the past 53 million years from a depth transect in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The carbonate compensation depth tracks long-term ocean cooling, deepening from 3.0-3.5 kilometres during the early Cenozoic (approximately 55 million years ago) to 4.6 kilometres at present, consistent with an overall Cenozoic increase in weathering. We find large superimposed fluctuations in carbonate compensation depth during the middle and late Eocene. Using Earth system models, we identify changes in weathering and the mode of organic-carbon delivery as two key processes to explain these large-scale Eocene fluctuations of the carbonate compensation depth.
  • Ramos Santesmases, David, et al. (författare)
  • Optical concentration in fully delineated mid-wave infrared T2SL detectors arrays
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters. - : AIP Publishing. - 0003-6951 .- 1077-3118. ; 123:18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The dependence of quantum efficiency (QE) on fill factor and pixel pitch is studied theoretically and experimentally in fully delineated type-II superlattice (T2SL) detectors. Theoretically, a 2-dimensional simulation model is used to compute the absorption in the array geometry, which shows an insensitivity of the optical response to the fill factor. This is a result of the photodiode array (PDA) geometry concentrating the light in the pixel area. QE measurements on PDAs with varying pixel pitch (from 225 to 10 μm) and fill factors (from 98% to 64%) confirm this independence of the QE on the fill factor and results in a 50% increase in the photocurrent density in 10 μm pitch PDAs compared to 225 μm pitch PDAs. Furthermore, measurements of the dark current density vs pixel size revealed an absence of surface leakage in these PDAs, which, combined with the increased photocurrent density results in an improved signal-to-noise ratio when reducing the pitch in these T2SL detectors. Finally, this result resolves the QE-modulation transfer function trade-off, as the electrical isolation of the pixel is carried out without impacting the QE of the array.
  • Rossberg, Axel G., et al. (författare)
  • Lets Train More Theoretical Ecologists - Here Is Why
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Trends in Ecology & Evolution. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE LONDON. - 0169-5347 .- 1872-8383. ; 34:9, s. 759-762
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A tangled web of vicious circles, driven by cultural issues, has prevented ecology from growing strong theoretical roots. Now this hinders development of effective conservation policies. To overcome these barriers in view of urgent societal needs, we propose a global network of postgraduate theoretical training programs.
  • Sackton, Timothy B, et al. (författare)
  • Dynamic evolution of the innate immune system in Drosophila.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nat Genet. - 1061-4036. ; 39:12, s. 1461-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The availability of complete genome sequence from 12 Drosophila species presents the opportunity to examine how natural selection has affected patterns of gene family evolution and sequence divergence among different components of the innate immune system. We have identified orthologs and paralogs of 245 Drosophila melanogaster immune-related genes in these recently sequenced genomes. Genes encoding effector proteins, and to a lesser extent genes encoding recognition proteins, are much more likely to vary in copy number across species than genes encoding signaling proteins. Furthermore, we can trace the apparent recent origination of several evolutionarily novel immune-related genes and gene families. Using codon-based likelihood methods, we show that immune-system genes, and especially those encoding recognition proteins, evolve under positive darwinian selection. Positively selected sites within recognition proteins cluster in domains involved in recognition of microorganisms, suggesting that molecular interactions between hosts and pathogens may drive adaptive evolution in the Drosophila immune system.
  • Shirani, A, et al. (författare)
  • Multiple sclerosis in older adults: the clinical profile and impact of interferon Beta treatment
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BioMed research international. - : Hindawi Limited. - 2314-6141 .- 2314-6133. ; 2015, s. 451912-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. We examined (1) patient characteristics and disease-modifying drug (DMD) exposure in late-onset (LOMS, ≥50 years at symptom onset) versus adult-onset (AOMS, 18–<50 years) MS and (2) the association between interferon-beta (IFNβ) and disability progression in older relapsing-onset MS adults (≥50 years).Methods. This retrospective study (1980–2004, British Columbia, Canada) included 358 LOMS and 5627 AOMS patients. IFNβ-treated relapsing-onset MS patients aged ≥50 (regardless of onset age, 90) were compared with 171 contemporary and 106 historical controls. Times to EDSS 6 from onset and from IFNβeligibility were examined using survival analyses.Results. LOMS patients (6%) were more likely to be male, with motor onset and a primary-progressive course, and exhibit faster progression and were less likely to take DMDs. Nonetheless, 57% were relapsing-onset, of which 31% were prescribed DMDs, most commonly IFNβ. Among older relapsing-onset MS adults, no significant association between IFNβexposure and disability progression was found when either the contemporary (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.18–1.22) or historical controls (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.20–1.42) were considered.Conclusion. LOMS differed clinically from AOMS. One-third of older relapsing-onset MS patients were prescribed a DMD. IFNβexposure was not significantly associated with reduced disability in older MS patients.
  • Silva, M. M., et al. (författare)
  • Sol-gel preparation of a di-ureasil electrolyte doped with lithium perchlorate
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Electrochimica Acta. - : Elsevier BV. - 0013-4686. ; 52:4, s. 1542-1548
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) synthesized by the sol-gel process and designated as di-ureasils have been prepared through the incorporation of lithium perchlorate, LiClO4, into the d-U(2000) organic-inorganic hybrid network. Electrolytes with lithium salt compositions of n (where n indicates the number of oxyethylene units per Li+ ion) between ∞ and 0.5 were characterized by conductivity measurements, cyclic voltammetry at a gold microelectrode, thermal analysis and Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. The conductivity results obtained suggest that this system offers a quite significant improvement over previously characterized analogues doped with lithium triflate [S.C. Nunes, V. de Zea Bermudez, D. Ostrovskii, M.M. Silva, S. Barros, M.J. Smith, R.A. Sá Ferreira, L.D. Carlos, J. Rocha, E. Morales, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152 (2) (2005), A429]. "Free" perchlorate ions, detected in all the samples examined, are identified as the main charge carriers in the sample that yields the highest room temperature conductivity (n = 20). In the di-ureasils with n ≤ 10 ionic association is favoured and the ionic conductivity drops.
  • Singleton, Caitlin M., et al. (författare)
  • Methanotrophy across a natural permafrost thaw environment
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The ISME Journal. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1751-7362 .- 1751-7370. ; 12:10, s. 2544-2558
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The fate of carbon sequestered in permafrost is a key concern for future global warming as this large carbon stock is rapidly becoming a net methane source due to widespread thaw. Methane release from permafrost is moderated by methanotrophs, which oxidise 20-60% of this methane before emission to the atmosphere. Despite the importance of methanotrophs to carbon cycling, these microorganisms are under-characterised and have not been studied across a natural permafrost thaw gradient. Here, we examine methanotroph communities from the active layer of a permafrost thaw gradient in Stordalen Mire (Abisko, Sweden) spanning three years, analysing 188 metagenomes and 24 metatranscriptomes paired with in situ biogeochemical data. Methanotroph community composition and activity varied significantly as thaw progressed from intact permafrost palsa, to partially thawed bog and fully thawed fen. Thirteen methanotroph population genomes were recovered, including two novel genomes belonging to the uncultivated upland soil cluster alpha (USCa) group and a novel potentially methanotrophic Hyphomicrobiaceae. Combined analysis of porewater delta C-13-CH 4 isotopes and methanotroph abundances showed methane oxidation was greatest below the oxic-anoxic interface in the bog. These results detail the direct effect of thaw on autochthonous methanotroph communities, and their consequent changes in population structure, activity and methane moderation potential.
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