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Sökning: WFRF:(Goodman Phyllis J.)

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11.
  • Key, Timothy J., et al. (författare)
  • Carotenoids, retinol, tocopherols, and prostate cancer risk : pooled analysis of 15 studies
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 102:5, s. 1142-1157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Individual studies have suggested that circulating carotenoids, retinol, or tocopherols may be associated with prostate cancer risk, but the studies have not been large enough to provide precise estimates of associations, particularly by stage and grade of disease. Objective: The objective of this study was to conduct a pooled analysis of the associations of the concentrations of 7 carotenoids, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and gamma-tocopherol with risk of prostate cancer and to describe whether any associations differ by stage or grade of the disease or other factors. Design: Principal investigators of prospective studies provided individual participant data for prostate cancer cases and controls. Risk by study-specific fifths of each biomarker was estimated by using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression in matched case-control sets. Results: Data were available for up to 11,239 cases (including 1654 advanced stage and 1741 aggressive) and 18,541 controls from 15 studies. Lycopene was not associated with overall risk of prostate cancer, but there was statistically significant heterogeneity by stage of disease, and the OR for aggressive disease for the highest compared with the lowest fifth of lycopene was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.91; P-trend = 0.032). No other carotenoid was significantly associated with overall risk of prostate cancer or with risk of advanced-stage or aggressive disease. For retinol, the OR for the highest compared with the lowest fifth was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.22; P-trend = 0.015). For alpha-tocopherol, the OR for the highest compared with the lowest fifth was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.94; P-trend < 0.001), with significant heterogeneity by stage of disease; the OR for aggressive prostate cancer was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.92; P-trend = 0.001). gamma-Tocopherol was not associated with risk. Conclusions: Overall prostate cancer risk was positively associated with retinol and inversely associated with alpha-tocopherol, and risk of aggressive prostate cancer was inversely associated with lycopene and alpha-tocopherol. Whether these associations reflect causal relations is unclear.
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12.
  • Walsh, Naomi, et al. (författare)
  • Agnostic Pathway/Gene Set Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Data Identifies Associations for Pancreatic Cancer
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - : Oxford University Press. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 111:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify associations of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cancer risk but usually only explain a fraction of the inherited variability. Pathway analysis of genetic variants is a powerful tool to identify networks of susceptibility genes.Methods: We conducted a large agnostic pathway-based meta-analysis of GWAS data using the summary-based adaptive rank truncated product method to identify gene sets and pathways associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in 9040 cases and 12 496 controls. We performed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and functional annotation of the top SNPs in genes contributing to the top associated pathways and gene sets. All statistical tests were two-sided.Results: We identified 14 pathways and gene sets associated with PDAC at a false discovery rate of less than 0.05. After Bonferroni correction (P ≤ 1.3 × 10-5), the strongest associations were detected in five pathways and gene sets, including maturity-onset diabetes of the young, regulation of beta-cell development, role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transactivation by G protein-coupled receptors in cardiac hypertrophy pathways, and the Nikolsky breast cancer chr17q11-q21 amplicon and Pujana ATM Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) network gene sets. We identified and validated rs876493 and three correlating SNPs (PGAP3) and rs3124737 (CASP7) from the Pujana ATM PCC gene set as eQTLs in two normal derived pancreas tissue datasets.Conclusion: Our agnostic pathway and gene set analysis integrated with functional annotation and eQTL analysis provides insight into genes and pathways that may be biologically relevant for risk of PDAC, including those not previously identified.
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13.
  • Allen, Naomi E, et al. (författare)
  • Selenium and Prostate Cancer : Analysis of Individual Participant Data From Fifteen Prospective Studies.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 108:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Some observational studies suggest that a higher selenium status is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer but have been generally too small to provide precise estimates of associations, particularly by disease stage and grade.METHODS: Collaborating investigators from 15 prospective studies provided individual-participant records (from predominantly men of white European ancestry) on blood or toenail selenium concentrations and prostate cancer risk. Odds ratios of prostate cancer by selenium concentration were estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided.RESULTS: Blood selenium was not associated with the risk of total prostate cancer (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio [OR] per 80 percentile increase = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83 to 1.23, based on 4527 case patients and 6021 control subjects). However, there was heterogeneity by disease aggressiveness (ie, advanced stage and/or prostate cancer death, Pheterogeneity = .01), with high blood selenium associated with a lower risk of aggressive disease (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.87) but not with nonaggressive disease. Nail selenium was inversely associated with total prostate cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.40, Ptrend < .001, based on 1970 case patients and 2086 control subjects), including both nonaggressive (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.50) and aggressive disease (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.11 to 0.31, Pheterogeneity = .08).CONCLUSIONS: Nail, but not blood, selenium concentration is inversely associated with risk of total prostate cancer, possibly because nails are a more reliable marker of long-term selenium exposure. Both blood and nail selenium concentrations are associated with a reduced risk of aggressive disease, which warrants further investigation.
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14.
  • Guo, Xingyi, et al. (författare)
  • Identifying Novel Susceptibility Genes for Colorectal Cancer Risk From a Transcriptome-Wide Association Study of 125,478 Subjects
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - : Saunders Elsevier. - 0016-5085 .- 1528-0012. ; 160:4, s. 1164-1178
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background And Aims: Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes.Methods: Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted.Results: We identified 25 genes associated with CRC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 9.1 × 10–6, including genes in 4 novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In 9 known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered 9 genes that have not been reported previously, whereas 4 genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P <.01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis.Conclusions: Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.
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15.
  • Cook, Michael B., et al. (författare)
  • Prediagnostic circulating markers of inflammation and risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma : a study within the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Gut. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 68:6, s. 960-968
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional data indicate that systemic inflammation is important in oesophageal adenocarcinoma. We conducted a prospective study to assess whether prediagnostic circulating markers of inflammation were associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma and to what extent they mediated associations of obesity and cigarette smoking with cancer risk.DESIGN: This nested case-control study included 296 oesophageal adenocarcinoma cases and 296 incidence density matched controls from seven prospective cohort studies. We quantitated 69 circulating inflammation markers using Luminex-based multiplex assays. Conditional logistic regression models estimated associations between inflammation markers and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, as well as direct and indirect effects of obesity and smoking on risk of malignancy.RESULTS: Soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2) (ORsquartile 4 vs 1=2.67, 95% CI 1.52 to 4.68) was significantly associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Additional markers close to the adjusted significance threshold included C reactive protein, serum amyloid A, lipocalin-2, resistin, interleukin (IL) 3, IL17A, soluble IL-6 receptor and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3. Adjustment for body mass index, waist circumference or smoking status slightly attenuated biomarker-cancer associations. Mediation analysis indicated that sTNFR2 may account for 33% (p=0.005) of the effect of waist circumference on oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. Resistin, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, C reactive protein and serum amyloid A were also identified as potential mediators of obesity-oesophageal adenocarcinoma associations. For smoking status, only plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 was a nominally statistically significant (p<0.05) mediator of cancer risk.CONCLUSION: This prospective study provides evidence of a link between systemic inflammation and oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. In addition, this study provides the first evidence that indirect effects of excess adiposity and cigarette smoking, via systemic inflammation, increase the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
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16.
  • McNabb, Sarah, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of 16 studies of the association of alcohol with colorectal cancer
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 146:3, s. 861-873
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, while studies have consistently reported elevated risk of CRC among heavy drinkers, associations at moderate levels of alcohol consumption are less clear. We conducted a combined analysis of 16 studies of CRC to examine the shape of the alcohol-CRC association, investigate potential effect modifiers of the association, and examine differential effects of alcohol consumption by cancer anatomic site and stage. We collected information on alcohol consumption for 14,276 CRC cases and 15,802 controls from 5 case-control and 11 nested case-control studies of CRC. We compared adjusted logistic regression models with linear and restricted cubic splines to select a model that best fit the association between alcohol consumption and CRC. Study-specific results were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Compared to non-/occasional drinking (<= 1 g/day), light/moderate drinking (up to 2 drinks/day) was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.98, p = 0.005), heavy drinking (2-3 drinks/day) was not significantly associated with CRC risk (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99-1.24, p = 0.08) and very heavy drinking (more than 3 drinks/day) was associated with a significant increased risk (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.11-1.40, p < 0.001). We observed no evidence of interactions with lifestyle risk factors or of differences by cancer site or stage. These results provide further evidence that there is a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk. This overall pattern was not significantly modified by other CRC risk factors and there was no effect heterogeneity by tumor site or stage.
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17.
  • Watts, Eleanor L., et al. (författare)
  • Circulating sex hormones in relation to anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors in an international dataset of 12,300 men
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 12:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases. To better understand disease etiology and the mechanisms of disease-risk factor associations, this analysis aimed to investigate the associations of anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors with a range of circulating sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin.Methods: Statistical analyses of individual participant data from 12,330 male controls aged 25–85 years from 25 studies involved in the Endogenous Hormones Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. Analysis of variance was used to estimate geometric means adjusted for study and relevant covariates.Results: Older age was associated with higher concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin and dihydrotestosterone and lower concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide and free estradiol. Higher body mass index was associated with higher concentrations of free estradiol, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol and estrone and lower concentrations of dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, free testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Taller height was associated with lower concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin and higher concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide. Current smoking was associated with higher concentrations of androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione and androstanediol glucuronide. East Asians had lower concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide and African Americans had higher concentrations of estrogens. Education and marital status were modestly associated with a small number of hormones.Conclusion: Circulating sex hormones in men are strongly associated with age and body mass index, and to a lesser extent with smoking status and alcohol consumption.
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18.
  • Wu, Kana, et al. (författare)
  • Associations between unprocessed red and processed meat, poultry, seafood and egg intake and the risk of prostate cancer : A pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : WILEY. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 138:10, s. 2368-2382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reports relating meat intake to prostate cancer risk are inconsistent. Associations between these dietary factors and prostate cancer were examined in a consortium of 15 cohort studies. During follow-up, 52,683 incident prostate cancer cases, including 4,924 advanced cases, were identified among 842,149 men. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate study-specific relative risks (RR) and then pooled using random effects models. Results do not support a substantial effect of total red, unprocessed red and processed meat for all prostate cancer outcomes, except for a modest positive association for tumors identified as advanced stage at diagnosis (advanced(r)). For seafood, no substantial effect was observed for prostate cancer regardless of stage or grade. Poultry intake was inversely associated with risk of advanced and fatal cancers (pooled multivariable RR [MVRR], 95% confidence interval, comparing 45 vs. <5 g/day: advanced 0.83, 0.70-0.99; trend test p value 0.29), fatal, 0.69, 0.59-0.82, trend test p value 0.16). Participants who ate 25 versus <5 g/day of eggs (1 egg approximate to 50 g) had a significant 14% increased risk of advanced and fatal cancers (advanced 1.14, 1.01-1.28, trend test p value 0.01; fatal 1.14, 1.00-1.30, trend test p value 0.01). When associations were analyzed separately by geographical region (North America vs. other continents), positive associations between unprocessed red meat and egg intake, and inverse associations between poultry intake and advanced, advanced(r) and fatal cancers were limited to North American studies. However, differences were only statistically significant for eggs. Observed differences in associations by geographical region warrant further investigation. What's New? The debate over red meat consumption and cancer risk is longstanding. In this consortium of 15 cohorts from North America, Europe, Australia and Asia, the authors examined over 50,000 cases of prostate cancer and the associated intake of unprocessed red and processed meat, seafood, eggs and poultry. Overall no substantial risk for unprocessed red and processed meat intake and prostate cancer was found. Interestingly, positive associations between intake of unprocessed red meat as well as eggs and advanced or fatal prostate cancers were detected only in participants living in North America, a finding which warrants further investigation into meat and egg composition, consumption and potential differences in lifestyle and screening practices between continents.
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19.
  • Petimar, Joshua, et al. (författare)
  • A Pooled Analysis of 15 Prospective Cohort Studies on the Association between Fruit, Vegetable, and Mature Bean Consumption and Risk of Prostate Cancer.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 26:8, s. 1276-1287
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Relationships between fruit, vegetable, and mature bean consumption and prostate cancer risk are unclear.Methods: We examined associations between fruit and vegetable groups, specific fruits and vegetables, and mature bean consumption and prostate cancer risk overall, by stage and grade, and for prostate cancer mortality in a pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohorts, including 52,680 total cases and 3,205 prostate cancer-related deaths among 842,149 men. Diet was measured by a food frequency questionnaire or similar instrument at baseline. We calculated study-specific relative risks using Cox proportional hazards regression, and then pooled these estimates using a random effects model.Results: We did not observe any statistically significant associations for advanced prostate cancer or prostate cancer mortality with any food group (including total fruits and vegetables, total fruits, total vegetables, fruit and vegetable juice, cruciferous vegetables, and tomato products), nor specific fruit and vegetables. In addition, we observed few statistically significant results for other prostate cancer outcomes. Pooled multivariable relative risks comparing the highest versus lowest quantiles across all fruit and vegetable exposures and prostate cancer outcomes ranged from 0.89 to 1.09. There was no evidence of effect modification for any association by age or body mass index.Conclusions: Results from this large, international, pooled analysis do not support a strong role of collective groupings of fruits, vegetables, or mature beans in prostate cancer.Impact: Further investigation of other dietary exposures, especially indicators of bioavailable nutrient intake or specific phytochemicals, should be considered for prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1276-87. ©2017 AACR.
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20.
  • Lin, Hui-Yi, et al. (författare)
  • Intake Patterns of Specific Alcoholic Beverages by Prostate Cancer Status
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Cancers. - : MDPI AG. - 2072-6694. ; 14:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Simple Summary Previous studies have shown heavy intake of different alcoholic beverages affects prostate cancer (PCa) clinical outcomes differently. However, the intake patterns of specific alcoholic beverages for PCa status are understudied. The study's objective is to evaluate intake patterns of total alcohol and three types of alcoholic beverage (beer, wine, and spirits) by PCa risk and aggressiveness status. This study included 10,029 men with European ancestry (4676 non-PCa men and 5353 PCa patients). We found PCa patients had a similar total heavy alcohol intake compared with non-PCa men. However, PCa patients were likely to drink more wine and spirits than non-PCa men. Patients with aggressive PCa drank more beer but not wine and spirits. Interestingly, heavy wine intake was inversely associated with PCa aggressiveness. These findings suggest that the intake patterns of specific alcoholic beverages differ by PCa status, and this information might help develop personalized alcohol intervention for PCa patients. Background: Previous studies have shown that different alcoholic beverage types impact prostate cancer (PCa) clinical outcomes differently. However, intake patterns of specific alcoholic beverages for PCa status are understudied. The study's objective is to evaluate intake patterns of total alcohol and the three types of beverage (beer, wine, and spirits) by the PCa risk and aggressiveness status. Method: This is a cross-sectional study using 10,029 men (4676 non-PCa men and 5353 PCa patients) with European ancestry from the PCa consortium. Associations between PCa status and alcohol intake patterns (infrequent, light/moderate, and heavy) were tested using multinomial logistic regressions. Results: Intake frequency patterns of total alcohol were similar for non-PCa men and PCa patients after adjusting for demographic and other factors. However, PCa patients were more likely to drink wine (light/moderate, OR = 1.11, p = 0.018) and spirits (light/moderate, OR = 1.14, p = 0.003; and heavy, OR = 1.34, p = 0.04) than non-PCa men. Patients with aggressive PCa drank more beer than patients with non-aggressive PCa (heavy, OR = 1.48, p = 0.013). Interestingly, heavy wine intake was inversely associated with PCa aggressiveness (OR = 0.56, p = 0.009). Conclusions: The intake patterns of some alcoholic beverage types differed by PCa status. Our findings can provide valuable information for developing custom alcohol interventions for PCa patients.
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