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Sökning: WFRF:(Grace Delia)

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  • Föregående 12[3]45Nästa
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21.
  • Lee, Hu Suk, et al. (författare)
  • An investigation into aflatoxin M 1 in slaughtered fattening pigs and awareness of aflatoxins in Vietnam.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMC Veterinary Research. - : BioMed Central. - 1746-6148 .- 1746-6148. ; 13:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite formed after aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is consumed by humans and animals; it can be detected in urine, milk and blood. It is well recognized that AFB1 is toxic to humans and other animals. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies aflatoxins as group 1 carcinogens and AFM1 as group 2B carcinogen. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the exposure of pigs to aflatoxins as well as to assess the public awareness of aflatoxins among people in five provinces in Vietnam.RESULTS: A total of 1920 urine samples were collected from slaughterhouses located in five provinces. Overall, the positive rate of AFM1 was 53.90% (95% confidence interval 51.64-56.15) using a cut-off of 0.15 μg/kg (range: limit of detection to 13.66 μg/kg, median: 0.2 μg/kg and mean: 0.63 μg/kg). A total of 252 people from the general population were interviewed from 5 provinces, and overall 67.86% reported being aware of aflatoxins. We also found that men and more highly educated had significantly increased awareness of aflatoxins compared to the females and primary/secondary school group. The respective odds ratios (ORs) were as follows: "male" group (OR: 2.64), "high school educated" group (OR: 3.40) and "college/university or more educated" group (OR: 10.20).CONCLUSIONS: We can conclude that pigs in Vietnam are exposed to aflatoxins to varying degrees, and there may be a risk that pork products could contain AFM1. Further investigation is needed into the possible health impacts as well as to aid in establishing regulations for animal feed to reduce the health impacts in humans and animals.
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22.
  • Lindahl, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • An inclusive and participatory approach to changing policies and practices for improved milk safety in Assam, northeast India
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY-AGRICULTURE POLICY ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENT. - : Elsevier. - 2211-9124. ; 17, s. 9-13
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Animal products are highly nutritious, but also highly perishable. In India milk is an important source of animal protein, but problems with low quality of the milk, high degrees of adulterated milk on the market, high bacterial loads, and sometimes presence of zoonotic pathogens persist. Most dairy farmers in India are resource-poor small-holders, often with limited knowledge about the importance of food safety and hygiene. Milk quality problems including adulteration and bacterial contamination is common in the country.This paper describes a training intervention for improved food safety in Guwahati, Assam, India, conducted in 2009–2013. The training was designed to be short, simple and customized, cheap to deliver, easily accessible, and accompanied by incentives to bring change in knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP). In 2014 three outcomes were assessed: changed KAP; milk production; and, mastitis prevalence. Selected food safety hazards were also assessed, although their management had not been included in training. We found evidence of improved KAP among trained farmers, 14% higher milk production, and a tendency towards less mastitis, but no effects on food safety hazard levels.This study shows that a training intervention can have a medium-term impact, while the issue of food safety is more complex and cannot be assumed to automatically follow from even successful training.
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23.
  • Lindahl, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Do vaccination interventions have effects? : A study on how poultry vaccination interventions change smallholder farmer knowledge, attitudes, and practice in villages in Kenya and Tanzania
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Tropical Animal Health and Production. - 0049-4747 .- 1573-7438. ; 51:1, s. 213-220
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Poultry are important for many poor households in developing countries, but there are many constraints to poultry production, including disease. One of the most important diseases of chickens is Newcastle disease (ND). Even though there are effective vaccines against this disease available in most countries, uptake by small-scale poultry keepers is often low. In this study, two areas in Kenya and Tanzania were studied, where some villages had received additional support to get vaccination and other villages had not. In Kenya, 320 households from 10 villages were interviewed, of which half of the villages had active promotion of vaccination through village-based advisors. In Tanzania, 457 households were interviewed, of which 241 came from villages that have had active support through either a project or government extension services. Knowledge about vaccines and the attitudes towards vaccinating against ND was evaluated using mixed multivariable logistic models. Results indicate that in Kenya, the most important determinants for understanding the function of a vaccine were having had support in the village and to have knowledge about ND signs, while in Tanzania gender and previous vaccine use were important in addition to having had support. Attitudes towards vaccination were mainly determined by knowledge, where more knowledge about how vaccines work in general or about ND contributed to more positive attitudes. Among Kenyan farmers that had never used the vaccine before, the amount of birds they lost to disease and predators also influenced attitudes. In conclusion, this study supports the notion that knowledge is a very important component of extension support and that simply making vaccines available may not be sufficient for high levels of uptake.
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24.
  • Lindahl, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluating farm-level livestock interventions in low-income countries : a scoping review of what works, how, and why
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Animal Health Research Reviews. - : Cambridge University Press (CUP). - 1466-2523 .- 1475-2654. ; 21:2, s. 108-121
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Livestock interventions can improve nutrition, health, and economic well-being of communities. The objectives of this review were to identify and characterize livestock interventions in developing countries and to assess their effectiveness in achieving development outcomes. A scoping review, guided by a search strategy, was conducted. Papers needed to be written in English, published in peer-reviewed journals, and describe interventions in animal health and production. Out of 2739 publications systematically screened at the title, abstract, and full publication levels, 70 met our inclusion criteria and were considered in the study. Eight relatively high-quality papers were identified and added, resulting in 78 reviewed publications. Only 15 studies used randomized controlled trial designs making it possible to confidently link interventions with the resulting outcomes. Eight studies had human nutrition or health as outcomes, 11 focused on disease control, and four were on livestock production. Eight interventions were considered successful, but only four were scalable. We found good evidence that livestock-transfer programs, leveraging livestock products for nutrition, and helping farmers manage priority diseases, can improve human well-being. Our report highlights challenges in garnering evidence for livestock interventions in developing countries and provides suggestions on how to improve the quantity and quality of future evaluations.
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25.
  • Lindahl, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices among dairy value chain actors in Assam, north-east India and the impact of a training intervention
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2000-8686 .- 2000-8686. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACTBackground: Food-borne diseases are contributing to health burdens globally, especially in developing countries. In India, milk production is important for nutrition security, but milk products are prone to contamination with pathogens. In Assam, a state in Northeast India, a novel hygiene intervention was conducted in 2009–2011, and the knowledge, attitudes and practices among milk producers, milk traders and sweet makers were assessed.Methods: The first survey was conducted in 2009 and included 405 producers, 175 traders and 220 sweet makers from 4 districts. The second survey was conducted in 2012 with 161 producers and 226 traders from 2 districts, both trained and untrained participants. In addition to questionnaires, observations on hygiene were done and samples were analysed for Escherichia coli.Results: In 2009 only 13.0%, 9.1%, and 33.1% of producers, traders and sweet makers respectively believed diseases could be transmitted by milk. There were significant improvements in knowledge afte...
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26.
  • Lindahl, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Risk Factors for Brucella Seroprevalence in Peri-Urban Dairy Farms in Five Indian Cities
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Tropical medicine and infectious disease. - 2414-6366. ; 4:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Brucellosis is endemic among dairy animals in India, contributing to production losses and posing a health risk to people, especially farmers and others in close contact with dairy animals or their products. Growing urban populations demand increased milk supplies, resulting in intensifying dairy production at the peri-urban fringe. Peri-urban dairying is under-studied but has implications for disease transmission, both positive and negative. In this cross-sectional study, five Indian cities were selected to represent different geographies and urbanization extent. Around each, we randomly selected 34 peri-urban villages, and in each village three smallholder dairy farms (defined as having a maximum of 10 dairy animals) were randomly selected. The farmers were interviewed, and milk samples were taken from up to three animals. These were tested using a commercial ELISA for antibodies against Brucella abortus, and factors associated with herd seroprevalence were identified. In all, 164 out of 1163 cows (14.1%, 95% CI 12.2-16.2%) were seropositive for Brucella. In total, 91 out of 510 farms (17.8%, 95% CI 14.6-21.4%) had at least one positive animal, and out of these, just seven farmers stated that they had vaccinated against brucellosis. In four cities, the farm-level seroprevalence ranged between 1.4-5.2%, while the fifth city had a seroprevalence of 72.5%. This city had larger, zero-grazing herds, used artificial insemination to a much higher degree, replaced their animals by purchasing from their neighbors, were less likely to contact a veterinarian in case of sick animals, and were also judged to be less clean. Within the high-prevalence city, farms were at higher risk of being infected if they had a young owner and if they were judged less clean. In the low-prevalence cities, no risk factors could be identified. In conclusion, this study has identified that a city can have a high burden of infected animals in the peri-urban areas, but that seroprevalence is strongly influenced by the husbandry system. Increased intensification can be associated with increased risk, and thus the practices associated with this, such as artificial insemination, are also associated with increased risk. These results may be important to identify high-risk areas for prioritizing interventions and for policy decisions influencing the structure and development of the dairy industry.
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27.
  • Lindahl, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Serological evidence of Brucella infections in dairy cattle in Haryana, India
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology. - 2000-8686 .- 2000-8686. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In India, milk production is important for both the economy and the provision of nutritious food. However, the productivity of the livestock is affected by circulating infectious diseases, and some zoonotic diseases, such as brucellosis, may cause a heavy impact on the farm as the disease cause abortions and reproductive failures in bovines, with chronic febrile illness in humans.Methods: 249 dairy farms in the state of Haryana, India, were interviewed, and collected raw milk from 81 were analyzed for antibodies towards Brucella abortus.Results: More samples were positive using milk ring test (MRT) (55.6%, 45/81) than using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (29.6%, 24/81), with all ELISA positive samples also positive in MRT. The ELISA results were used for risk factor analyses. Seropositive farms were significantly (p = 0.015) larger than seronegative, with an average 7.9 cattle, compared to 4.9. Seropositive farms were more likely to report stillbirth occurring the last year, and a significantly higher proportion of seropositive farms reported retained placenta (odds ratio 5.2).Conclusion: This study showed that Brucella seroprevalence is high among farms in Haryana, and a control program is needed to ensure improved human and animal health, as well as improved livestock productivity.
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28.
  • Lindahl, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Students' and supervisors' knowledge and attitudes regarding plagiarism and referencing
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Research integrity and peer review. - 2058-8615. ; 3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Referencing is an integral part of scientific writing and professional research conduct that requires appropriate acknowledgement of others' work and avoidance of plagiarism. University students should understand and apply this as part of their academic development, but for this, it is essential that supervisors also display proper research integrity and support.Methods: This study used an online educative questionnaire to understand the knowledge and attitudes of students and supervisors at two institutes in Europe and Africa. The results were then used to create discussion around education of students and faculty in workshops and lectures.Results: Overall, 138 students and 14 supervisors participated: most were Swedish (89) and Kenyan (11). Overall, 98% had heard about plagiarism, and 35% believed it was common. Only 45% had heard about self-plagiarism, and when explained what it was, 44.5% considered it morally wrong. Europeans and North Americans had more knowledge than other nationalities. Most (85%) had received some training on referencing, but there was little consensus about principles, with more than 30% considering it acceptable to cite a reference in a paper they had not read. Discussing these results and the questions in workshops was helpful; it was also clear that there was no consensus among supervisors on what constituted correct behavior.Conclusions: This survey shows a need for greater consensus on appropriate referencing, and that there is need for more discussions and training on the topic for both students and faculty.
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29.
  • Lindahl, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • The Extent and Structure of Peri-urban Smallholder Dairy Farming in Five Cities in India
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Veterinary Science. - : Frontiers Media SA. - 2297-1769. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Livestock keeping is common in many cities in India, driven by the demand for animal-source foods, particularly perishable milk. We selected five cities from different regions of the country and conducted a census in 34 randomly selected peri-urban villages to identify and describe all smallholder dairy farms. In total 1,690 smallholder dairy farms were identified, keeping on average 2.2 milking cows and 0.7 milking buffaloes. In Bhubaneswar, the proportion of cows milking was only 50%, but in other cities it was 63-73%. In two of the five cities, more than 90% of the farmers stated that dairy production was their main source of income, while <50% in the other cities reported this. In one of the cities, only 36% of the households kept milk for themselves. Market channels varied considerably; in one city about 90% of farms sold milk to traders, in another, 90% sold to the dairy cooperative, and in another around 90% sold directly to consumers. In conclusion, peri-urban dairy systems in India are important but also varying between different cities, with only one city, Bengaluru, having a well-developed cooperative system, and the northeastern poorer region being more dependent on traders. Further studies may be needed to elucidate the importance and to design appropriate developmental interventions.
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30.
  • Lindahl, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Urban Livestock Keeping : Leveraging for Food and Nutrition Security
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability. - : Elsevier. - 9780128126882 ; , s. 322-325
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In spite of the importance of urban livestock keeping in providing the urban populations with livelihoods and nutritious foods, this phenomenon does have both benefits and negative effects. Here we explore the different strengths and weaknesses of urban livestock systems, including the risks for transmission of diseases and contribution to poor sanitation. In addition we look at the opportunities and threats that urban livestock keeping may face in the future, which are often dependent on policies and public attitudes.
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  • Resultat 21-30 av 49
  • Föregående 12[3]45Nästa

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