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Sökning: WFRF:(Gurholt T. P.)

  • Resultat 11-15 av 15
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11.
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12.
  • Beck, Dani, et al. (författare)
  • Adipose tissue distribution from body MRI is associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal brain age in adults
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : ELSEVIER SCI LTD. - 0353-8842 .- 2213-1582. ; 33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is an intimate body-brain connection in ageing, and obesity is a key risk factor for poor cardiometabolic health and neurodegenerative conditions. Although research has demonstrated deleterious effects of obesity on brain structure and function, the majority of studies have used conventional measures such as waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, and body mass index. While sensitive to gross features of body composition, such global anthropometric features fail to describe regional differences in body fat distribution and composition. The sample consisted of baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquired from 790 healthy participants aged 18-94 years (mean +/- standard deviation (SD) at baseline: 46.8 +/- 16.3), and follow-up brain MRI collected from 272 of those individuals (two time-points with 19.7 months interval, on average (min = 9.8, max = 35.6). Of the 790 included participants, cross-sectional body MRI data was available from a subgroup of 286 participants, with age range 19-86 (mean = 57.6, SD = 15.6). Adopting a mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal design, we investigated cross-sectional body magnetic resonance imaging measures of adipose tissue distribution in relation to longitudinal brain structure using MRI-based morphometry (T1) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We estimated tissue-specific brain age at two time points and performed Bayesian multilevel modelling to investigate the associations between adipose measures at follow-up and brain age gap (BAG) - the difference between actual age and the prediction of the brains biological age - at baseline and follow-up. We also tested for interactions between BAG and both time and age on each adipose measure. The results showed credible associations between T1-based BAG and liver fat, muscle fat infiltration (MFI), and weight-to-muscle ratio (WMR), indicating older-appearing brains in people with higher measures of adipose tissue. Longitudinal evidence supported interaction effects between time and MFI and WMR on T1-based BAG, indicating accelerated ageing over the course of the study period in people with higher measures of adipose tissue. The results show that specific measures of fat distribution are associated with brain ageing and that different compartments of adipose tissue may be differentially linked with increased brain ageing, with potential to identify key processes involved in age-related transdiagnostic disease processes.
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13.
  • Gurholt, Tiril P., et al. (författare)
  • Intracranial and subcortical volumes in adolescents with early‐onset psychosis : A multisite mega‐analysis from the ENIGMA consortium
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - Stockholm : Wiley. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 43:1, s. 373-384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Early-onset psychosis disorders are serious mental disorders arising before the age of 18 years. Here, we investigate the largest neuroimaging dataset, to date, of patients with early-onset psychosis and healthy controls for differences in intracranial and subcortical brain volumes. The sample included 263 patients with early-onset psychosis (mean age: 16.4 ± 1.4 years, mean illness duration: 1.5 ± 1.4 years, 39.2% female) and 359 healthy controls (mean age: 15.9 ± 1.7 years, 45.4% female) with magnetic resonance imaging data, pooled from 11 clinical cohorts. Patients were diagnosed with early-onset schizophrenia (n = 183), affective psychosis (n = 39), or other psychotic disorders (n = 41). We used linear mixed-effects models to investigate differences in intracranial and subcortical volumes across the patient sample, diagnostic subgroup and antipsychotic medication, relative to controls. We observed significantly lower intracranial (Cohen's d = −0.39) and hippocampal (d = −0.25) volumes, and higher caudate (d = 0.25) and pallidum (d = 0.24) volumes in patients relative to controls. Intracranial volume was lower in both early-onset schizophrenia (d = −0.34) and affective psychosis (d = −0.42), and early-onset schizophrenia showed lower hippocampal (d = −0.24) and higher pallidum (d = 0.29) volumes. Patients who were currently treated with antipsychotic medication (n = 193) had significantly lower intracranial volume (d = −0.42). The findings demonstrate a similar pattern of brain alterations in early-onset psychosis as previously reported in adult psychosis, but with notably low intracranial volume. The low intracranial volume suggests disrupted neurodevelopment in adolescent early-onset psychosis.
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14.
  • Gurholt, Tiril P., et al. (författare)
  • Population-based body-brain mapping links brain morphology with anthropometrics and body composition
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - : Springer Nature. - 2158-3188 .- 2158-3188. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding complex body-brain processes and the interplay between adipose tissue and brain health is important for understanding comorbidity between psychiatric and cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated associations between brain structure and anthropometric and body composition measures using brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; n=24,728) and body MRI (n=4973) of generally healthy participants in the UK Biobank. We derived regional and global measures of brain morphometry using FreeSurfer and tested their association with (i) anthropometric measures, and (ii) adipose and muscle tissue measured from body MRI. We identified several significant associations with small effect sizes. Anthropometric measures showed negative, nonlinear, associations with cerebellar/cortical gray matter, and brain stem structures, and positive associations with ventricular volumes. Subcortical structures exhibited mixed effect directionality, with strongest positive association for accumbens. Adipose tissue measures, including liver fat and muscle fat infiltration, were negatively associated with cortical/cerebellum structures, while total thigh muscle volume was positively associated with brain stem and accumbens. Regional investigations of cortical area, thickness, and volume indicated widespread and largely negative associations with anthropometric and adipose tissue measures, with an opposite pattern for thigh muscle volume. Self-reported diabetes, hypertension, or hypercholesterolemia were associated with brain structure. The findings provide new insight into physiological body-brain associations suggestive of shared mechanisms between cardiometabolic risk factors and brain health. Whereas the causality needs to be determined, the observed patterns of body-brain relationships provide a foundation for understanding the underlying mechanisms linking psychiatric disorders with obesity and cardiovascular disease, with potential for the development of new prevention strategies.
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15.
  • Tønnesen, Siren, et al. (författare)
  • Brain Age Prediction Reveals Aberrant Brain White Matter in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder : A Multisample Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry. - : Elsevier BV. - 2451-9022. ; 5:12, s. 1095-1103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) share substantial neurodevelopmental components affecting brain maturation and architecture. This necessitates a dynamic lifespan perspective in which brain aberrations are inferred from deviations from expected lifespan trajectories. We applied machine learning to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices of white matter structure and organization to estimate and compare brain age between patients with SZ, patients with BD, and healthy control (HC) subjects across 10 cohorts.METHODS: We trained 6 cross-validated models using different combinations of DTI data from 927 HC subjects (18-94 years of age) and applied the models to the test sets including 648 patients with SZ (18-66 years of age), 185 patients with BD (18-64 years of age), and 990 HC subjects (17-68 years of age), estimating the brain age for each participant. Group differences were assessed using linear models, accounting for age, sex, and scanner. A meta-analytic framework was applied to assess the heterogeneity and generalizability of the results.RESULTS: Tenfold cross-validation revealed high accuracy for all models. Compared with HC subjects, the model including all feature sets significantly overestimated the age of patients with SZ (Cohen's d = -0.29) and patients with BD (Cohen's d = 0.18), with similar effects for the other models. The meta-analysis converged on the same findings. Fractional anisotropy-based models showed larger group differences than the models based on other DTI-derived metrics.CONCLUSIONS: Brain age prediction based on DTI provides informative and robust proxies for brain white matter integrity. Our results further suggest that white matter aberrations in SZ and BD primarily consist of anatomically distributed deviations from expected lifespan trajectories that generalize across cohorts and scanners.
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  • Resultat 11-15 av 15
  • Föregående 1[2]

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