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21.
  • Alexander, John H., et al. (författare)
  • Apixaban, an oral, direct, selective factor Xa inhibitor, in combination with antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndrome : results of the Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic and Safety Events (APPRAISE) trial
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 119:22, s. 2877-2885
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: After an acute coronary syndrome, patients remain at risk of recurrent events. Apixaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, is a novel anticoagulant that may reduce these events but also poses a risk of bleeding. METHODS AND RESULTS: Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic and Safety Events (APPRAISE) was a phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study. Patients (n=1715) with recent ST-elevation or non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome were randomized to 6 months of placebo (n=611) or 1 of 4 doses of apixaban: 2.5 mg twice daily (n=317), 10 mg once daily (n=318), 10 mg twice daily (n=248), or 20 mg once daily (n=221). Nearly all patients received aspirin; 76% received clopidogrel. The primary outcome was International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. A secondary outcome was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, severe recurrent ischemia, or ischemic stroke. At the recommendation of the Data Monitoring Committee, the 2 higher-dose apixaban arms were discontinued because of excess total bleeding. Compared with placebo, apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily (hazard ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 3.48; P=0.09) and 10 mg once daily (hazard ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 4.61; P=0.005) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. Apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.44 to 1.19; P=0.21) and 10 mg once daily (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.35 to 1.04; P=0.07) resulted in lower rates of ischemic events compared with placebo. The increase in bleeding was more pronounced and the reduction in ischemic events was less evident in patients taking aspirin plus clopidogrel than in those taking aspirin alone. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a dose-related increase in bleeding and a trend toward a reduction in ischemic events with the addition of apixaban to antiplatelet therapy in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome. The safety and efficacy of apixaban may vary depending on background antiplatelet therapy. Further testing of apixaban in patients at risk of recurrent ischemic events is warranted.
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22.
  • Batra, Gorav, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of early myocardial reperfusion and perfusion on myocardial necrosis/dysfunction and inflammation in patients with ST-segment and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome : results from the PLATelet inhibition and patients Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press. - 2048-8726 .- 2048-8734. ; 11:4, s. 336-349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims Restoration of myocardial blood flow and perfusion during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) measured using Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade (TFG) and perfusion grade (TMPG) is associated with improved outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Associations between TFG/TMPG and changes in biomarkers reflecting myocardial damage/dysfunction and inflammation is unknown. Methods and results Among 2606 patients included, TFG was evaluated in 2198 and TMPG in 1874 with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-ST-segment ACS (NSTE-ACS). Biomarkers reflecting myocardial necrosis [troponin T (TnT)], myocardial dysfunction [N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)], inflammation [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)], and oxidative stress/ageing/inflammation [growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15)] were measured at baseline, discharge, and 1- and 6-month post-randomization. Associations between TFG/TMPG and changes in biomarker levels were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon signed test. In total, 1423 (54.6%) patients had STEMI and 1183 (45.4%) NSTE-ACS. Complete reperfusion after PCI with TFG = 3 was achieved in 1110 (85.3%) with STEMI and in 793 (88.5%) with NSTE-ACS. Normal myocardial perfusion with TMPG = 3 was achieved in 475 (41.6%) with STEMI and in 396 (54.0%) with NSTE-ACS. Levels of TnT, NT-proBNP, IL-6, CRP, and GDF-15 were substantially lower at discharge in patients with complete vs. incomplete TFG and STEMI (P < 0.01). This pattern was not observed for patients with NSTE-ACS. Patients with normal vs. abnormal TMPG and NSTE-ACS had lower levels of NT-proBNP at discharge (P = 0.01). Conclusions Successful restoration of epicardial blood flow in STEMI was associated with less myocardial necrosis/dysfunction and inflammation. Attainment of normal myocardial perfusion was associated with less myocardial dysfunction in NSTE-ACS.
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23.
  • Bonaca, Marc P, et al. (författare)
  • Antithrombotics in acute coronary syndromes
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 54:11, s. 969-984
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Antithrombotic agents are an integral component of the medical regimens and interventional strategies currently recommended to reduce thrombotic complications in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Despite great advances with these therapies, associated high risks for thrombosis and hemorrhage remain as the result of complex interactions involving patient comorbidities, drug combinations, multifaceted dosing adjustments, and the intricacies of the care environment. As such, the optimal combinations of antithrombotic therapies, their timing, and appropriate targeted subgroups remain the focus of intense research. During the last several years a number of new antithrombotic treatments have been introduced, and new data regarding established therapies have come to light. Although treatment guidelines include the most current available data, subsequent findings can be challenging to integrate. This challenge is compounded by the complexity associated with different efficacy and safety measures and the variability in study populations, presenting syndromes, physician, and patient preferences. In this work we review recent data regarding clinically available antiplatelet and anticoagulation agents used in the treatment of patients with ACS. We address issues including relative efficacy, safety, and timing of therapies with respect to conservative and invasive treatment strategies. In specific cases we will highlight remaining questions and controversies and ongoing trials, which will hopefully shed light in these areas. In addition to reviewing existing agents, we take a look forward at the most promising new antithrombotics currently in late-stage clinical development and their potential role in the context of ACS management.
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24.
  • Ducrocq, Gregory, et al. (författare)
  • Balance of benefit and risk of ticagrelor in patients with diabetes and stable coronary artery disease according to bleeding risk assessment with the CRUSADE score : Data from THEMIS and THEMIS PCI
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 249, s. 23-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The THEMIS trial demonstrated that in high-risk patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes without previous myocardial infarction or stroke, ticagrelor, in addition to aspirin, reduced the incidence of ischemic events but increased major bleeding. Identification of patients who could derive the greatest net benefit from the addition of ticagrelor appears important. We used the CRUSADE bleeding risk score to risk stratify the THEMIS population. Methods The population was divided into tertiles: score <= 22, 23 to 33, and >= 34. In each tertile, primary efficacy (composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) and safety (TIMI major bleeding) outcomes were analyzed. NACE (net adverse clinical events) was defined as the irreversible harm composite, in which all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, amputations, fatal bleeds, and intracranial hemorrhage were counted. Results Patients in the lower risk tertile experienced fewer ischemic events with ticagrelor than placebo, whereas there was no significant benefit from ticagrelor in the other tertiles (P-interaction = .008). Bleeding rates were consistently increased with ticagrelor across all tertiles (P-interaction = .79). Ticagrelor reduced NACE in the first tertile (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61-0.90) but not in the others (HR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.86-1.23 and HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.91-1.22, respectively; P-interaction = .012). Conclusions In patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes without a history of myocardial infarction or stroke, only those at the lower end of the bleeding risk spectrum according to the CRUSADE score derived net benefit from ticagrelor.
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25.
  • Giraldez, Roberto R., et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and clinical outcomes of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and prediabetes among patients with high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 165:6, s. 918-925.e2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background We examined the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes or prediabetes and associations with ischemic outcomes among non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Methods We categorized 8795 EARLY ACS trial patients into one of the following groups: "known diabetes" (n = 2860 [32.5%]; reported on the case report form), "undiagnosed diabetes" (n = 1069 [12.2%]; no diabetes history and fasting glucose >= 126 mg/dL or hemoglobin A(1c) >= 6.5%), "prediabetes" (n = 947 [10.8%]; fasting glucose >= 110 to <126 mg/dL, or " normal" (n = 3919 [44.5%]). Adjusted associations of known diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and prediabetes (versus normal) with 30-day and 1-year outcomes were determined. Results Undiagnosed diabetes was associated with greater 30-day death or myocardial infarction (MI) (ORadj 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.57), driven primarily by greater 30-day mortality (ORadj 1.65, 95% CI 1.09-2.48). Known diabetic patients had 30-day death or MI outcomes similar to those of normal patients, but 30-day mortality was higher (ORadj 1.40, 95% CI 1.01-1.93). Prediabetic patients had 30-day death or MI outcomes similar to those of normal patients. One-year mortality was greater among known diabetic patients (HRadj 1.38, 95% CI 1.13-1.67) but not among those with undiagnosed diabetes or prediabetes. Conclusions Undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes were common among high-risk non-ST-segment elevation ACS patients. Routine screening for undiagnosed diabetes may be useful since these patients seem to have worse short-term outcomes and deserve consideration of alternative management strategies.
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26.
  • Goodman, Shaun G., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Proton Pump Inhibitor Use on Cardiovascular Outcomes With Clopidogrel and Ticagrelor : Outcomes With Clopidogrel and Ticagrelor
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 125:8, s. 978-986
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-The clinical significance of the interaction between clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) remains unclear. Methods and Results-We examined the relationship between PPI use and 1-year cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) in patients with acute coronary syndrome randomized to clopidogrel or ticagrelor in a prespecified, nonrandomized subgroup analysis of the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. The primary end point rates were higher for individuals on a PPI (n = 6539) compared with those not on a PPI (n = 12 060) at randomization in both the clopidogrel (13.0% versus 10.9%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 -1.38) and ticagrelor (11.0% versus 9.2%; HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07-1.45) groups. Patients on non-PPI gastrointestinal drugs had similar primary end point rates compared with those on a PPI (PPI versus non-PPI gastrointestinal treatment: clopidogrel, HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.79-1.23; ticagrelor, HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73-1.10). In contrast, patients on no gastric therapy had a significantly lower primary end point rate (PPI versus no gastrointestinal treatment: clopidogrel, HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12-1.49; ticagrelor, HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.14-1.49). Conclusions-The use of a PPI was independently associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome receiving clopidogrel. However, a similar association was observed between cardiovascular events and PPI use during ticagrelor treatment and with other non-PPI gastrointestinal treatment. Therefore, in the PLATO trial, the association between PPI use and adverse events may be due to confounding, with PPI use more of a marker for, than a cause of, higher rates of cardiovascular events.
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27.
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28.
  • Hagström, Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Apolipoprotein B, Residual Cardiovascular Risk After Acute Coronary Syndrome, and Effects of Alirocumab
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 146:9, s. 657-672
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein B (apoB) provides an integrated measure of atherogenic risk. Whether apoB levels and apoB lowering hold incremental predictive information on residual risk after acute coronary syndrome beyond that provided by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is uncertain. METHODS: The ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) compared the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor alirocumab with placebo in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite optimized statin therapy. Primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal/nonfatal ischemic stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina). Associations between baseline apoB or apoB at 4 months and MACE were assessed in adjusted Cox proportional hazards and propensity score-matched models. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 2.8 years. In proportional hazards analysis in the placebo group, MACE incidence increased across increasing baseline apoB strata (3.2 [95% CI, 2.9-3.6], 4.0 [95% CI, 3.6-4.5], and 5.5 [95% CI, 5.0-6.1] events per 100 patient-years in strata <75, 75-<90, >= 90 mg/dL, respectively; P-trend<0.0001) and after adjustment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P-trend=0.035). Higher baseline apoB stratum was associated with greater relative (P-trend<0.0001) and absolute reduction in MACE with alirocumab versus placebo. In the alirocumab group, the incidence of MACE after month 4 decreased monotonically across decreasing achieved apoB strata (4.26 [95% CI, 3.78-4.79], 3.09 [95% CI, 2.69-3.54], and 2.41 [95% CI, 2.11-2.76] events per 100 patient-years in strata >= 50, >35-<50, and <= 35 mg/dL, respectively). Compared with propensity score-matched patients from the placebo group, treatment hazard ratios for alirocumab also decreased monotonically across achieved apoB strata. Achieved apoB was predictive of MACE after adjustment for achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not vice versa. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins, MACE increased across baseline apoB strata. Alirocumab reduced MACE across all strata of baseline apoB, with larger absolute reductions in patients with higher baseline levels. Lower achieved apoB was associated with lower risk of MACE, even after accounting for achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, indicating that apoB provides incremental information. Achievement of apoB levels as low as <= 35 mg/dL may reduce lipoprotein-attributable residual risk after acute coronary syndrome.
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29.
  • Koshizaka, Masaya, et al. (författare)
  • Obesity, Diabetes, and Acute Coronary Syndrome : Differences Between Asians and Whites
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medicine. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-9343 .- 1555-7162. ; 130:10, s. 1170-1176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Most diabetes and cardiovascular studies have been conducted in white patients, with data being extrapolated to other population groups.METHODS:For this analysis, patient-level data were extracted from 5 randomized clinical trials in patients with acute coronary syndrome; we compared obesity levels between Asian and white populations, stratified by diabetes status. By using an adjusted Cox proportional hazards model, hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular outcomes after an acute coronary syndrome were determined.RESULTS:We identified 49,224 patient records from the 5 trials, with 3176 Asians and 46,048 whites. Whites with diabetes had higher body mass index values than those without diabetes (median 29.3 vs 27.2 kg/m(2); P <.0001), whereas Asians with diabetes and without diabetes had similar body mass index (24.7 vs 24.2 kg/m2). Asians with diabetes (HR, 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-2.02), whites with diabetes (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.25), and Asians without diabetes (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.14-1.64) had higher rates of the composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 30 days than whites without diabetes. Asians with diabetes (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.47-2.31), whites with diabetes (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.33-1.62), and Asians without diabetes (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.11-1.73) had higher rates of death at 1 year compared with whites without diabetes. There were no significant interactions between race and diabetes for ischemic outcomes.CONCLUSIONS:Although Asians with diabetes and acute coronary syndrome are less likely to be obese than their white counterparts, their risk for death or recurrent ischemic events was not lower.
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30.
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