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51.
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52.
  • Cannon, Christopher P., et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of ticagrelor with clopidogrel in patients with a planned invasive strategy for acute coronary syndromes (PLATO) : a randomised double-blind study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 375:9711, s. 283-293
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Variation in and irreversibility of platelet inhibition with clopidogrel has led to controversy about its optimum dose and timing of administration in patients with acute coronary syndromes. We compared ticagrelor, a more potent reversible P2Y12 inhibitor with clopidogrel in such patients. METHODS: At randomisation, an invasive strategy was planned for 13 408 (72.0%) of 18 624 patients hospitalised for acute coronary syndromes (with or without ST elevation). In a double-blind, double-dummy study, patients were randomly assigned in a one-to-one ratio to ticagrelor and placebo (180 mg loading dose followed by 90 mg twice a day), or to clopidogrel and placebo (300-600 mg loading dose or continuation with maintenance dose followed by 75 mg per day) for 6-12 months. All patients were given aspirin. The primary composite endpoint was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00391872. FINDINGS: 6732 patients were assigned to ticagrelor and 6676 to clopidogrel. The primary composite endpoint occurred in fewer patients in the ticagrelor group than in the clopidogrel group (569 [event rate at 360 days 9.0%] vs 668 [10.7%], hazard ratio 0.84, 95% CI 0.75-0.94; p=0.0025). There was no difference between clopidogrel and ticagrelor groups in the rates of total major bleeding (691 [11.6%] vs 689 [11.5%], 0.99 [0.89-1.10]; p=0.8803) or severe bleeding, as defined according to the Global Use of Strategies To Open occluded coronary arteries, (198 [3.2%] vs 185 [2.9%], 0.91 [0.74-1.12]; p=0.3785). INTERPRETATION: Ticagrelor seems to be a better option than clopidogrel for patients with acute coronary syndromes for whom an early invasive strategy is planned.
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53.
  • Cornel, Jan H., et al. (författare)
  • Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor Inhibitors in Combination With Vorapaxar, a Platelet Thrombin Receptor Antagonist, Among Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes (from the TRACER Trial)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Cardiology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-9149 .- 1879-1913. ; 115:10, s. 1325-1332
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We evaluated the interaction between protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist vorapaxar and concomitant glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes who underwent PCI. In Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome trial, 12,944 patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes were randomized to vorapaxar or placebo. Administration of GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors was allowed at the treating physician's discretion. We investigated whether use of GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors modified vorapaxar's effect on non-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)-related bleeding at 7 days and ischemic events at 30 days. In total, 7,455 patients underwent PCI during index hospitalization. Of these, 2,023 patients (27.1%) received inhibitors and 5,432 (72.9%) did not. Vorapaxar was associated with a numerically higher rate of non-CABG-related moderate/severe Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries (GUSTO) bleeding at 7 days compared with placebo in those who did (1.3% vs 1.0%) and did not (0.6% vs 0.4%) receive GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors. Ischemic end point rates at 30 days were not significantly lower with vorapaxar versus placebo. Increased rates of non-CABG GUSTO moderate/severe bleeding were observed in patients who received GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors versus those who did not (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43 to 7.35 in placebo arm; adjusted HR 2.02, 95% CI 0.62 to 6.61 in vorapaxar arm) and in those who received vorapaxar versus placebo (adjusted HR 1.54, 95% CI 0.36 to 6.56 in the GP IIn/IIIa group; adjusted FIR 1.34, 95% CI 0.44 to 4.07 in the no-GP IIb/IIIa group). No interaction was found between vorapaxar and inhibitor use up to 7 days (P interaction = 0.89) nor at the end of the treatment (P interaction = 0.74); however, the event rate was low. Also, no interaction was observed for efficacy end points after PCI at 30 days or at the end of the treatment. In conclusion, GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor use plus dual antiplatelet therapy in a population with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction planned for PCI was frequent but did not interact with vorapaxar's efficacy or safety. Nonetheless, GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors and vorapaxar were associated with increased bleeding risk, and their combined use may result in additive effects on bleeding rates.
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54.
  • Cowper, Patricia A, et al. (författare)
  • Economic Analysis of Ticagrelor Therapy From a U.S. Perspective : Results From the PLATO Study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 65:5, s. 465-476
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Based on results of the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial comparing ticagrelor with clopidogrel therapy, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved ticagrelor in 2011 for reducing thrombotic cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with the proviso that it be taken with low-dose aspirin.OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the cost and cost effectiveness of ticagrelor therapy relative to clopidogrel in treating ACS patients from the perspective of the U.S. health care system.METHODS: We estimated within-trial resource use and costs using U.S. low-dose aspirin patients in PLATO (n = 547). Quality-adjusted life expectancy was estimated using the total PLATO population (n = 18,624), combined with baseline risk and long-term survival data from an external ACS patient cohort. Study drugs were valued at current costs. Cost effectiveness was assessed, as was the sensitivity of results to sampling and methodological uncertainties.RESULTS: One year of ticagrelor therapy, relative to that of generic clopidogrel, cost $29,665/quality-adjusted life-year gained, with 99% of bootstrap estimates falling under a $100,000 willingness-to-pay threshold. Results were robust to extensive sensitivity analyses, including variations in clopidogrel cost, exclusion of costs in extended years of life, and a recalibrated estimate of survival reflecting a lower underlying mortality risk in the United States.CONCLUSIONS: For PLATO-eligible ACS patients, a U.S. perspective comparison of the current standard of dual antiplatelet therapy of aspirin with clopidogrel versus aspirin plus ticagrelor showed that the ticagrelor regimen increased life expectancy at an incremental cost well within accepted benchmarks of good value for money. (A Comparison of Ticagrelor [AZD6140] and Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [PLATO]; NCT00391872).
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55.
  • Cowper, Patricia A., et al. (författare)
  • Economic Analysis of Ticagrelor Therapy From a US Perspective
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 65:5, s. 465-476
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Based on results of the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial comparing ticagrelor with clopidogrel therapy, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved ticagrelor in 2011 for reducing thrombotic cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with the proviso that it be taken with low-dose aspirin. OBJECTIVES This study sought to assess the cost and cost effectiveness of ticagrelor therapy relative to clopidogrel in treating ACS patients from the perspective of the U.S. health care system. METHODS We estimated within-trial resource use and costs using U.S. low-dose aspirin patients in PLATO (n = 547). Quality-adjusted life expectancy was estimated using the total PLATO population (n = 18,624), combined with baseline risk and long-term survival data from an external ACS patient cohort. Study drugs were valued at current costs. Cost effectiveness was assessed, as was the sensitivity of results to sampling and methodological uncertainties. RESULTS One year of ticagrelor therapy, relative to that of generic clopidogrel, cost $29,665/quality-adjusted life-year gained, with 99% of bootstrap estimates falling under a $100,000 willingness-to-pay threshold. Results were robust to extensive sensitivity analyses, including variations in clopidogrel cost, exclusion of costs in extended years of life, and a recalibrated estimate of survival reflecting a lower underlying mortality risk in the United States. CONCLUSIONS For PLATO-eligible ACS patients, a U.S. perspective comparison of the current standard of dual antiplatelet therapy of aspirin with clopidogrel versus aspirin plus ticagrelor showed that the ticagrelor regimen increased life expectancy at an incremental cost well within accepted benchmarks of good value for money. (C) 2015 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
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56.
  • Harrington, Josephine, et al. (författare)
  • Direct Oral Anticoagulants Versus Warfarin Across the Spectrum of Kidney Function : Patient-Level Network Meta-Analyses From COMBINE AF
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 147:23, s. 1748-1757
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:There is uncertainty surrounding the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with kidney dysfunction. Methods:Using the COMBINE AF (A Collaboration Between Multiple Institutions to Better Investigate Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulant Use in Atrial Fibrillation) database (data from RE-LY [Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulation Therapy], ROCKET AF [Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation], ARISTOTLE [Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation], and ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 [Effective Anticoagulation With Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 48]), we performed an individual patient-level network meta-analysis to evaluate the safety and efficacy of DOACs versus warfarin across continuous creatinine clearance (CrCl). A multivariable Cox model including treatment-by-CrCl interaction with random effects was fitted to estimate hazard ratios for paired treatment strategies (standard-dose DOAC, lower-dose DOAC, and warfarin). Outcomes included stroke and systemic embolism (S/SE), major bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and death. Results:Among 71 683 patients (mean age, 70.6 +/- 9.4 years; 37.3% female; median follow-up, 23.1 months), the mean CrCl was 75.5 +/- 30.5 mL/min. The incidence of S/SE, major bleeding, ICH, and death increased significantly with worsening kidney function. Across continuous CrCl values down to 25 mL/min, the hazard of major bleeding did not change for patients randomized to standard-dose DOACs compared with those randomized to warfarin (P-interaction=0.61). Compared with warfarin, standard-dose DOAC use resulted in a significantly lower hazard of ICH at CrCl values <122 mL/min, with a trend for increased safety with DOAC as CrCl decreased (6.2% decrease in hazard ratio per 10-mL/min decrease in CrCl; P-interaction=0.08). Compared with warfarin, standard-dose DOAC use resulted in a significantly lower hazard of S/SE with CrCl <87 mL/min, with a significant treatment-by-CrCl effect (4.8% decrease in hazard ratio per 10-mL/min decrease in CrCl; P-interaction=0.01). The hazard of death was significantly lower with standard-dose DOACs for patients with CrCl <77 mL/min, with a trend toward increasing benefit with lower CrCl (2.1% decrease in hazard ratio per 10-mL/min decrease in CrCl; P-interaction=0.08). Use of lower-dose rather than standard-dose DOACs was not associated with a significant difference in incident bleeding or ICH in patients with reduced kidney function but was associated with a higher incidence4 of death and S/SE. Conclusions:Standard-dose DOACs are safer and more effective than warfarin down to a CrCl of at least 25 mL/min. Lower-dose DOACs do not significantly lower the incidence of bleeding or ICH compared with standard-dose DOACs but are associated with a higher incidence of S/SE and death. These findings support the use of standard-dose DOACs over warfarin in patients with kidney dysfunction.
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57.
  • Harskamp, Ralf E., et al. (författare)
  • Use of thienopyridine prior to presentation with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome and association with safety and efficacy of vorapaxar : insights from the TRACER trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD. - 2048-8726 .- 2048-8734. ; 6:2, s. 155-163
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Vorapaxar is effective in the prevention of secondary atherothrombotic events, although the efficacy/safety balance appears less favorable in the treatment of patients with non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We hypothesized that patients with NSTE ACS already receiving thienopyridine prior to the ACS event may show differential efficacy/safety effects with vorapaxar vs. placebo added to their standard care. Methods: We studied 12,944 patients from the Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER) trial with respect to thienopyridine use before admission for the index NSTE ACS event. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, rehospitalization for ischemia, and urgent revascularization. The key secondary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Safety endpoints were bleeding complications. Results: Only 1513 patients (11.7%) were receiving thienopyridine before admission for the index NSTE ACS event. In these patients, Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) moderate/severe bleeding occurred in 5.7% treated with vorapaxar and 5.3% treated with a placebo (hazards ratio (HR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-1.71); in thienopyridine-naive patients, the rates were 5.7% and 4.1%, respectively (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.11-1.57; P-int=0.45). GUSTO severe bleeding in the prior thienopyridine group occurred in 0.5% of patients treated with vorapaxar and 1.3% of patients treated with placebo (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.09-1.30); in thienopyridine-naive patients, the rates were 2.0% and 1.0%, respectively (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.36-2.62; P-int=0.01). No interaction was observed between vorapaxar efficacy and prior thienopyridine use on the primary (adjusted P-int=0.53) or key secondary endpoints (P-int=0.61). Conclusions: TRACER was largely conducted in thienopyridine-naive patients with unknown tolerance to multiple antiplatelet treatments. Patients receiving thienopyridine before the index event may have had an attenuated increase in bleeding when adding vorapaxar, whereas concomitantly adding vorapaxar and thienopyridine in naive patients may have uncovered a latent susceptibility to bleeding.
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58.
  • Held, Claes, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Results From the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) Trial
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 57:6, s. 672-684
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor and clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), as a post-randomization strategy. Background Ticagrelor is a novel, reversibly binding, oral, direct-acting P2Y(12)-receptor antagonist. In the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial, which randomized 18,624 patients with acute coronary syndromes, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel significantly reduced the risk of the primary composite end point of cardiovascular (CV) death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77 to 0.92; p < 0.001). This report investigated the outcomes of patients treated with CABG during the trial. Methods In total, 1,899 patients underwent CABG post-randomization. The protocol recommended ticagrelor/placebo to be withheld for 24 to 72 h and clopidogrel/placebo for 5 days preoperatively. In all, 1,261 patients underwent CABG and were receiving study drug treatment <7 days before surgery. The statistical analysis was based on events occurring from the CABG procedure until the end of the study, excluding 3 patients with CABG after study end. Results In the 1,261 patient cohort, the relative reduction of primary composite end point at 12 months (10.6% [66 of 629] with ticagrelor versus 13.1% [79 of 629] with clopidogrel; HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.60 to 1.16; p = 0.29) was consistent with the results of the whole trial. Total mortality was reduced from 9.7% (58 of 629) to 4.7% (29 of 629; HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.77; p < 0.01), CV death from 7.9% (47 of 629) to 4.1% (25 of 629; HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.85; p < 0.01), and non-CV death numerically from 2.0% to 0.7% (p = 0.07). There was no significant difference in CABG-related major bleeding between the randomized treatments. Conclusions In the subgroup of patients undergoing CABG within 7 days after the last study drug intake, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel was associated with a substantial reduction in total and CV mortality without excess risk of CABG-related bleeding.
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