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  • Fuertes, Elaine, et al. (författare)
  • The role of C-reactive protein levels on the association of physical activity with lung function in adults
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 14:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Regular physical activity may be associated with improved lung function via reduced systemic inflammation, although studies exploring this mechanism are rare. We evaluated the role of C-reactive protein in blood, which is a common marker of systemic inflammation, on the association of physical activity with forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity.METHODS: Cross-sectional data on spirometry, C-reactive protein levels and self-reported physical activity (yes/no; ≥2 times and ≥1hr per week of vigorous physical activity) were available in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (N = 2347 adults, 49.3% male, 28-56 years-old). A subsample was also assessed 10 years later using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and tertiles of Metabolic Equivalent of Task-minutes per week spent in vigorous, moderate and walking activities were calculated (N = 671, 49.6% male, 40-67 years-old). Adjusted cross-sectional mixed linear regression models and the "mediate" package in "R" were used to assess the presence of mediation.RESULTS: Despite positive significant associations between nearly all physical activity metrics with forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity, there was no evidence that C-reactive protein levels played a role. An influence of C-reactive protein levels was only apparent in the smaller subsample when comparing the medium to low tertiles of moderate activity (mean difference [95% CIs]: 21.1ml [5.2, 41.9] for forced expiratory volume in one second and 17.3ml [2.6, 38.0] for forced vital capacity).CONCLUSIONS: In a population of adults, we found no consistent evidence that the association of physical activity with forced expiratory volume in one second or forced vital capacity is influenced by the level of C-reactive protein in blood.
  • Gehring, Ulrike, et al. (författare)
  • Air Pollution Exposure and Lung Function in Children : The ESCAPE Project
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - : Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 121:11-12, s. 1357-1364
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: There is evidence for adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on lung function of children. Quantitative summaries of the effects of air pollution on lung function, however, are lacking due to large differences among studies. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the association between residential exposure to air pollution and lung function in five European birth cohorts with a standardized exposure assessment following a common protocol. METHODS: As part of the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) we analyzed data from birth cohort studies situated in Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom that measured lung function at 6-8 years of age (n = 5,921). Annual average exposure to air pollution [nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx), mass concentrations of particulate matter with diameters < 2.5, < 10, and 2.5-10 mu m (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse), and PM2.5 absorbance] at the birth address and current address was estimated by land-use regression models. Associations of lung function with estimated air pollution levels and traffic indicators were estimated for each cohort using linear regression analysis, and then combined by random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Estimated levels of NO2, NOx, PM2.5 absorbance, and PM2.5 at the current address, but not at the birth address, were associated with small decreases in lung function. For example, changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) ranged from -0.86% (95% CI: -1.48, -0.24%) for a 20-mu g/m(3) increase in NOx to -1.77% (95% CI: -3.34, -0.18%) for a 5-mu g/m(3) increase in PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to air pollution may result in reduced lung function in schoolchildren.
  • Götschi, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Air pollution and lung function in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International journal of epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1464-3685 .- 0300-5771. ; 37:6, s. 1349-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The association of long-term air pollution and lung function has not been studied across adult European multi-national populations before. The aim of this study was to determine the association between long-term urban background air pollution and lung function levels, as well as change in lung function among European adults. METHODS: Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and the ratio thereof (FEV1/FVC) were assessed at baseline and after 9 years of follow-up in adults from 21 European centres (followed-up sample 5610). Fine particles (PM(2.5)) were measured in 2000/2001 using central monitors. RESULTS: Despite sufficient statistical power no significant associations were found between city-specific annual mean PM(2.5) and average lung function levels. The findings also do not support an effect on change in lung function, albeit statistical power was insufficient to significantly detect such an association. CONCLUSIONS: The inability to refuse the null hypothesis may reflect (i) no effect of urban air pollution on lung function or (ii) inherent biases due to the study design. Examples of the latter are lack of individual-level air quality assignment, not quantified within-city contrasts in traffic-related pollution, or the heterogeneity of the studied populations and their urban environments. Future studies on long-term effects of air pollution on lung function could increase statistical power and reduce potential misclassification and confounding by characterizing exposure on the level of individuals, capturing contrasts due to local sources, in particular traffic.
  • Götschi, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Elemental composition and reflectance of ambient fine particles at 21 European locations
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - Oxford : Pergamon Press. - 1352-2310 .- 1873-2844. ; 39:32, s. 5947-5958
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We sampled fine particles (PM2.5) over a 1-year period at 21 central urban monitoring sites in 20 cities of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Particle filters were then analysed for elemental composition using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and reflectance (light absorption). Elemental analyses yielded valid results for 15 elements (Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Pb, S, Si, Ti, V, Zn). Annual and seasonal means Of PM2.5, reflectance, and elements show a wide range across Europe with the lowest levels found in Iceland and up to 80 times higher concentrations in Northern Italy. This pattern holds for most of the air pollution indicators. The mass concentration of S did constitute the largest fraction of the analysed elements Of PM2.5 in all locations. The crustal component varies from less than 10% up to 25% across these cities. Temporal correlations of daily values vary considerably from city to city, depending on the indicators compared. Nevertheless, correlations between estimates of long-term exposure, such as annual means, are generally high among indicators Of PM2.5 from anthropogenic sources, such as S, metals, and reflectance. This highlights the difficulty to disentangle effects of specific sources or PM constituents in future health effect analyses using annual averages.
  • Hancock, Dana B, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Joint Meta-Analysis of SNP and SNP-by-Smoking Interaction Identifies Novel Loci for Pulmonary Function
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS genetics. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1553-7404. ; 8:12, s. e1003098-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous genetic loci for spirometic measures of pulmonary function, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC). Given that cigarette smoking adversely affects pulmonary function, we conducted genome-wide joint meta-analyses (JMA) of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and SNP-by-smoking (ever-smoking or pack-years) associations on FEV1 and FEV1/FVC across 19 studies (total N = 50,047). We identified three novel loci not previously associated with pulmonary function. SNPs in or near DNER (smallest PJMA = 5.00×10−11), HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DQA2 (smallest PJMA = 4.35×10−9), and KCNJ2 and SOX9 (smallest PJMA = 1.28×10−8) were associated with FEV1/FVC or FEV1 in meta-analysis models including SNP main effects, smoking main effects, and SNP-by-smoking (ever-smoking or pack-years) interaction. The HLA region has been widely implicated for autoimmune and lung phenotypes, unlike the other novel loci, which have not been widely implicated. We evaluated DNER, KCNJ2, and SOX9 and found them to be expressed in human lung tissue. DNER and SOX9 further showed evidence of differential expression in human airway epithelium in smokers compared to non-smokers. Our findings demonstrated that joint testing of SNP and SNP-by-environment interaction identified novel loci associated with complex traits that are missed when considering only the genetic main effects.
  • Hau, Stephan, 1960-, et al. (författare)
  • Vorwort
  • 2005. - 1
  • Ingår i: Depression - zwischen Lebensgefühl und Krankheit. - Göttingen : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. - 9783525451632 ; , s. -254
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Die zunehmende Verbreitung von Depression spiegelt den Seelenzustand unserer Epoche.Das Spektrum reicht von depressiven Stimmungslagen bis zu lang anhaltenden Störungen mit Krankheitswert.Momente von Depression stecken in den alltäglichen Lebensentwürfen und Beziehungsmustern ebenso wie in den Gestaltungen von Literatur, Film, Musik und bildender Kunst. Sie können als Anzeichen einer verschlechterten Stimmungslage des heutigen Menschen gelten, als pathologische Kehrseite der modernen Beschleunigungen, eines Zeitgeistes, der die inneren und äußeren Freiräume des Individuums derart bedroht, dass Kreativität, Entfaltung von Selbst und Identität im Extremfall zum Stillstand kommen. Oder sind Depressionen einfach Ausdruck von Stimmungsschwankungen, wie sie seit jeher im Seelenleben vorkommen? Dieser Band stellt die psychoanalytischen Facetten des Phänomens Depression vor, wie er sich ebenso mit der nichtpathologischen Seite beschäftigt.
  • Heinrich, Joachim, et al. (författare)
  • Cat allergen level : its determinants and relationship to specific IgE to cat across European centers
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 118:3, s. 674-681
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cat allergen level in settled house dust and its determinants in Europe are unknown. Objective: The aim of this study is to quantify the level of cat allergens in mattress dust, to study its determinants, and to analyze the relationship with cat specific IgE on community level across European centers. Methods: Trained field workers collected dust from approximately 3000 mattresses during home visits in 22 European Community Respiratory Health Survey II centers. Sieved dust extracts were assayed for cat allergen using a mAb ELISA assay. Results: The overall geometric mean cat allergen was 0.94 mu g/g, ranging from 0.12 mu g/g in Huelva, Spain, to 3.76 mu g/g in Antwerp, Belgium. Current cat owners' homes showed substantially higher levels than past cat owners' and never cat owners' homes (geometric mean and 95% CI, 61.4 mu g/g [48.4-77.9] vs 1.37 mu g/g [0.97-1.9] vs 0.29 mu g/g [0.27-0.31]x). Community prevalence of cat ownership was moderately correlated with cat allergen levels in noncat owners (r(s) = 0.50), but not for past or current cat owners. The multilevel model identified community prevalence of cat keeping as the only statistically significant determinant of mattress cat allergen levels for noncat owners. However, averaged cat allergen levels per center were not related to community prevalence of detectable specific IgE to cat. Conclusion: Not having a cat in the home is associated with substantially lower Fel d 1 concentration, but does not protect against high Fel d 1 exposure in communities where cat ownership is common. Clinical implications: People (including patients with cat allergy) who do not own cats may be exposed to high levels of cat allergen in their home, particularly if they live in communities with high levels of cat ownership.
  • Horikoshi, Momoko, et al. (författare)
  • New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 45:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood. Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type 2 diabetes and a second variant, near CCNL1, with no obvious link to adult traits. In an expanded genome-wide association meta-analysis and follow-up study of birth weight (of up to 69,308 individuals of European descent from 43 studies), we have now extended the number of loci associated at genome-wide significance to 7, accounting for a similar proportion of variance as maternal smoking. Five of the loci are known to be associated with other phenotypes: ADCY5 and CDKAL1 with type 2 diabetes, ADRB1 with adult blood pressure and HMGA2 and LCORL with adult height. Our findings highlight genetic links between fetal growth and postnatal growth and metabolism.
  • Hugentobler, Katharina Gloria, et al. (författare)
  • Lipid Composition Affects the Efficiency in the Functional Reconstitution of the Cytochrome c Oxidase
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences. - : MDPI AG. - 1661-6596 .- 1422-0067. ; 21:19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The transmembrane protein cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is the terminal oxidase in the respiratory chain of many aerobic organisms and catalyzes the reduction of dioxygen to water. This process maintains an electrochemical proton gradient across the membrane hosting the oxidase. CcO is a well-established model enzyme in bioenergetics to study the proton-coupled electron transfer reactions and protonation dynamics involved in these processes. Its catalytic mechanism is subject to ongoing intense research. Previous research, however, was mainly focused on the turnover of oxygen and electrons in CcO, while studies reporting proton turnover rates of CcO, that is the rate of proton uptake by the enzyme, are scarce. Here, we reconstitute CcO from R. sphaeroides into liposomes containing a pH sensitive dye and probe changes of the pH value inside single proteoliposomes using fluorescence microscopy. CcO proton turnover rates are quantified at the single-enzyme level. In addition, we recorded the distribution of the number of functionally reconstituted CcOs across the proteoliposome population. Studies are performed using proteoliposomes made of native lipid sources, such as a crude extract of soybean lipids and the polar lipid extract of E. coli, as well as purified lipid fractions, such as phosphatidylcholine extracted from soybean lipids. It is shown that these lipid compositions have only minor effects on the CcO proton turnover rate, but can have a strong impact on the reconstitution efficiency of functionally active CcOs. In particular, our experiments indicate that efficient functional reconstitution of CcO is strongly promoted by the addition of anionic lipids like phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. 
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