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Sökning: WFRF:(Himmelmann Anders)

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11.
  • Brilakis, Emmanouil S., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of ticagrelor on the outcomes of patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery : Insights from the PLATelet inhibition and patient outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 166:3, s. 474-480
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) who present with an acute coronary syndrome have a high risk for recurrent events. Whether intensive antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor might be beneficial compared with clopidogrel is unknown. In this substudy of the PLATO trial, we studied the effects of randomized treatment dependent on history of CABG. Methods Patients participating in PLATO were classified according to whether they had undergone prior CABG. The trial's primary and secondary end points were compared using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Of the 18,613 study patients, 1,133 (6.1%) had prior CABG. Prior-CABG patients had more high-risk characteristics at study entry and a 2-fold increase in clinical events during follow-up, but less major bleeding. The primary end point (composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) was reduced to a similar extent by ticagrelor among patients with (19.6% vs 21.4%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.91 [0.67, 1.24]) and without (9.2% vs 11.0%; adjusted HR, 0.86 [0.77, 0.96]; P-interaction = .73) prior CABG. Major bleeding was similar with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel among patients with (8.1% vs 8.7%; adjusted HR, 0.89 [0.55, 1.47]) and without (11.8% vs 11.4%; HR, 1.08 [0.98, 1.20]; P-interaction =.46) prior CABG. Conclusions Prior-CABG patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome are a high-risk cohort for death and recurrent cardiovascular events but have a lower risk for major bleeding. Similar to the results in no-prior-CABG patients, ticagrelor was associated with a reduction in ischemic events without an increase in major bleeding.
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12.
  • Bueno, Hector, et al. (författare)
  • Report of the European Society of Cardiology Cardiovascular Round Table regulatory workshop update of the evaluation of new agents for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome : Executive summary
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European heart journal. Acute cardiovascular care.. - : SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD. - 2048-8726. ; 8:8, s. 745-754
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Regulatory authorities interpret the results of randomized controlled trials according to published principles. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is planning a revision of the 2000 and 2003 guidance documents on clinical investigation of new medicinal products for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to achieve consistency with current knowledge in the field. This manuscript summarizes the key output from a collaborative workshop, organized by the Cardiovascular Round Table and the European Affairs Committee of the European Society of Cardiology, involving clinicians, academic researchers, trialists, European and US regulators, and pharmaceutical industry researchers. Specific questions in four key areas were selected as priorities for changes in regulatory guidance: patient selection, endpoints, methodologic issues and issues related to the research for novel agents. Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) should be studied separately for therapies aimed at the specific pathophysiology of either condition, particularly for treatment of the acute phase, but can be studied together for other treatments, especially long-term therapy. Unstable angina patients should be excluded from acute phase ACS trials. In general, cardiovascular death and reinfarction are recommended for primary efficacy endpoints; other endpoints may be considered if specifically relevant for the therapy under study. New agents or interventions should be tested against a background of evidence-based therapy with expanded follow-up for safety assessment. In conclusion, new guidance documents for randomized controlled trials in ACS should consider changes regarding patient and endpoint selection and definitions, and trial designs. Specific requirements for the evaluation of novel pharmacological therapies need further clarification.
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13.
  • Bui, An H., et al. (författare)
  • Relationship Between Early and Late Nonsustained Ventricular Tachycardia and Cardiovascular Death in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) Trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 1941-3149 .- 1941-3084. ; 9:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background- Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) is common after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and a marker of increased risk of arrhythmogenic death. However, the prognostic significance of NSVT when evaluated with other contemporary risk markers and at later time points after ACS remains uncertain. Methods and Results- In the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial, continuous ECGs were performed during the first 7 days after ACS (n=2866) and repeated for another 7 days at day 30 (n=1991). Median follow-up was 1 year. There was a time-varying interaction between NSVT and cardiovascular death such that NSVT was significantly associated with increased risk within the first 30 days after randomization (22/999 [2.2%] versus 16/1825 [0.9%]; adjusted hazard ratio, 2.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-5.79; P=0.004) but not after 30 days (28/929 [3.0%] versus 42/1734 [2.4%]; P=0.71). Detection of NSVT during the convalescent phase (n=428/1991; 21.5%) was also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death, and was most marked within the first 2 months after detection (1.9% versus 0.3%; adjusted hazard ratio, 5.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-28.20; P=0.01), and then decreasing over time such that the relationship was no longer significant by approximate to 5 months after ACS. Conclusions- NSVT occurred frequently during the acute and convalescent phases of ACS. The risk of cardiovascular death associated with NSVT was the greatest during the first 30 days after presentation; however, patients with NSVT detected during the convalescent phase were also at a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular death that persisted for an additional several months after the index event.
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14.
  • Dellborg, Mikael, 1954, et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy and safety with ticagrelor in patients with prior myocardial infarction in the approved European label: insights from PEGASUS-TIMI 54.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European heart journal. Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. - 2055-6845. ; 5:4, s. 200-206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In PEGASUS-TIMI 54, ticagrelor significantly reduced the risk of the composite of major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events by 15-16% in stable patients with a prior myocardial infarction (MI) 1-3 years earlier. We report the efficacy and safety in the subpopulation recommended for treatment in the European (EU) label, i.e. treatment with 60 mg b.i.d. initiated up to 2 years from the MI, or within 1 year after stopping previous adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor treatment.Of the 21 162 patients enrolled in PEGASUS-TIMI 54, 10 779 patients were included in the primary analysis for this study, randomized to ticagrelor 60 mg (n = 5388) or matching placebo (n = 5391). The cumulative proportions of patients with events at 36 months were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier (KM) method. The composite of CV death, MI, or stroke occurred less frequently in the ticagrelor group (7.9% KM rate vs. 9.6%), hazard ratio (HR) 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.91; P = 0.001]. Ticagrelor also reduced the risk of all-cause mortality, HR 0.80 (0.67-0.96; P = 0.018). Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding was more frequent in the ticagrelor group 2.5% vs. 1.1%; HR 2.36 (1.65-3.39; P < 0.001). The corresponding HR for fatal or intracranial bleeding was 1.17 (0.68-2.01; P = 0.58).In PEGASUS-TIMI 54, treatment with ticagrelor 60 mg as recommended in the EU label, was associated with a relative risk reduction of 20% in CV death, MI, or stroke. Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding was increased, but fatal or intracranial bleeding was similar to placebo. There appears to be a favourable benefit-risk ratio for long-term ticagrelor 60 mg in this population.http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01225562.
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15.
  • Ducrocq, Gregory, et al. (författare)
  • Balance of benefit and risk of ticagrelor in patients with diabetes and stable coronary artery disease according to bleeding risk assessment with the CRUSADE score : Data from THEMIS and THEMIS PCI
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 249, s. 23-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The THEMIS trial demonstrated that in high-risk patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes without previous myocardial infarction or stroke, ticagrelor, in addition to aspirin, reduced the incidence of ischemic events but increased major bleeding. Identification of patients who could derive the greatest net benefit from the addition of ticagrelor appears important. We used the CRUSADE bleeding risk score to risk stratify the THEMIS population. Methods The population was divided into tertiles: score <= 22, 23 to 33, and >= 34. In each tertile, primary efficacy (composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) and safety (TIMI major bleeding) outcomes were analyzed. NACE (net adverse clinical events) was defined as the irreversible harm composite, in which all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, amputations, fatal bleeds, and intracranial hemorrhage were counted. Results Patients in the lower risk tertile experienced fewer ischemic events with ticagrelor than placebo, whereas there was no significant benefit from ticagrelor in the other tertiles (P-interaction = .008). Bleeding rates were consistently increased with ticagrelor across all tertiles (P-interaction = .79). Ticagrelor reduced NACE in the first tertile (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61-0.90) but not in the others (HR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.86-1.23 and HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.91-1.22, respectively; P-interaction = .012). Conclusions In patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes without a history of myocardial infarction or stroke, only those at the lower end of the bleeding risk spectrum according to the CRUSADE score derived net benefit from ticagrelor.
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16.
  • Ducrocq, Gregory, et al. (författare)
  • Balancing the risk of spontaneous ischemic and major bleeding events in acute coronary syndromes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : MOSBY-ELSEVIER. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 186, s. 91-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Evaluation of antithrombotic treatments for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) requires balancing ischemic and bleeding risks to assess net benefit. We sought to compare the relative effects of ischemic and bleeding events on mortality.Methods: In the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial, we compared spontaneous ischemic events (myocardial infarction or stroke) with spontaneous major bleeding events (PLATO major, Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction [TIMI] major, Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries [GUSTO] severe) with respect to risk of mortality using time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models. The comparison was performed using ratio of hazard ratios for mortality increase after ischemic vs bleeding events.Results: A total of 822 patients (4.4%) had >= 1 spontaneous ischemic event; 485 patients (2.6%), >= 1 spontaneous PLATO major bleed, 282 (1.5%), >= 1 spontaneous TIMI major bleed; and 207 (1.1%), >= 1 spontaneous severe GUSTO bleed. In patients who had both events, bleeding occurred first in most patients. Regardless of classification, major bleeding events were associated with increased short- and long-term mortality that were not significantly different from the increase associated with spontaneous ischemic events: ratio of hazard ratios (95% Cls) for short- and long-term mortality after spontaneous ischemic vs bleeding events: 1.46 (0.98-2.19) and 0.92 (0.52-1.62) (PLATO major); 1.26 (0.80-1.96) and 1.19 (0.58-2.24) (TIMI major), 0.72 (0.47-1.10) and 0.83 (0.38-1.79) (GUSTO severe) (all P > 0.05)Conclusions: In patients with ACS on dual antiplatelet therapy, spontaneous major bleeding events seem "prognostically equivalent" to spontaneous ischemic complications. This result allows quantitative comparisons between both actual and predicted bleeding and ischemic risks. Our findings help to better define net clinical benefit of antithrombotic treatments and more accurately estimate mortality after ischemic and bleeding events in patients with ACS.
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17.
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18.
  • Franchi, Francesco, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Kidney Disease on Cardiovascular Outcomes and Platelet P2Y12 Receptor Antagonist Effects in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes : Insights From the PLATO Trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 8:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-There are limited data on how the combination of diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects cardiovascular outcomes as well as response to different P2Y(12) receptor antagonists, which represented the aim of the present investigation. Methods and Results-In this post hoc analysis of the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial, which randomized acute coronary syndrome patients to ticagrelor versus clopidogrel, patients (n=15 108) with available DM and CKD status were classified into 4 groups: DM+/CKD+ (n=1058), DM+/CKD- (n=2748), DM-/CKD+ (n=2160), and DM-/CKD- (n=9142). The primary efficacy end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 12 months. The primary safety end point was PLATO major bleeding. DM+/CKD+ patients had a higher incidence of the primary end point compared with DM-/CKD- patients (23.3% versus 7.1%; adjusted hazard ratio 2.22; 95% CI 1.88-2.63; P<0.001). Patients with DM+/CKD- and DM-/CKD+ had an intermediate risk profile. The same trend was shown for the individual components of the primary end point and for major bleeding. Compared with clopidogrel, ticagrelor reduced the incidence of the primary end point consistently across subgroups (P-interaction=0.264), but with an increased absolute risk reduction in DM+/CKD+. The effects on major bleeding were also consistent across subgroups (P-interaction=0.288). Conclusions-In acute coronary syndrome patients, a gradient of risk was observed according to the presence or absence of DM and CKD, with patients having both risk factors at the highest risk. Although the ischemic benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel was consistent in all subgroups, the absolute risk reduction was greatest in patients with both DM and CKD.
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19.
  • Gregersen, Ida, et al. (författare)
  • Legumain in Acute Coronary Syndromes : A Substudy of the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) Trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - : WILEY. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 9:17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The cysteine protease legumain is increased in patients with atherosclerosis, but its causal role in atherogenesis and cardiovascular disease is still unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of legumain with clinical outcome in a large cohort of patients with acute coronary syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS : Serum levels of legumain were analyzed in 4883 patients with acute coronary syndrome from a substudy of the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial. Levels were analyzed at admission and after 1 month follow-up. Associations between legumain and a composite of cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction or stroke, and its individual components were assessed by multivariable Cox regression analyses. At baseline, a 50% increase in legumain level was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.13 (95% CI, 1.04-1.21),P=0.0018, for the primary composite end point, adjusted for randomized treatment. The association remained significant after adjustment for important clinical and demographic variables (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19;P=0.013) but not in the fully adjusted model. Legumain levels at 1 month were not associated with the composite end point but were negatively associated with stroke (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.88;P=0.0069), including in the fully adjusted model (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.37-0.88;P=0.0114). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline legumain was associated with the primary outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome, but not in the fully adjusted model. The association between high levels of legumain at 1 month and decreased occurrence of stroke could be of interest from a mechanistic point of view, illustrating the potential dual role of legumain during atherogenesis and acute coronary syndrome. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00391872.
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