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Sökning: WFRF:(Himmelmann Anders)

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41.
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42.
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43.
  • Lindholm, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome with or without revascularization : results from the PLATO trial
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 35:31, s. 2083-2093
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims The optimal platelet inhibition strategy for ACS patients managed without revascularization is unknown. We aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel in the non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) subgroup of the PLATO trial, in the total cohort, and in the subgroups managed with and without revascularization within 10 days of randomization. Methods and results We performed a retrospective analysis of the primary endpoint of cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/stroke. Among 18 624 PLATO patients, 11 080 (59%) were categorized as NSTE-ACS at randomization. During the initial 10 days, 74% had angiography, 46% PCI, and 5% CABG. In NSTE-ACS patients, the primary endpoint was reduced with ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel [10.0 vs. 12.3%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.74-0.93], as was myocardial infarction (6.6 vs. 7.7%; HR 0.86; 95% CI = 0.74-0.99), cardiovascular death (3.7 vs. 4.9%; HR 0.77; 95% CI = 0.64-0.93), and all-cause death (4.3 vs. 5.8%; HR 0.76; 95% CI = 0.64-0.90). Major bleeding rate was similar between treatment groups (13.4 vs. 12.6%; HR 1.07; 95% CI = 0.95-1.19), but ticagrelor was associated with an increase in non-CABG major bleeding (4.8 vs. 3.8%; HR 1.28; 95% CI = 1.05-1.56). Within the first 10 days, 5366 (48.4%) patients were managed without revascularization. Regardless of revascularization or not, ticagrelor consistently reduced the primary outcome (HR 0.86 vs. 0.85, interaction P = 0.93), and all-cause death (HR 0.75 vs. 0.73, interaction P = 0.89) with no significant increase in overall major bleeding. Conclusion In patients with NSTE-ACS, benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel in reducing ischaemic events and total mortality was consistent with the overall PLATO trial, independent of actually performed revascularization during the initial 10 days.
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44.
  • Lowenstern, Angela, et al. (författare)
  • Platelet-related biomarkers and their response to inhibition with aspirin and p2y12-receptor antagonists in patients with acute coronary syndrome
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis. - 0929-5305 .- 1573-742X. ; 44:2, s. 145-153
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial showed that treatment with ticagrelor reduced the rate of death due to vascular causes, myocardial infarction and stroke when compared to clopidogrel in patients with ST-elevation or non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS). While the comparative benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel increased over time, event rates accrued in both groups during the study period. The purpose of our biomarker-based exploratory analysis was to determine whether long-term platelet inhibition may be associated with platelet adaptation. A sample of 4000 participants from the PLATO trial also consented to participate in a prospectively designed biomarker substudy. Blood samples were procured at baseline, immediately prior to hospital discharge and at 1 and 6 months. Markers of platelet activity, including platelet count, serum CD40-ligand and soluble P-selectin were analyzed. Mean levels were compared at discharge, 1 and 6 months following study drug initiation-first for all patients and subsequently stratified by treatment group. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the short-term change rate (baseline to 1 month) and long-term change rate (1-6 months) for each biomarker. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios for each change in biomarker over the two time periods examined: baseline to 1 month and 1 to 6 months. Prior to randomized treatment (baseline), sCD40 ligand and sP-selectin levels were elevated above the normal range of the assay (0.39 and 33.5 A μg/L, respectively). The mean level of each biomarker was significantly different at 1 month compared to baseline (p < 0.0001). When stratified by treatment group, at 1 month patients treated with ticagrelor had a larger increase in platelet count compared to those treated with clopidogrel (p < 0.0001). Similarly, when comparing biomarker levels for all patients at 6 months with those at 1 month, each differed significantly (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between treatment groups during this time period. The rate of change for both platelet count and sP-selectin were significantly different between baseline and 1 month when compared to the 1 to 6-month time period (p < 0.0001). When comparing treatment groups, the rate of increase in platelets from baseline to 1 month was greater for patients treated with ticagrelor (p < 0.0001). This was no longer observed in the 1 to 6-month interval. Using a Cox proportional hazard model, the increase in platelet count from 1 to 6 months was associated with ischemic-thrombotic events, while sCD40 ligand decrease from 1 to 6 months was associated with hemorrhagic events. There were no differences between treatment groups for the associations with clinical endpoints. Dynamic changes in platelet count, sCD-40 ligand and sP-selectin occur over time among patients with ACS. Platelet-directed therapy with a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor in combination with aspirin modestly impacts the expression of these biomarkers. Platelet count and sCD40 ligand may offer modest overall predictive value for future ischemic-thrombotic or hemorrhagic clinical events, respectively. The existence of a platelet adaptome and its overall clinical significance among patients at risk for thrombotic events will require a more in-depth and platelet-biology specific investigation.
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45.
  • Mahaffey, Kenneth W., et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor Effects on Myocardial Infarction and the Impact of Event Adjudication in the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) Trial
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 63:15, s. 1493-1499
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives This study sought to report the treatment effect of ticagrelor on myocardial infarction (MI) and the strategy for and impact of event adjudication in the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial. Background In PLATO, ticagrelor reduced cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Methods A CIinical events committee (CEC) prospectively defined and adjudicated all suspected MI events, on the basis of events reported by investigators and by triggers on biomarkers. Treatment comparisons used CEC-adjudicated data, and per protocol, exCIuded silent MI. Results Overall, 1,299 (610 ticagrelor, 689 CIopidogrel) MIs reported by the CEC occurred during the trial. Of these, 1,097 (504 ticagrelor, 593 CIopidogrel) contributed to the primary composite endpoint. Site investigators reported 1,198 (580 ticagrelor, 618 CIopidogrel) MIs. Ticagrelor significantly reduced overall MI rates (12-month CEC-adjudicated Kaplan-Meier rates: 5.8% ticagrelor, 6.9% CIopidogrel; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75 to 0.95). Nonprocedural MI (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.01) and MI related to percutaneous coronary intervention or stent thrombosis tended to be lower with ticagrelor. MIs related to coronary artery bypass graft surgery were few, but numerical excess was observed in patients assigned ticagrelor. Analyses of overall MIs using investigator-reported data showed similar results but did not reach statistical significance (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.00). ConCIusions In patients with ACS, ticagrelor significantly reduced the incidence of MI compared with CIopidogrel, with consistent results across most MI subtypes. CEC procedures identified more MI endpoints compared with site investigators. (A Comparison of Ticagrelor [AZD6140] and CIopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [PLATO]; NCT00391872)
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46.
  • Nelson, Thomas A, et al. (författare)
  • Differential effect of clopidogrel and ticagrelor on leukocyte count in relation to patient characteristics, biomarkers and genotype : a PLATO substudy.
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Platelets. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0953-7104 .- 1369-1635. ; 33:3, s. 425-431
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inflammation plays a key role in cardiovascular disease by contributing to atherothrombosis. The PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) study (NCT00391872) compared ticagrelor to clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes and demonstrated fewer cardiovascular events with ticagrelor but lower white blood cell counts (WBC) with clopidogrel. In this further analysis of the PLATO biomarker substudy, we assessed associations between WBC and clinical characteristics, biomarker levels, and CYP2C19 polymorphisms.On-treatment mean (SD) WBC in the clopidogrel group was mildly reduced at each stage of follow-up compared with either the ticagrelor group (1 month: 7.27 (2.1) and 7.67 (2.23) x109/L for clopidogrel and ticagrelor, respectively; p < .001) or following cessation of clopidogrel (7.23 (1.97) x109/L, at 6 months vs 7.56 (2.28) x109/L after treatment cessation; P < .001). This occurred independently of baseline biomarkers and CYP2C19 genotype (where known). Adjusting for clinical characteristics and other biomarkers, no significant interaction was detected between clinical risk factors and the observed effect of clopidogrel on WBC.Clopidogrel weakly suppresses WBC, independent of clinical characteristics, baseline inflammatory biomarker levels, and CYP2C19 genotype. Further work is required to determine the mechanism for this effect and whether it contributes to clopidogrel's efficacy as well as therapeutic interaction with anti-inflammatory drugs.
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47.
  • Parker, William A E, et al. (författare)
  • Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 gene polymorphisms and clinical outcomes following acute coronary syndromes : findings from the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Platelets. - 0953-7104 .- 1369-1635. ; 30:5, s. 579-588
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) study, the P2Y12 inhibitors ticagrelor and clopidogrel were compared in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Ticagrelor was shown to reduce occurrence of the primary end point - a composite of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke - compared to clopidogrel. Ticagrelor's pleiotropic effects on reuptake of adenosine via inhibition of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) have been hypothesized to contribute to this. Several polymorphisms of ENT1 are known to exist. We explored the interaction between ENT1 polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in ACS patients participating in the PLATO genetic substudy. Using genotyping data obtained in a genome-wide association study, the gene region encoding ENT1 was assessed and 94 polymorphisms were identified. After quality control filtering, data from 9943 participants were included. Subjects were divided into discovery (phase 1, n = 3970) and replication (phase 2, n = 5973) cohorts. Cox-regression analysis of the relationship between variants and seven efficacy and safety outcomes was performed in discovery, replication, and combined cohorts. Treatment-marker interactions were also determined. Although 35 variants were found with associations to the investigated outcomes reaching p < 0.05 in the discovery cohort, only one of these was replicated in phase 2 of the analysis and also reached the predetermined level of statistical significance in the combined data, taking into account the number of tests performed: the rare polymorphism rs141034817, with a frequency of 0.2%, was significantly associated with bleeding. Thirty-three treatment-marker interactions were found with a significance level of p < 0.05 in phase 1, but none was replicated in phase 2. We found no significant interaction between ENT1 genotype and clinical outcomes in ACS patients treated with ticagrelor or clopidogrel, apart from the association between a rare polymorphism and bleeding that requires further study. If ticagrelor's pleiotropic effects on adenosine uptake are clinically relevant, these do not appear to be significantly affected by variation in the ENT1 gene.
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48.
  • Pollack, Charles V., Jr., et al. (författare)
  • Relative efficacy and safety of ticagelor vs clopidogrel as a function of time to invasive management in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome in the PLATO trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cardiology. - 0160-9289 .- 1932-8737. ; 40:6, s. 390-398
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Guidelines suggest that "upstream" P2Y(12) receptor antagonists should be considered in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS).Hypothesis: Early use of ticagrelor in patients managed with an invasive strategy would be more effective than clopidogrel because of its more rapid onset of action and greater potency.Methods: In the PLATO trial, 6792 NSTE-ACS patients were randomized to ticagrelor or clopidogrel (started prior to angiography) and underwent angiography within 72 hours of randomization. We compared efficacy and safety outcomes of ticagrelor vs clopidogrel as a function of "early" (<3h) vs "late" (>= 3h) time to angiography. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models evaluated interaction between randomized treatment and time from randomization to angiography on subsequent outcomes.Results: Overall, a benefit of ticagrelor vs clopidogrel for cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/stroke was seen at day 7 (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.67, P = 0.002), day 30 (HR: 0.81, P = 0.042), and 1 year (HR: 0.80, P = 0.0045). There were no significant interactions in the <3h vs >= 3h groups at any timepoint. For major bleeding, overall there was no significant increase (HR: 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.85-1.27); but there was a significant interaction with no difference between ticagrelor and clopidogrel in the early group (HR: 0.79), but higher bleeding risk with ticagrelor in the late angiography group, at 7 days (HR: 1.51, P-int = 0.002). Patterns were similar at 30 days and 1 year.Conclusions: The benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel was consistent in those undergoing early and late angiography, supporting upstream use of ticagrelor
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49.
  • Scirica, Benjamin M., et al. (författare)
  • Safety of ticagrelor in patients with baseline conduction abnormalities : A PLATO (Study of Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) analysis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 202, s. 54-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Although bradyarrhythmias have been observed with ticagrelor and its use with advanced atrioventricular block is not recommended, questions arise regarding its use in patients with mild conduction abnormalities. The objectives were to compare rates of clinically relevant arrhythmias in relation to any mild baseline conduction abnormality in patients with acute coronary syndrome randomized to ticagrelor versus clopidogrel. Methods: We included all subjects in the electrocardiographic (ECG) substudy of the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes trial, excluding those with missing baseline ECG or with a pacemaker at baseline (N = 15,460). Conduction abnormality was defined as sinus bradycardia, first-degree atrioventricular block, hemiblock, or bundle-branch block. The primary arrhythmic outcome was the composite of any symptomatic brady-or tachyarrhythmia, permanent pacemaker placement, or cardiac arrest through 12 months. Results: Patients with baseline conduction abnormalities (n = 4,256, 27.5%) were older and more likely to experience the primary arrhythmic outcome. There were no differences by ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in the composite arrhythmic end point in those with baseline conduction disease (1-year cumulative incidence rate: 17% for both study arms; hazard ratio: 0.99 [0.86-1.15]) or without baseline conduction disease (1-year cumulative incidence rate: clopidogrel 12.8% vs ticagrelor 12.4%; hazard ratio: 0.98 (0.88-1.09). There were also no statistically significant differences between ticagrelor and clopidogrel in the rates of bradycardic (or any individual arrhythmic) events in patients with baseline conduction abnormalities. Conclusions: Ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel did not increase arrhythmic events even in subjects with acute coronary syndrome who present with mild conduction abnormalities on their baseline ECG. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier Inc.
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50.
  • Shimada, Yuichi J., et al. (författare)
  • Impact of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors on the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes : Analysis from the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) Trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 177, s. 1-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Ticagrelor reduced cardiovascular events compared with clopidogrel in PLATO without increasing overall major bleeding. We evaluated whether the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (GPI) impacts the relative efficacy and safety of ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel. Methods PLATO randomized 18,624 subjects with acute coronary syndrome to ticagrelor versus clopidogrel. The primary efficacy end point was cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/stroke, and the primary safety end point was major bleeding. The use of GPI was at the physician's discretion and open-label. We evaluated outcomes at 30 days stratified by GPI use in the subgroup of 9,983 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within 72 hours. Results A total of 4,020 (40%) received a GPI. Those receiving a GPI were more likely to be younger, be male, and undergo multivessel PCI. There was no interaction between treatment and GPI use for the primary efficacy and safety end points. Patients treated without GPI had a lower rate of definite stent thrombosis and higher rate of minor/major bleeding with ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel (P<.05), whereas there was no such difference with GPI (P interaction <.05). Conclusions In patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing early PCI, the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor as compared with clopidogrel were not modified by GPI use according to the primary efficacy and safety end point of the trial, although there were indications of greater benefit on definite stent thrombosis and more major or minor bleeding with ticagrelor in patients without (vs with) GPI treatment.
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