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  • Hart, Andrew R, et al. (författare)
  • Diet in the aetiology of ulcerative colitis: A European prospective cohort study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Digestion. - : Karger. - 1421-9867 .- 0012-2823. ; 77:1, s. 57-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Aims: The causes of ulcerative colitis are unknown, although it is plausible that dietary factors are involved. Case-control studies of diet and ulcerative colitis are subject to recall biases. The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between the intake of nutrients and the development of ulcerative colitis in a cohort study. Methods: The study population was 260,686 men and women aged 20-80 years, participating in a large European prospective cohort study (EPIC). Participants were residents in the UK, Sweden, Denmark, Germany or Italy. Information on diet was supplied and the subjects were followed up for the development of ulcerative colitis. Each incident case was matched with four controls and dietary variables were divided into quartiles. Results: A total of 139 subjects with incident ulcerative colitis were identified. No dietary associations were detected, apart from a marginally significant positive association with an increasing percentage intake of energy from total polyunsaturated fatty acids (trend across quartiles OR = 1.19 (95% CI = 0.99-1.43) p = 0.07). Conclusions: No associations between ulcerative colitis and diet were detected, apart from a possible increased risk with a higher total polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. A biological mechanism exists in that polyunsaturated fatty acids are metabolised to pro-inflammatory mediators.
  • Holmberg, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Catalytic and structural effects of W-substitution in M2 Mo-V-Te-oxide for propene ammoxidation
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Catalysis Today. - : Elsevier. - 0920-5861. ; 128:3-4, s. 153-160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Substitution of W for the Mo in M2-type Mo-V-Te-oxide was investigated. XRD, FTIR, XANES, and HRTEM verified that the substitution is possible in the whole range up to complete replacement of Mo by W. Catalytic measurements for propene ammoxidation show that both the specific activity and the selectivity to acrylonitrile pass through a maximum with increase of the W-content of the catalyst. XRD analysis indicates that the catalytic results, in part, can be explained by a disordered distribution of Mo, W, and V among the octahedral sites in M2 giving better catalytic performance than a more ordered arrangement does. Moreover, SEM and HRTEM imaging show that with increasing W-content, the M2 crystals change from μm-sized elongated crystals to spherical crystals of nm-size, influencing the type of surfaces being exposed and consequently the catalytic properties. Among the catalysts investigated, a catalyst with the composition (Mo0.3W0.7)1.9V1.0Te1.1O10 is the most active and selective one, giving 80% selectivity to acrylonitrile.
  • Häggblad, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • Oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde over a series of Fe(1-x)Al(x)-V-oxide catalysts
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Catalysis. - : Elsevier. - 1090-2694 .- 0021-9517. ; 258:2, s. 345-355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A series of triclinic Fe1−xAlxVO4 phases with 0 <= x <= 1 were prepared and used in the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. The activity measurements revealed that both the activity and especially the selectivity to formaldehyde increased with time of operation for at least 16 h, indicating restructuring of the catalysts. Characterisation of the catalysts with XRD, XANES, and electron microscopy after use in methanol oxidation showed that the stability of the bulk phases improved when Al was substituted for Fe in the structure. XRD and XANES of the used FeVO4 showed that it partly transformed into a cation-vacant spinel-type Fe1.5V1.5O4 phase, whereas the AlVO4 phase showed no change in the bulk structure. HRTEM imaging of used catalysts confirmed that structural changes,including in the surface, occurred during catalysis. Quantitative surface analysis by XPS of the catalysts before and after use in methanol oxidation revealed no significant change in the metal composition, in good agreement with the corresponding bulk values, except for a lower Fe value. Steady-state activity data showed a modest increase in specific activity with the Al content, whereas the selectivity to formaldehyde was about 90% for all samples at high methanol conversion. The similar catalytic behaviour of the vanadates irrespective of the differences in the bulk structure indicates that the surface structure differed from the bulk structure. Compared with pure vanadia, the vanadates had lower activity per V atom and slightly greater selectivity to formaldehyde. Consequently, for methanol oxidation, the role of Al and Fe on the catalyst surface can be described as that of a spacer, decreasing the surface concentration of active V sites and the number of less selective V–O–V ensembles.
  • Häggblad, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • Substituted Mo-V(Ti)-Te(Ce)-oxide M2 catalysts for propene ammoxidation
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Topics in Catalysis. - : Springer. - 1572-9028 .- 1022-5528. ; 50:1-4, s. 52-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One of the most effective propane to acrylonitrile ammoxidation catalyst is comprised of the two phases M1 (orthorhombic) Mo7.5V1.5NbTeO29 and M2 (pseudo-hexagonal) Mo4V2Te2O20. Under reaction conditions, the two phases work in symbiosis with each other where M1 is the paraffin activating component and M2 is the olefin activating component. Since the catalytic improvement of either phase should result in an enhancement of the overall acrylonitrile yield, controlled substitution of certain elements in either or both phases might result in the desired improvement. Our current study concentrates on the partial substitutions of V with Ti and Te with Ce in the M2 phase. Ti substitution results in a considerable propene activity improvement, whereas the selectivity to acrylonitrile is unaffected. Substitution with Ce, on the contrary, substantially improves the selectivity to acrylonitrile. Also, a minor improvement of the activity is notable. The acrylonitrile selectivity improvement is a result of better NH3 utilization and comes at the expense of reduced acrolein make. XRD reveals that all of the substituted compositions retain the M2 structure and essentially are monophasic. XANES recordings show for the bulk that the Mo is 6+, the V is 4+, or 4+ and 5+ when Ce is present, the Ti is 4+, the Ce is 3+, and the Te 4+ with some 6+ also present. According to the ESR data, in the M2 with Ce (7Te/3Ce) only 21% of the V is 4+, the remainder being 5+, which tentatively can be explained by the existence of some cation vacancies in the hexagonal channels. HRTEM imaging reveals little if any differences between the materials, all have the typical pseudo-hexagonal habit of the M2 phase and expose a 1-2 nm thick surface layer without any apparent long-range ordering. XPS data show that all catalysts, including the base, are highly enriched at the surface with Te at the expense of other metals. The 7Te/3Ce composition exhibits also substantial Ce surface enrichment. Moreover, the valences of the cations at the surface differ from the bulk in that for all fresh catalysts V is 5+ and Te is 6+ on the surface. Characterization by XPS of catalysts used in propene ammoxidation, reveals reduction of Te and, except when Ce is present, also Mo. Therefore, it might be inferred that the surfaces of the catalysts studied here are comprised essentially of one or a few monolayers of TeMoO or TeCeMoO on an interacting M2 crystalline base.
  • Ji, Xuemei, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of susceptibility pathways for the role of chromosome 15q25.1 in modifying lung cancer risk
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723. ; 9, s. 1-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified the chromosome 15q25.1 locus as a leading susceptibility region for lung cancer. However, the pathogenic pathways, through which susceptibility SNPs within chromosome 15q25.1 affects lung cancer risk, have not been explored. We analyzed three cohorts with GWAS data consisting 42,901 individuals and lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data on 409 individuals to identify and validate the underlying pathways and to investigate the combined effect of genes from the identified susceptibility pathways. The KEGG neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway, two Reactome pathways, and 22 Gene Ontology terms were identified and replicated to be significantly associated with lung cancer risk, with P values less than 0.05 and FDR less than 0.1. Functional annotation of eQTL analysis results showed that the neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway and gated channel activity were involved in lung cancer risk. These pathways provide important insights for the etiology of lung cancer.
  • Jones, Robert P., et al. (författare)
  • Patterns of Recurrence After Resection of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma : A Secondary Analysis of the ESPAC-4 Randomized Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA Surgery. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2168-6254 .- 2168-6262. ; 154:11, s. 1038-1048
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: The patterns of disease recurrence after resection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with adjuvant chemotherapy remain unclear.Objective: To define patterns of recurrence after adjuvant chemotherapy and the association with survival.Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospectively collected data from the phase 3 European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer 4 adjuvant clinical trial, an international multicenter study. The study included 730 patients who had resection and adjuvant chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer. Data were analyzed between July 2017 and May 2019.Interventions: Randomization to adjuvant gemcitabine or gemcitabine plus capecitabine.Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival, recurrence, and sites of recurrence.Results: Of the 730 patients, median age was 65 years (range 37-81 years), 414 were men (57%), and 316 were women (43%). The median follow-up time from randomization was 43.2 months (95% CI, 39.7-45.5 months), with overall survival from time of surgery of 27.9 months (95% CI, 24.8-29.9 months) with gemcitabine and 30.2 months (95% CI, 25.8-33.5 months) with the combination (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98; P=.03). The 5-year survival estimates were 17.1% (95% CI, 11.6%-23.5%) and 28.0% (22.0%-34.3%), respectively. Recurrence occurred in 479 patients (65.6%); another 78 patients (10.7%) died without recurrence. Local recurrence occurred at a median of 11.63 months (95% CI, 10.05-12.19 months), significantly different from those with distant recurrence with a median of 9.49 months (95% CI, 8.44-10.71 months) (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.01-1.45; P=.04). Following recurrence, the median survival was 9.36 months (95% CI, 8.08-10.48 months) for local recurrence and 8.94 months (95% CI, 7.82-11.17 months) with distant recurrence (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73-1.09; P=.27). The median overall survival of patients with distant-only recurrence (23.03 months; 95% CI, 19.55-25.85 months) or local with distant recurrence (23.82 months; 95% CI, 17.48-28.32 months) was not significantly different from those with only local recurrence (24.83 months; 95% CI, 22.96-27.63 months) (P=.85 and P=.35, respectively). Gemcitabine plus capecitabine had a 21% reduction of death following recurrence compared with monotherapy (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.98; P=.03).Conclusions and Relevance: There were no significant differences between the time to recurrence and subsequent and overall survival between local and distant recurrence. Pancreatic cancer behaves as a systemic disease requiring effective systemic therapy after resection.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00058201, EudraCT 2007-004299-38, and ISRCTN 96397434. This secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial investigates patterns of recurrence after adjuvant chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer and the association with survival.
  • Lagerros, Ylva Trolle, et al. (författare)
  • Suicide, Self-harm, and Depression After Gastric Bypass Surgery : A Nationwide Cohort Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Annals of Surgery. - 0003-4932 .- 1528-1140. ; 265:2, s. 235-243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine risk of self-harm, hospitalization for depression and death by suicide after gastric bypass surgery (GBP).SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Concerns regarding severe adverse psychiatric outcomes after GBP have been raised.METHODS: This nationwide, longitudinal, self-matched cohort encompassed 22,539 patients who underwent GBP during 2008 to 2012. They were identified through the Swedish National Patient Register, the Prescribed Drug Register, and the Causes of Death Register. Follow-up time was up to 2 years. Main outcome measures were hazard ratios (HRs) for post-surgery self-harm or hospitalization for depression in patients with presurgery self-harm and/or depression compared to patients without this exposure; and standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for suicide post-surgery.RESULTS: A diagnosis of self-harm in the 2 years preceding surgery was associated with an HR of 36.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.5-52.4) for self-harm during the 2 years of follow up, compared to GBP patients who had no self-harm diagnosis before surgery. Patients with a diagnosis of depression preceding GBP surgery had an HR of 52.3 (95% CI 30.6-89.2) for hospitalization owing to depression after GBP, compared to GBP patients without a previous diagnosis of depression. The SMR for suicide after GBP was increased among females (n = 13), 4.50 (95% CI 2.50-7.50). The SMR among males (n = 4), was 1.71 (95% CI 0.54-4.12).CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of post-surgery self-harm and hospitalization for depression is mainly attributable to patients who have a diagnosis of self-harm or depression before surgery. Raised awareness is needed to identify vulnerable patients with history of self-harm or depression, which may be in need of psychiatric support after GBP.
  • Lampeitl, Hubert, et al. (författare)
  • The Effect of Host Galaxies on Type Ia Supernovae in the SDSS-II Supernova Survey
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 722, s. 566-576
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present an analysis of the host galaxy dependences of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) from the full three year sample of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. We re-discover, to high significance, the strong correlation between host galaxy type and the width of the observed SN light curve, i.e., fainter, quickly declining SNe Ia favor passive host galaxies, while brighter, slowly declining Ia's favor star-forming galaxies. We also find evidence (at between 2σ and 3σ) that SNe Ia are sime0.1 ± 0.04 mag brighter in passive host galaxies than in star-forming hosts, after the SN Ia light curves have been standardized using the light-curve shape and color variations. This difference in brightness is present in both the SALT2 and MCLS2k2 light-curve fitting methodologies. We see evidence for differences in the SN Ia color relationship between passive and star-forming host galaxies, e.g., for the MLCS2k2 technique, we see that SNe Ia in passive hosts favor a dust law of RV = 1.0 ± 0.2, while SNe Ia in star-forming hosts require RV = 1.8+0.2 -0.4. The significance of these trends depends on the range of SN colors considered. We demonstrate that these effects can be parameterized using the stellar mass of the host galaxy (with a confidence of >4σ) and including this extra parameter provides a better statistical fit to our data. Our results suggest that future cosmological analyses of SN Ia samples should include host galaxy information.
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