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  • Acciai, Matteo, 1992, et al. (författare)
  • Constraints between entropy production and its fluctuations in nonthermal engines
  • 2024
  • Ingår i: Physical Review B. - 2469-9969 .- 2469-9950. ; 109:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyze a mesoscopic conductor autonomously performing a thermodynamically useful task, such as cooling or producing electrical power, in a part of the system - the working substance - by exploiting another terminal or set of terminals - the resource - that contains a stationary nonthermal (nonequilibrium) distribution. Thanks to the nonthermal properties of the resource, on average no exchange of particles or energy with the working substance is required to fulfill the task. This resembles the action of a demon, as long as only average quantities are considered. Here, we go beyond a description based on average currents and investigate the role of fluctuations in such a system. We show that a minimum level of entropy fluctuations in the system is necessary, whenever one is exploiting a certain entropy production in the resource terminal to perform a useful task in the working substance. For concrete implementations of the demonic nonthermal engine in three- and four-terminal electronic conductors in the quantum Hall regime, we compare the resource fluctuations to the entropy production in the resource and to the useful engine output (produced power or cooling power).
  • Ahlberg, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • "Vi klimatforskare stödjer Greta och skolungdomarna"
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Dagens nyheter (DN debatt). - 1101-2447.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • DN DEBATT 15/3. Sedan industrialiseringens början har vi använt omkring fyra femtedelar av den mängd fossilt kol som får förbrännas för att vi ska klara Parisavtalet. Vi har bara en femtedel kvar och det är bråttom att kraftigt reducera utsläppen. Det har Greta Thunberg och de strejkande ungdomarna förstått. Därför stödjer vi deras krav, skriver 270 klimatforskare.
  • Albentosa, Ezequiel, et al. (författare)
  • Current Status of the EU-VGOS Project
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2022 General Meeting Proceedings. ; NASA/ CP–20220018789, s. 85-89
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The EU-VGOS project began in 2018 with the aim of using the VGOS infrastructure in Europe to investigate methods for VGOS data processing. The project is now structured into Working Groups dealing with operations (stations), e-transfer, correlation and post-processing, and analysis. This is a report on the status of the project.
  • Allansson, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Collaborative challenges and barriers when planning and implementing Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) : Lessons from Swedish BRT projects
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Urban, Planning and Transport Research. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2165-0020. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this paper is to improve the knowledge of collaborative challenges when planning and implementing Bus Rapid Transit (BRT). Collaborative challenges are here understood as the barriers that may arise in BRT planning and implementation as a consequence of several formally independent actors, occasionally with different interests, participating in the planning. The results are based on an analysis of actor interactions in Swedish BRT projects. These projects are analysed in relation to the state of the art in the research field of collaborative approaches. The results show two main and interrelated collaborative challenges. The first category of challenges concerns difficulties for actors in creating a common understanding of what a BRT system is, the second category concerns details of bus priority measures, e.g. busways, priority at intersections, and how to handle and deal with conflicting interests when removing speed bumps or pedestrian and cycle crossings. In terms of policy is in the early stages of the planning processes. This can be generated by working practices and tools that facilitate agreements on how to handle different interests and trade-offs. BRT guidelines adapted to national transport policy, legal and organisational conditions could function as tools in assisting actor dialogue.
  • Allesøe, Rosa Lundbye, et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of drug–omics associations in type 2 diabetes with generative deep-learning models
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Nature Biotechnology. - : Springer Nature. - 1087-0156 .- 1546-1696. ; 41:3, s. 399-408
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The application of multiple omics technologies in biomedical cohorts has the potential to reveal patient-level disease characteristics and individualized response to treatment. However, the scale and heterogeneous nature of multi-modal data makes integration and inference a non-trivial task. We developed a deep-learning-based framework, multi-omics variational autoencoders (MOVE), to integrate such data and applied it to a cohort of 789 people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes with deep multi-omics phenotyping from the DIRECT consortium. Using in silico perturbations, we identified drug–omics associations across the multi-modal datasets for the 20 most prevalent drugs given to people with type 2 diabetes with substantially higher sensitivity than univariate statistical tests. From these, we among others, identified novel associations between metformin and the gut microbiota as well as opposite molecular responses for the two statins, simvastatin and atorvastatin. We used the associations to quantify drug–drug similarities, assess the degree of polypharmacy and conclude that drug effects are distributed across the multi-omics modalities.
  • Almer, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Ischemic QRS prolongation as a biomarker of severe myocardial ischemia.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Electrocardiology. - : Elsevier BV. - 1532-8430 .- 0022-0736. ; 49:2, s. 139-147
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies have shown that QRS prolongation is a sign of depressed collateral flow and increased rate of myocardial cell death during coronary occlusion. The aims of this study were to evaluate ischemic QRS prolongation as a biomarker of severe ischemia by establishing the relationship between prolongation and collateral flow experimentally in a dog model, and test if the same pattern of ischemic QRS prolongation occurs in man.
  • Almer, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Ischemic QRS prolongation as a predictor of ventricular fibrillation in a canine model
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1401-7431 .- 1651-2006. ; 52:5, s. 262-267
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives. An acute coronary occlusion and its possible subsequent complications is one of the most common causes of death. One such complication is ventricular fibrillation (VF) due to myocardial ischemia. The severity of ischemia is related to the amount of coronary arterial collateral flow. In dog studies collateral flow has also been shown to be associated with QRS prolongation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ischemic QRS prolongation (IQP) is associated with impending VF in an experimental acute ischemia dog model. Methods. Degree of IQP and occurrence of VF were measured in dogs (n = 21) during coronary occlusion for 15 min and also during subsequent reperfusion (experiments conducted in 1984). Results. There was a significant difference in absolute IQP between dogs which developed VF during reperfusion (47 ± 29 ms, mean ± SD) and those which did not (12 ± 10 ms; p =.001). Conclusions. IQP during acute coronary occlusion is associated with reperfusion VF in an experimental dog model and might therefore be a potential predictor of malignant arrhythmias in patients with acute coronary syndrome.
  • Alvarez, Mariano J., et al. (författare)
  • A precision oncology approach to the pharmacological targeting of mechanistic dependencies in neuroendocrine tumors
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 50:7, s. 979-989
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We introduce and validate a new precision oncology framework for the systematic prioritization of drugs targeting mechanistic tumor dependencies in individual patients. Compounds are prioritized on the basis of their ability to invert the concerted activity of master regulator proteins that mechanistically regulate tumor cell state, as assessed from systematic drug perturbation assays. We validated the approach on a cohort of 212 gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), a rare malignancy originating in the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. The analysis identified several master regulator proteins, including key regulators of neuroendocrine lineage progenitor state and immunoevasion, whose role as critical tumor dependencies was experimentally confirmed. Transcriptome analysis of GEP-NET-derived cells, perturbed with a library of 107 compounds, identified the HDAC class I inhibitor entinostat as a potent inhibitor of master regulator activity for 42% of metastatic GEP-NET patients, abrogating tumor growth in vivo. This approach may thus complement current efforts in precision oncology.
  • Andreasson, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Automated identification and classification of single particle serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Optics Express. - 1094-4087. ; 22:3, s. 2497-2510
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first hard X-ray laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), produces 120 shots per second. Particles injected into the X-ray beam are hit randomly and in unknown orientations by the extremely intense X-ray pulses, where the femtosecond-duration X-ray pulses diffract from the sample before the particle structure is significantly changed even though the sample is ultimately destroyed by the deposited X-ray energy. Single particle X-ray diffraction experiments generate data at the FEL repetition rate, resulting in more than 400,000 detector readouts in an hour, the data stream during an experiment contains blank frames mixed with hits on single particles, clusters and contaminants. The diffraction signal is generally weak and it is superimposed on a low but continually fluctuating background signal, originating from photon noise in the beam line and electronic noise from the detector. Meanwhile, explosion of the sample creates fragments with a characteristic signature. Here, we describe methods based on rapid image analysis combined with ion Time-of-Flight (ToF) spectroscopy of the fragments to achieve an efficient, automated and unsupervised sorting of diffraction data. The studies described here form a basis for the development of real-time frame rejection methods, e. g. for the European XFEL, which is expected to produce 100 million pulses per hour. (C)2014 Optical Society of America
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