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  • Beck, Lisa J., et al. (författare)
  • Differing Mechanisms of New Particle Formation at Two Arctic Sites
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - 0094-8276 .- 1944-8007. ; 48:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • New particle formation in the Arctic atmosphere is an important source of aerosol particles. Understanding the processes of Arctic secondary aerosol formation is crucial due to their significant impact on cloud properties and therefore Arctic amplification. We observed the molecular formation of new particles from low-volatility vapors at two Arctic sites with differing surroundings. In Svalbard, sulfuric acid (SA) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA) contribute to the formation of secondary aerosol and to some extent to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). This occurs via ion-induced nucleation of SA and NH3 and subsequent growth by mainly SA and MSA condensation during springtime and highly oxygenated organic molecules during summertime. By contrast, in an ice-covered region around Villum, we observed new particle formation driven by iodic acid but its concentration was insufficient to grow nucleated particles to CCN sizes. Our results provide new insight about sources and precursors of Arctic secondary aerosol particles.
  • Bejanyan, Nelli, et al. (författare)
  • Myeloablative Conditioning for Allogeneic Transplantation Results in Superior Disease-Free Survival for Acute Myelogenous Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes with Low/Intermediate but not High Disease Risk Index : A Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. - : Elsevier. - 2666-6375 .- 2666-6367. ; 27:1, s. 68.e1-68.e9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Compared with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC), myeloablative conditioning (MAC) is generally associated with lower relapse risk after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, disease-specific risk factors in AML/MDS can further inform when MAC and RIC may yield differential outcomes. We analyzed HCT outcomes stratified by the Disease Risk Index (DRI) in 4387 adults (age 40 to 65 years) to identify the impact of conditioning intensity. In the low/ intermediate-risk DRI cohort, RIC was associated with lower nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (hazard ratio [HR],.74; 95% confidence interval [CI],.62 to.88; P <.001) but significantly greater relapse risk (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.76; P <.001) and thus inferior disease-free survival (DFS) (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.33; P =.001). In the high/ very high-risk DRI cohort, RIC was associated with marginally lower NRM (HR,.83; 95% CI,.68 to 1.00; P =.051) and significantly higher relapse risk (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.41; P =.002), leading to similar DFS using either RIC or MAC. These data support MAC over RIC as the preferred conditioning intensity for patients with AML/MDS with low/intermediate-risk DRI, but with a similar benefit as RIC in high/very high-risk DRI. Novel MAC regimens with less toxicity could benefit all patients, but more potent antineoplastic approaches are needed for the high/ very-high risk DRI group.
  • Bhatt, Mehul, Professor, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Architecture, computing, and design assistance
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Automation in Construction. - : Elsevier. - 0926-5805 .- 1872-7891. ; 32, s. 161-164
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Design is one of the most complex of human endeavors requiring an enormous number of often conflicting criteria to be contemplated when identifying optimal solutions. Design is constrained by guidelines, codes, and standards applicable to the specific cultural and locational context that the design will be sited. Furthermore, a design has to be created within a collaborative team consisting of many professionals focused on specific subsystems and expert preferences that provide unique functionality to the overall design. The increasing use and capability of software tools involved in the creation and processing of such spatial information has also led to elevated levels of complexity that spurred a need to structure, query and reason about multiple spatial representations of buildings and their components in new ways.
  • Broström, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • Correlation between safety assessments in the driver-car interaction design process
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics. - : Elsevier BV. - 0003-6870 .- 1872-9126. ; 42:4, s. 575-582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the functional revolution in modern cars, evaluation methods to be used in all phases of driver-car interaction design have gained importance. It is crucial for car manufacturers to discover and solve safety issues early in the interaction design process. A current problem is thus to find a correlation between the formative methods that are used during development and the summative methods that are used when the product has reached the customer. This paper investigates the correlation between efficiency metrics from summative and formative evaluations, where the results of two studies on sound and navigation system tasks are compared. The first, an analysis of the J.D. Power and Associates APEAL survey, consists of answers given by about two thousand customers. The second, an expert evaluation study, was done by six evaluators who assessed the layouts by task completion time, TLX and Nielsen heuristics. The results show a high degree of correlation between the studies in terms of task efficiency, i.e. between customer ratings and task completion time, and customer ratings and TLX. However, no correlation was observed between Nielsen heuristics and customer ratings, task completion time or TLX. The results of the studies introduce a possibility to develop a usability evaluation framework that includes both formative and summative approaches, as the results show a high degree of consistency between the different methodologies. Hence, combining a quantitative approach with the expert evaluation method, such as task completion time, should be more useful for driver-car interaction design.
  • Broström, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • Perceived styling and usability in integrated centre panel layouts as a function of interaction style and age
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Human Factors Issues in Complex System Performance. - Maastricht : Shaker Verlag. - 9789042303256 ; , s. 193-204
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the past ten years information and entertainment functionality has become an increasingly important part of the car interior. Infotainment functions have been growing in number and diversity, concurrently with a trend towards utilization of fewer controls and graphical displays in integrated centre panel layouts. This evolution has solved many functional and styling issues. However, as a consequence, several usability and safety concerns have been raised. A number of these concerns are related to age, a factor that is especially important in the premium car segment where a majority of drivers are older than 50 years. This study investigated perceived styling and usability of premium car centre panel layouts among different age groups. The investigation was based on APEAL customer survey data from the North American market, associated with the sound system. Questions on the appearance (styling), understanding (usability) and ease of use while driving (usability/safety) of the stereo faceplate and controls were analysed. The results showed that all age groups perceived the appearance of integrated centre panel layouts similarly. However, with rising age, there is a decrease in perceived understanding and ease of use while driving in the case of a number of premium car models.
  • Bruze, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Increased rates of fragrance allergy in fibromyalgia individuals tested with the Swedish baseline patch test series
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. - : Wiley. - 0926-9959 .- 1468-3083. ; 37:1, s. 104-113
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Contact allergy can manifest in a variety of ways clinically. Systemic contact allergy may occasionally present with pain in muscles and joints. Fibromyalgia is a chronic rheumatic disease characterized by pain and with virtually unknown aetiology. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the contact allergy rates to the sensitizers in a baseline series and compare with corresponding rates in dermatitis patients and the general population. Methods: Patch testing with the Swedish baseline series was performed in 120 individuals with fibromyalgia. Fisher's exact test was used for pair-wise comparisons of contact allergy rates between the fibromyalgia group and two control groups, dermatitis patients and individuals in the general population. Results: Contact allergy was significantly more common in the fibromyalgia group compared to the general population concerning nickel and the fragrance markers Myroxolon pereirae and fragrance mix I. There were fewer allergic reactions to preservatives in the fibromyalgia group compared with the dermatitis group. Conclusions: Myroxolon pereirae and fragrance mix I represent besides fragrance allergy also allergy to flavouring substances which indicate that oral exposure to flavouring substances and hygiene products might be important for sensitization and possibly elicitation of systemic contact allergy symptoms in fibromyalgia individuals.
  • Byass, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Comparing verbal autopsy cause of death findings as determined by physician coding and probabilistic modelling : a public health analysis of 54 000 deaths in Africa and Asia
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Global Health. - 2047-2978 .- 2047-2986. ; 5:1, s. 65-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Coverage of civil registration and vital statistics varies globally, with most deaths in Africa and Asia remaining either unregistered or registered without cause of death. One important constraint has been a lack of fit-for-purpose tools for registering deaths and assigning causes in situations where no doctor is involved. Verbal autopsy (interviewing care-givers and witnesses to deaths and interpreting their information into causes of death) is the only available solution. Automated interpretation of verbal autopsy data into cause of death information is essential for rapid, consistent and affordable processing.METHODS: Verbal autopsy archives covering 54 182 deaths from five African and Asian countries were sourced on the basis of their geographical, epidemiological and methodological diversity, with existing physician-coded causes of death attributed. These data were unified into the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy standard format, and processed using the InterVA-4 model. Cause-specific mortality fractions from InterVA-4 and physician codes were calculated for each of 60 WHO 2012 cause categories, by age group, sex and source. Results from the two approaches were assessed for concordance and ratios of fractions by cause category. As an alternative metric, the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed ranks test with two one-sided tests for stochastic equivalence was used.FINDINGS: The overall concordance correlation coefficient between InterVA-4 and physician codes was 0.83 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.91) and this increased to 0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.99) when HIV/AIDS and pulmonary TB deaths were combined into a single category. Over half (53%) of the cause category ratios between InterVA-4 and physician codes by source were not significantly different from unity at the 99% level, increasing to 62% by age group. Wilcoxon tests for stochastic equivalence also demonstrated equivalence.CONCLUSIONS: These findings show strong concordance between InterVA-4 and physician-coded findings over this large and diverse data set. Although these analyses cannot prove that either approach constitutes absolute truth, there was high public health equivalence between the findings. Given the urgent need for adequate cause of death data from settings where deaths currently pass unregistered, and since the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy standard and InterVA-4 tools represent relatively simple, cheap and available methods for determining cause of death on a large scale, they should be used as current tools of choice to fill gaps in cause of death data.
  • Chen, Mo, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Ionic Liquid 1-n-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride and Its Binary Mixtures with Ethanol
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation. - : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1549-9618 .- 1549-9626. ; 10:10, s. 4465-4479
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) of the imidazolium family have attracted much attention during the past decade for their capability to dissolve biomass. Besides experimental work, numerous compuational studies have been concerned with the physical properties of both neat ILs and their interactions with different solutes, in particular, carbohydrates. Many classical force fields designed specifically for ILs have been found to yield viscosities that are too high for the liquid state, which has been attributed to the fact that the effective charge densities are too high due to the lack of electronic polarizability. One solution to this problem has been uniform scaling of the partial charges by a scale factor in the range 0.6-0.9, depending on model. This procedure has been shown to improve the viscosity of the models, and also to positively affect other properties, such as diffusion constants and ionic conductivity. However, less attention has been paid to how this affects the overall thermodynamics of the system, and the problems it might create when the IL models are combined with other force fields (e.g., for solutes). In the present work, we employ three widely used IL force fields to simulate 1-n-buty1-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride in both the crystal and the liquid state, as well as its binary mixture with ethanol. Two approaches are used: one in which the ionic charge is retained at its full integer value and one in which the partial charges are uniformly reduced to 85%. We investigate and calculate crystal and liquid structures, molar heat capacities, heats of fusion, self-diffusion constants, ionic conductivity, and viscosity for the neat IL, and ethanol activity as a function of ethanol concentration for the binary mixture. We show that properties of the crystal are less affected by charge scaling compared to the liquid. In the liquid state, transport properties of the neat IL are generally improved by scaling, whereas values for the heat of fusion are unaffected, and results for the heat capacity are ambiguous. Neither full nor reduced charges could reproduce experimental ethanol activities for the whole range of compositions.
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