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  • Landegren, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Autoantibodies Targeting a Collecting Duct-Specific Water Channel in Tubulointerstitial Nephritis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN. - : American Society of Nephrology. - 1533-3450 .- 1046-6673. ; 27:10, s. 3220-3228
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tubulointerstitial nephritis is a common cause of kidney failure and may have diverse etiologies. This form of nephritis is sometimes associated with autoimmune disease, but the role of autoimmune mechanisms in disease development is not well understood. Here, we present the cases of three patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 who developed tubulointerstitial nephritis and ESRD in association with autoantibodies against kidney collecting duct cells. One of the patients developed autoantibodies targeting the collecting duct-specific water channel aquaporin 2, whereas autoantibodies of the two other patients reacted against the HOXB7 or NFAT5 transcription factors, which regulate the aquaporin 2 promoter. Our findings suggest that tubulointerstitial nephritis developed in these patients as a result of an autoimmune insult on the kidney collecting duct cells.
  • Leitao, Jordana, et al. (författare)
  • Revising the WHO verbal autopsy instrument to facilitate routine cause-of-death monitoring
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Global Health Action. - : CoAction Publishing. - 1654-9716 .- 1654-9880. ; 6, s. 21518-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Verbal autopsy (VA) is a systematic approach for determining causes of death (CoD) in populations without routine medical certification. It has mainly been used in research contexts and involved relatively lengthy interviews. Our objective here is to describe the process used to shorten, simplify, and standardise the VA process to make it feasible for application on a larger scale such as in routine civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems.METHODS: A literature review of existing VA instruments was undertaken. The World Health Organization (WHO) then facilitated an international consultation process to review experiences with existing VA instruments, including those from WHO, the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health in Developing Countries (INDEPTH) Network, InterVA, and the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC). In an expert meeting, consideration was given to formulating a workable VA CoD list [with mapping to the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) CoD] and to the viability and utility of existing VA interview questions, with a view to undertaking systematic simplification.FINDINGS: A revised VA CoD list was compiled enabling mapping of all ICD-10 CoD onto 62 VA cause categories, chosen on the grounds of public health significance as well as potential for ascertainment from VA. A set of 221 indicators for inclusion in the revised VA instrument was developed on the basis of accumulated experience, with appropriate skip patterns for various population sub-groups. The duration of a VA interview was reduced by about 40% with this new approach.CONCLUSIONS: The revised VA instrument resulting from this consultation process is presented here as a means of making it available for widespread use and evaluation. It is envisaged that this will be used in conjunction with automated models for assigning CoD from VA data, rather than involving physicians.
  • Lembrechts, Jonas J., et al. (författare)
  • Global maps of soil temperature
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 28:9, s. 3110-3144
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we provide global maps of soil temperature and bioclimatic variables at a 1-km2 resolution for 0–5 and 5–15 cm soil depth. These maps were created by calculating the difference (i.e. offset) between in situ soil temperature measurements, based on time series from over 1200 1-km2 pixels (summarized from 8519 unique temperature sensors) across all the world's major terrestrial biomes, and coarse-grained air temperature estimates from ERA5-Land (an atmospheric reanalysis by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). We show that mean annual soil temperature differs markedly from the corresponding gridded air temperature, by up to 10°C (mean = 3.0 ± 2.1°C), with substantial variation across biomes and seasons. Over the year, soils in cold and/or dry biomes are substantially warmer (+3.6 ± 2.3°C) than gridded air temperature, whereas soils in warm and humid environments are on average slightly cooler (−0.7 ± 2.3°C). The observed substantial and biome-specific offsets emphasize that the projected impacts of climate and climate change on near-surface biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are inaccurately assessed when air rather than soil temperature is used, especially in cold environments. The global soil-related bioclimatic variables provided here are an important step forward for any application in ecology and related disciplines. Nevertheless, we highlight the need to fill remaining geographic gaps by collecting more in situ measurements of microclimate conditions to further enhance the spatiotemporal resolution of global soil temperature products for ecological applications.
  • Lilliengren, Peter, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy of Experiential Dynamic Therapy for Psychiatric Conditions : a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Psychotherapy. - : AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC, DIV PSYCHOTHERAPY. - 0033-3204 .- 1939-1536. ; 53:1, s. 90-104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Experiential dynamic therapy (EDT) is a subgroup of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) that emphasizes patients’ in-session affective processing. To evaluate the efficacy of EDT for psychiatric conditions, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Twenty-eight studies published between 1978 and 2014 were included, encompassing 1,782 adult patients with mood, anxiety, personality, or mixed disorders. Across targeted outcome domains, medium-size between-groups effects (Cohen’s ds ranging from 0.39 to 0.65) favored EDT over inactive controls at posttreatment and in symptom measures at follow-up. We found no differences between EDT and active treatments (e.g., medication, cognitive–behavioral therapy, manualized supportive therapy) at posttreatment, but EDT outperformed supportive therapy at follow-up (d = 0.75). In terms of within-group effect sizes, EDT was associated with large improvements in general psychiatric symptoms (d = 1.11), depression (d = 1.33), and anxiety (d = 1.09) and with small to moderate gains in the areas of interpersonal problems (d = 0.55) and global functioning (d = 0.86). Small but significant effects suggested continued improvement between posttreatment and follow-up. Heterogeneity in pre–post effects was explored in subgroup analyses, which indicated that EDT might be most effective in depressive disorders and that individual EDT had larger effects compared with group treatment. In addition, EDT performed better in higher quality studies. We conclude that EDT is a promising treatment for psychiatric conditions in adults. Further high-quality studies evaluating contemporary versions of EDT in specific psychiatric conditions are warranted.
  • Lindqvist, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Affect-Focused Psychodynamic Internet-Based Therapy for Adolescent Depression : Randomized Controlled Trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research. - Toronto, ON, Canada : JMIR Publications Inc.. - 1438-8871. ; 22:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Adolescent depression is one of the largest health issues in the world and there is a pressing need for effective and accessible treatments. OBJECTIVE: This trial examines whether affect-focused internet-based psychodynamic therapy (IPDT) with therapist support is more effective than an internet-based supportive control condition on reducing depression in adolescents. METHODS: The trial included 76 adolescents (61/76, 80% female; mean age 16.6 years), self-referred via an open access website and fulfilling criteria for major depressive disorder. Adolescents were randomized to 8 weeks of IPDT (38/76, 50%) or supportive control (38/76, 50%). The primary outcome was self-reported depressive symptoms, measured with the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology for Adolescents (QIDS-A17-SR). Secondary outcomes were anxiety severity, emotion regulation, self-compassion, and an additional depression measure. Assessments were made at baseline, postassessment, and at 6 months follow-up, in addition to weekly assessments of the primary outcome measure as well as emotion regulation during treatment. RESULTS: IPDT was significantly more effective than the control condition in reducing depression (d=0.82, P=.01), the result of which was corroborated by the second depression measure (d=0.80, P<.001). IPDT was also significantly more effective in reducing anxiety (d=0.78, P<.001) and increasing emotion regulation (d=0.97, P<.001) and self-compassion (d=0.65, P=.003). Significantly more patients in the IPDT group compared to the control group met criteria for response (56% vs 21%, respectively) and remission (35% vs 8%, respectively). Results on depression and anxiety symptoms were stable at 6 months follow-up. On average, participants completed 5.8 (SD 2.4) of the 8 modules. CONCLUSIONS: IPDT may be an effective intervention to reduce adolescent depression. Further research is needed, including comparisons with other treatments.
  • Luiken, Ina, et al. (författare)
  • Pleuropulmonary pathologies in the early phase of acute pancreatitis correlate with disease severity
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 17:2 February
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Respiratory failure worsens the outcome of acute pancreatitis (AP) and underlying factors might be early detectable. Aims To evaluate the prevalence and prognostic relevance of early pleuropulmonary pathologies and pre-existing chronic lung diseases (CLD) in AP patients. Methods Multicentre retrospective cohort study. Caudal sections of the thorax derived from abdominal contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) performed in the early phase of AP were assessed. Independent predictors of severe AP were identified by binary logistic regression analysis. A one-year survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves and log rank test was performed. Results 358 patients were analysed, finding pleuropulmonary pathologies in 81%. CECTs were performed with a median of 2 days (IQR 1–3) after admission. Multivariable analysis identified moderate to severe or bilateral pleural effusions (PEs) (OR = 4.16, 95%CI 2.05–8.45, p<0.001) and pre-existing CLD (OR = 2.93, 95%CI 1.17–7.32, p = 0.022) as independent predictors of severe AP. Log rank test showed a significantly worse one-year survival in patients with bilateral compared to unilateral PEs in a subgroup. Conclusions Increasing awareness of the prognostic impact of large and bilateral PEs and pre-existing CLD could facilitate the identification of patients at high risk for severe AP in the early phase and thus improve their prognosis.
  • Maltese, Giovanni, 1974, et al. (författare)
  • Intracranial volume before and after surgical treatment for isolated metopic synostosis.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The Journal of craniofacial surgery. - 1536-3732. ; 25:1, s. 262-266
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metopic synostosis results in a keel-shaped forehead, hypotelorism, and an increased interparietal width. This study aimed to measure the frontal and total intracranial volume in patients with metopic synostosis before and after surgery and to compare the effect of 2 different operation methods. All patients operated for isolated metopic synostosis between 2002 and 2008 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital who had undergone preoperative and/or postoperative computed tomographic examination (at 3 y of age) were included. The patients were grouped according to operation method: (1) forehead remodeling in combination with a bone graft or (2) forehead remodeling in combination with a spring. Sex- and age-matched controls were identified. A previously developed MATLAB computer program was used to measure the frontal and total intracranial volumes. Sixty patients and 198 controls were included. Preoperatively, the patients with metopic synostosis had significantly lower frontal volumes than those of the controls (P < 0.001) but equal total intracranial volumes. The operations redistributed the intracranial volume and resulted in an improved, frontal-total intracranial volume ratio. However, at 3 years of age, the frontal volume (P < 0.001), total intracranial volume (P ≤ 0.002), and ratio between the 2 (P < 0.001) were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls. The 2 operation methods were equally efficient in creating an improved frontal-total ratio. Surgery for metopic synostosis improves the distribution of the intracranial volume but does not result in normal total intracranial volume or frontal volume at 3 years of age.
  • Maltese, Giovanni, 1974, et al. (författare)
  • New objective measurement of forehead symmetry in unicoronal craniosynostosis - comparison between fronto-orbital advancement and forehead remodelling with a bone graft.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of plastic surgery and hand surgery. - 2000-6764. ; 48:1, s. 59-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Patients with unicoronal synostosis (UCS) present with ipsilateral forehead flattening, contralateral frontal bossing, and rotation of the facial midline. Uni- or bilateral fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) techniques are the most common surgical approaches for correction of UCS. The purpose of this study was to objectively evaluate the surgical outcome in patients for UCS, using a new MATLAB computer tool programmed to measure the symmetry of the two halves of the forehead.Files were reviewed from a consecutive series of patients treated for UCS at the unit, from 1979-2008. The patients were grouped according to the method of operation used. The computer tool evaluated preoperative and postoperative cephalograms and CT scans. Eighty-eight patients were included. The male-to-female ratio was 1:2.4. Forty-six patients had been operated on with FOA and 42 with forehead remodelling using a calvarial bone graft. Forehead symmetry was significantly improved by both techniques (p < 0.001 for both), but the postoperative forehead symmetry was significantly better after forehead remodelling (p = 0.025). The reoperation rate was much lower for the second group (6.5 vs 37.2%, p < 0.001). It is concluded that forehead remodelling with a calvarial bone graft creates a more symmetrical forehead than FOA and may, therefore, be a better alternative for treatment of unicoronal synostosis.
  • McKay, James D., et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale association analysis identifies new lung cancer susceptibility loci and heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility across histological subtypes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 49:7, s. 1126-1132
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although several lung cancer susceptibility loci have been identified, much of the heritability for lung cancer remains unexplained. Here 14,803 cases and 12,262 controls of European descent were genotyped on the OncoArray and combined with existing data for an aggregated genomewide association study (GWAS) analysis of lung cancer in 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. We identified 18 susceptibility loci achieving genome-wide significance, including 10 new loci. The new loci highlight the striking heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility across the histological subtypes of lung cancer, with four loci associated with lung cancer overall and six loci associated with lung adenocarcinoma. Gene expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in 1,425 normal lung tissue samples highlights RNASET2, SECISBP2L and NRG1 as candidate genes. Other loci include genes such as a cholinergic nicotinic receptor, CHRNA2, and the telomere-related genes OFBC1 and RTEL1. Further exploration of the target genes will continue to provide new insights into the etiology of lung cancer.
  • McKay, James D., et al. (författare)
  • Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk: Results from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755. ; 18:1, s. 297-305
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Vitamin D is hypothesized to lower the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation via the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR). Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the VDR gene (VDR), rs154441.0 (BsmI), and rs2228570 (FokI), have been inconsistently associated with breast cancer risk. Increased risk has been reported for the FokIff genotype, which encodes a less transcriptionally active isoform of VDR, and reduced risk has been reported for the BsmI BB genotype, a SNP in strong linkage disequilibrium with a 3'-untranslated region, which may influence VDR mRNA stability. Methods: We pooled data from 6 prospective studies in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium to examine associations between these SNPs and breast cancer among >6,300 cases and 8,100 controls for each SNP using conditional logistic regression. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for the rs2228570 (FokI) ff versus FF genotype in the overall population was statistically significantly elevated [OR, 1-1.6; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.04-1.28] but was weaker once data from the cohort with previously published positive findings were removed (OR, 1.1.0; 95% CI, 0.981.24). No association was noted between rs1544410 (Bsm I) BB and breast cancer risk overall (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89-1.09), but the BB genotype was associated with a significantly lower risk of advanced breast cancer (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.92). Conclusions: Although the evidence for independent contributions of these variants to breast cancer susceptibility remains equivocal, future large studies should integrate genetic variation in VDR with biomarkers of vitamin D status. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(1):297-305)
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