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Sökning: WFRF:(Jakob Robert) > (2020-2022)

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  • Föregående 12[3]4Nästa
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  • Myers-Smith, Isla H., et al. (författare)
  • Complexity revealed in the greening of the Arctic
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Climate Change. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1758-678X .- 1758-6798. ; 10:2, s. 106-117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As the Arctic warms, vegetation is responding, and satellite measures indicate widespread greening at high latitudes. This ‘greening of the Arctic’ is among the world’s most important large-scale ecological responses to global climate change. However, a consensus is emerging that the underlying causes and future dynamics of so-called Arctic greening and browning trends are more complex, variable and inherently scale-dependent than previously thought. Here we summarize the complexities of observing and interpreting high-latitude greening to identify priorities for future research. Incorporating satellite and proximal remote sensing with in-situ data, while accounting for uncertainties and scale issues, will advance the study of past, present and future Arctic vegetation change.
  • Ostaszewski, Marek, et al. (författare)
  • COVID19 Disease Map, a computational knowledge repository of virus-host interaction mechanisms
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Systems Biology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1744-4292 .- 1744-4292. ; 17:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We need to effectively combine the knowledge from surging literature with complex datasets to propose mechanistic models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, improving data interpretation and predicting key targets of intervention. Here, we describe a large-scale community effort to build an open access, interoperable and computable repository of COVID-19 molecular mechanisms. The COVID-19 Disease Map (C19DMap) is a graphical, interactive representation of disease-relevant molecular mechanisms linking many knowledge sources. Notably, it is a computational resource for graph-based analyses and disease modelling. To this end, we established a framework of tools, platforms and guidelines necessary for a multifaceted community of biocurators, domain experts, bioinformaticians and computational biologists. The diagrams of the C19DMap, curated from the literature, are integrated with relevant interaction and text mining databases. We demonstrate the application of network analysis and modelling approaches by concrete examples to highlight new testable hypotheses. This framework helps to find signatures of SARS-CoV-2 predisposition, treatment response or prioritisation of drug candidates. Such an approach may help deal with new waves of COVID-19 or similar pandemics in the long-term perspective.
  • Percival, Mary-Elizabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of depth of clinical response on outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia patients in first complete remission who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Bone Marrow Transplantation. - : Springer Nature. - 0268-3369 .- 1476-5365. ; 56:9, s. 2108-2117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients often undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) in first complete remission (CR). We examined the effect of depth of clinical response, including incomplete count recovery (CRi) and/or measurable residual disease (MRD), in patients from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research (CIBMTR) registry. We identified 2492 adult patients (1799 CR and 693 CRi) who underwent alloHCT between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2015. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Multivariable analysis was performed to adjust for patient-, disease-, and transplant-related factors. Baseline characteristics were similar. Patients in CRi compared to those in CR had an increased likelihood of death (HR: 1.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.43). Compared to CR, CRi was significantly associated with increased non-relapse mortality (NRM), shorter disease-free survival (DFS), and a trend toward increased relapse. Detectable MRD was associated with shorter OS, shorter DFS, higher NRM, and increased relapse compared to absence of MRD. The deleterious effects of CRi and MRD were independent. In this large CIBMTR cohort, survival outcomes differ among AML patients based on depth of CR and presence of MRD at the time of alloHCT. Further studies should focus on optimizing post-alloHCT outcomes for patients with responses less than CR.
  • Rossitto, Chiara, et al. (författare)
  • Towards Digital Environmental Stewardship : the Work of Caring for the Environment in Waste Management
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings. - New York, NY, USA : Association for Computing Machinery. - 9781450391573 ; , s. 1-16
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper discusses Digital Environmental Stewardship as an analytical framework that can help HCI scholarship to understand, design, and assess sociotechnical interventions concerned with sustainable waste management practices. Drawing on environmental studies, we outline key concepts of environmental stewardship - namely actors, capacity, and motivations - to unpack how different initiatives for handling waste are organised, both through grassroots and top-down interventions, and through varying sociotechnical configurations. We use these dimensions to analyse three different cases of waste management that illustrate how actions of care for the environment are ecologically organised, and what challenges might hinder them beyond -or besides- behavioural motivations. We conclude with a discussion on the orientation to action that the suggested framework provides, and its role in understanding, designing and assessing digital technologies in this domain. We argue that examining how stewardship actions fold into each other helps design sociotechnical interventions for managing waste from within a relational perspective.
  • Trolle Lagerros, Ylva, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of Delayed Discharge and Reoperation of Gastric Bypass Patients with Psychiatric Comorbidity : a Nationwide Cohort Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Obesity Surgery. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0960-8923 .- 1708-0428. ; 30:7, s. 2511-2518
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundGastric bypass (GBP) surgery is considered a safe and effective treatment for obesity. However, there is uncertainty regarding the impact of preexisting psychiatric comorbidity on GBP complications. We have investigated whether a psychiatric diagnosis before GBP surgery is associated with delayed discharge (the odds of being in the 90th percentile of length of stay) and rate of reoperation in a nationwide Swedish cohort.MethodsPatients undergoing GBP surgery during 2008–2012 were identified and followed up through the National Patient Register and the Prescribed Drug Register. Logistic regression models were fitted to the studied outcomes.ResultsAmong the 22,539 patients identified, a prior diagnosis of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, neurotic disorders, ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), substance use disorder, eating disorder, personality disorder, or self-harm since 1997 (n = 9480) was found to be associated with delayed discharge after GBP surgery (odds ratio [OR] = 1.47, confidence interval [CI] 1.34–1.62), especially in patients with psychiatric hospitalization exceeding 1 week in the 2 years preceding GBP surgery (OR = 2.06, CI 1.30–3.28), compared with those not hospitalized within psychiatry. Likewise, patients with a prior psychiatric diagnosis were more likely to be reoperated within 30 days (OR = 1.25, CI 1.11–1.41), with twice the likelihood OR 2.23 (CI 1.26–3.92) for patients with psychiatric hospitalization of up to a week in the 2 years preceding GBP surgery, compared with patients who had not been hospitalized within psychiatry.ConclusionsA psychiatric diagnosis before GBP surgery was associated with delayed discharge and increased likelihood of reoperation within 30 days. Patients with a prior psychiatric diagnosis may, therefore, need additional attention and support.
  • Ulenius, Jakob, 1983- (författare)
  • Maskulinitetens mening : En fenomenologisk undersökning av den psykoterapeutiska situationen
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Masculinity is an elusive and ambiguous phenomenon that can manifest itself in many different ways in different contexts. This study focuses on the emergence of masculinity within the psychodynamic psychotherapeutic situation, with a focus on how masculinity is experienced. Both patient and therapist carry notions and experiences of masculinity into the therapy room. In addition, the psychotherapeutic situation, in itself, can evoke notions of gender. Sometimes masculinity can be the focus of the therapy, which previous research to some extent has drawn theoretical attention to, with a focus on certain aspects. However, there is a need for an empirical holistic approach to how masculinity is manifested in psychotherapy.The purpose of the dissertation is to clarify the meaning of masculinity, as it appears in the psychotherapeutic situation. This purpose is answered by empirically describing how masculinity is experienced in psychotherapy from two perspectives – the patient's and the psychotherapist's. The study is based on 27 in-depth interviews which were analyzed using a phenomenological method. The result is presented in the form of two meaning structures; one for the patient's experience of masculinity and another for the psychotherapist's experience. Finally, these two meaning structures are compared, in order to highlight common features and differences.The study shows that the patient's experience of masculinity is primarily rooted in the patient’s lived, first-person perspective, while the therapist's experience to a greater extent is constituted by a second- and third-person perspective. Both patient and therapist symbolize and conceptualize masculinity through different levels, where they share a bodily and a ”taken-for-granted” dimension. Their conceptualizations differ in that the therapist also has access to a theoretically informed perspective. Both patient and therapist constitute masculinity in a normative way; for the patient, the normative dimension is perceived in terms of ego-syntonic and ego-dystonic masculinity ideals and norms, while the therapist defines masculinity as either a positive or a negative phenomenon.A distinctive aspect of the result is, that masculinity can appear in terms of suffering for the patient or in terms of masculinity issues for the therapist. The masculinity suffering/masculinity issues can be associated with a polarized or immature form of masculinity, which – in the context of therapy – can undergo changes until appearing in a non-polarized, mature way. Another type of masculinity suffering, is when the patient does not feel in contact with masculinity. The result describes a changed masculinity experience in terms of a changed masculinity narrative, which can undergo three different elements; the prefigurative ground, the configurative processing, and the refigurative gestalt of masculinity. The study also sheds light on how the patient and therapist relate to one another in the light of a changed masculinity narrative.The comparative analysis shows that masculinity can be attributed with divergent meanings within the psychotherapeutic situation, and also includes a developmental, therapeutic and normative dimension. One conclusion is that masculinity has two sources of meaning; one lived and one theoretical origin. The lived perspective is linked to the life world, while the theoretical perspective has the potential to elaborate and broaden the life world experience of masculinity.
  • Vogelezang, Suzanne, et al. (författare)
  • Novel loci for childhood body mass index and shared heritability with adult cardiometabolic traits.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS genetics. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1553-7404. ; 16:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genetic background of childhood body mass index (BMI), and the extent to which the well-known associations of childhood BMI with adult diseases are explained by shared genetic factors, are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of BMI in 61,111 children aged between 2 and 10 years. Twenty-five independent loci reached genome-wide significance in the combined discovery and replication analyses. Two of these, located near NEDD4L and SLC45A3, have not previously been reported in relation to either childhood or adult BMI. Positive genetic correlations of childhood BMI with birth weight and adult BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure and type 2 diabetes were detected (Rg ranging from 0.11 to 0.76, P-values <0.002). A negative genetic correlation of childhood BMI with age at menarche was observed. Our results suggest that the biological processes underlying childhood BMI largely, but not completely, overlap with those underlying adult BMI. The well-known observational associations of BMI in childhood with cardio-metabolic diseases in adulthood may reflect partial genetic overlap, but in light of previous evidence, it is also likely that they are explained through phenotypic continuity of BMI from childhood into adulthood.
  • Wagner, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Deep learning-enhanced light-field imaging with continuous validation
  • 2020
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Light field microscopy (LFM) has emerged as a powerful tool for fast volumetric image acquisition in biology, but its effective throughput and widespread use has been hampered by a computationally demanding and artefact-prone image reconstruction process. Here, we present a novel framework consisting of a hybrid light-field light-sheet microscope and deep learning-based volume reconstruction, where single light-sheet acquisitions continuously serve as training data and validation for the convolutional neural network reconstructing the LFM volume. Our network delivers high-quality reconstructions at video-rate throughput and we demonstrate the capabilities of our approach by imaging medaka heart dynamics and zebrafish neural activity.
  • Wagner, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Deep learning-enhanced light-field imaging with continuous validation
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Methods. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1548-7105 .- 1548-7091. ; 18:5, s. 557-563
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Visualizing dynamic processes over large, three-dimensional fields of view at high speed is essential for many applications in the life sciences. Light-field microscopy (LFM) has emerged as a tool for fast volumetric image acquisition, but its effective throughput and widespread use in biology has been hampered by a computationally demanding and artifact-prone image reconstruction process. Here, we present a framework for artificial intelligence-enhanced microscopy, integrating a hybrid light-field light-sheet microscope and deep learning-based volume reconstruction. In our approach, concomitantly acquired, high-resolution two-dimensional light-sheet images continuously serve as training data and validation for the convolutional neural network reconstructing the raw LFM data during extended volumetric time-lapse imaging experiments. Our network delivers high-quality three-dimensional reconstructions at video-rate throughput, which can be further refined based on the high-resolution light-sheet images. We demonstrate the capabilities of our approach by imaging medaka heart dynamics and zebrafish neural activity with volumetric imaging rates up to 100 Hz.
  • Wallgren, Jakob, 1987-, et al. (författare)
  • Structure elucidation of urinary metabolites of fentanyl and five fentanyl analogues using LC-QTOF-MS, hepatocyte incubations and synthesized reference standards
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Analytical Toxicology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0146-4760 .- 1945-2403. ; 44:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fentanyl analogues constitute a particularly dangerous group of new psychoactive compounds responsible for many deaths around the world. Little is known about their metabolism and studies utilizing LC-QTOF-MS analysis of hepatocyte incubations and/or authentic urine samples does not allow for determination of the exact metabolite structures, especially when it comes to hydroxylated metabolites. In this study seven motifs (2-, 3-, 4- and β-OH as well as 3,4-diOH, 4-OH-3-OMe and 3-OH-4-OMe) of fentanyl and five fentanyl analogues, acetylfentanyl, acrylfentanyl, cyclopropylfentanyl, isobutyrylfentanyl and 4F-isobutyrylfentanyl were synthesized. The reference standards were analyzed by LC-QTOF-MS, which enabled identification of the major metabolites formed in hepatocyte incubations of the studied fentanyls. By comparison with our previous data sets, major urinary metabolites could tentatively be identified. For all analogues, β-OH, 4-OH and 4-OH-3-OMe were identified after hepatocyte incubation. β-OH was the major hydroxylated metabolite for all studied fentanyls, except for acetylfentanyl where 4-OH was more abundant. However, the ratio 4-OH/β-OH was higher in urine samples than in hepatocyte incubations for all studied fentanyls. Also, 3-OH-4-OMe was not detected in any hepatocyte samples, indicating a clear preference for the 4-OH-3-OMe, which was also found to be more abundant in urine compared to hepatocytes. The patterns appear to be consistent across all studied fentanyls and could serve as a starting point in the development of methods and synthesis of reference standards of novel fentanyl analogues where nothing is known about the metabolism.
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  • Föregående 12[3]4Nästa
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