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  • Karlsson, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Heparin pre-treatment in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and the risk of intracoronary thrombus and total vessel occlusion : Insights from the TASTE trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Sage Publications. - 2048-8726 .- 2048-8734. ; 8:1, s. 15-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Pre-treatment with unfractionated heparin is common in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) protocols, but the effect on intracoronary thrombus burden is unknown. We studied the effect of heparin pre-treatment on intracoronary thrombus burden and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow prior to percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with STEMI.METHODS: The Thrombus Aspiration in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Scandinavia (TASTE) trial angiographically assessed intracoronary thrombus burden and TIMI flow, prior to percutaneous coronary intervention, in patients with STEMI. In this observational sub-study, patients pre-treated with heparin were compared with patients not pre-treated with heparin. Primary end points were a visible intracoronary thrombus and total vessel occlusion prior to percutaneous coronary intervention. Secondary end points were in-hospital bleeding, in-hospital stroke and 30-day all-cause mortality.RESULTS: Heparin pre-treatment was administered in 2898 out of 7144 patients (41.0%). Patients pre-treated with heparin less often presented with an intracoronary thrombus (61.3% vs. 66.0%, p<0.001) and total vessel occlusion (62.9% vs. 71.6%, p<0.001). After adjustments, heparin pre-treatment was independently associated with a reduced risk of intracoronary thrombus (odds ratio (OR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.65-0.83) and total vessel occlusion (OR 0.64, 95% CI=0.56-0.73), prior to percutaneous coronary intervention. There were no significant differences in secondary end points of in-hospital bleeding (OR 0.84, 95% CI=0.55-1.27), in-hospital stroke (OR 1.17, 95% CI=0.48-2.82) or 30-day all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.88, 95% CI=0.60-1.30).CONCLUSIONS: Heparin pre-treatment was independently associated with a lower risk of intracoronary thrombus and total vessel occlusion before percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with STEMI, without evident safety concerns, in this large multi-centre observational study.
  • Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb, et al. (författare)
  • Leveraging electronic health records to streamline the conduct of cardiovascular clinical trials
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 44:21, s. 1890-1909
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Conventional randomized controlled trials (RCTs) can be expensive, time intensive, and complex to conduct. Trial recruitment, participation, and data collection can burden participants and research personnel. In the past two decades, there have been rapid technological advances and an exponential growth in digitized healthcare data. Embedding RCTs, including cardiovascular outcome trials, into electronic health record systems or registries may streamline screening, consent, randomization, follow-up visits, and outcome adjudication. Moreover, wearable sensors (i.e. health and fitness trackers) provide an opportunity to collect data on cardiovascular health and risk factors in unprecedented detail and scale, while growing internet connectivity supports the collection of patient-reported outcomes. There is a pressing need to develop robust mechanisms that facilitate data capture from diverse databases and guidance to standardize data definitions. Importantly, the data collection infrastructure should be reusable to support multiple cardiovascular RCTs over time. Systems, processes, and policies will need to have sufficient flexibility to allow interoperability between different sources of data acquisition. Clinical research guidelines, ethics oversight, and regulatory requirements also need to evolve. This review highlights recent progress towards the use of routinely generated data to conduct RCTs and discusses potential solutions for ongoing barriers. There is a particular focus on methods to utilize routinely generated data for trials while complying with regional data protection laws. The discussion is supported with examples of cardiovascular outcome trials that have successfully leveraged the electronic health record, web-enabled devices or administrative databases to conduct randomized trials.
  • Kubica, Jacek, et al. (författare)
  • Prolonged antithrombotic therapy in patients after acute coronary syndrome : A critical appraisal of current European Society of Cardiology guidelines
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: CARDIOLOGY JOURNAL. - : VM Media SP. zo.o VM Group SK. - 1897-5593 .- 1898-018X. ; 27:6, s. 661-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The increased risk of non-cardiovascular death in patients receiving clopidogrel or prasugrel in comparison with the placebo group in the Dual Antiplatelet Therapy (DAPT) trial in contrast to the decreased risk of cardiovascular death and all-cause death seen in patients treated with low-dose ticagrelor in the EU label population of the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 trial, resulted in inclusion in the 2020 ESC NSTE-ACS guidelines the recommendation for use of clopidogrel or prasugrel only if the patient is not eligible for treatment with ticagrelor. The prevalence of the primary outcome composed of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction was lower in the low-dose rivaroxaban and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) group than in the ASA-alone group in the COMPASS trial. Moreover, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality rates were lower in the rivaroxaban-plus-ASA group. Comparison of the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 and COMPASS trial patient characteristics clearly shows that each of these treatment strategies should be addressed at different groups of patients. A greater benefit in post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with a high risk of ischemic events and without high bleeding risk may be expected with ASA and ticagrelor 60 mg b.i.d. when the therapy is continued without interruption or with short interruption only after ACS. On the other hand, ASA and rivaroxaban 2.5 mg b.i.d. seems to be a better option when indications for dual antithrombotic therapy (DATT) appear after a longer time from ACS (more than 2 years) and/or from cessation of DAPT (more than 1 year) and in patients with multiple vascular bed atherosclerosis. Thus, both options of DATTs complement each other rather than compete, as can be presumed from the recommendations. However, a direct comparison between these strategies should be tested in future clinical trials.
  • Lagedal, Rickard, et al. (författare)
  • Design of DISCO—Direct or Subacute Coronary Angiography in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 197, s. 53-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Acute coronary syndrome is a common cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). In patients with OHCA presenting with ST elevation, immediate coronary angiography and potential percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after return of spontaneous circulation are recommended. However, the evidence for this invasive strategy in patients without ST elevation is limited. Observational studies have shown a culprit coronary artery occlusion in about 30% of these patients, indicating the electrocardiogram's (ECG's) limited sensitivity. The aim of this study is to determine whether immediate coronary angiography and subsequent PCI will provide outcome benefits in OHCA patients without ST elevation. Methods/design We describe the design of the DIrect or Subacute Coronary angiography in Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest study (DISCO)—a pragmatic national, multicenter, randomized, clinical study. OHCA patients presenting with no ST elevation on their first recorded ECG will be randomized to a strategy of immediate coronary angiography or to standard of care with admission to intensive care and angiography after 3 days at the earliest unless the patient shows signs of acute ischemia or hemodynamic instability. Primary end point is 30-day survival. An estimated 1,006 patients give 80% power (α =.05) to detect a 20% improved 30-day survival rate from 45% to 54%. Secondary outcomes include good neurologic recovery at 30 days and 6 months, and cognitive function and cardiac function at 6 months. Conclusion This randomized clinical study will evaluate the effect of immediate coronary angiography after OHCA on 30-day survival in patients without ST elevation on their first recorded ECG.
  • Lindgren, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Gender differences in utilization of coronary angiography and angiographic findings after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest : A registry study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - : Elsevier BV. - 0300-9572 .- 1873-1570. ; 143, s. 189-195
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: We investigated the impact of gender in performance and findings of early coronary angiography (CAG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), comorbidity and outcome in a large population of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients with an initially shockable rhythm.Methods: Retrospective cohort study. Data retrieved 2008-2013 from the Swedish Register for Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation, Swedeheart Registry and National Patient Register.Results: We identified 1498 patients of whom 78% were men. Men and women had the same pathology on the first registered electrocardiogram (ECG): 30% vs. 29% had ST-elevation and 10% vs. 9% had left bundle branch block (LBBB) (P=0.97). Proportions of performed CAG did not differ between genders. Among patients without ST-elevation/LBBB men more often had at least one significant stenosis, 78% vs. 54% (P= 0.001), more multi-vessel disease (P= 0.01), had normal coronary angiography less often, 22% vs. 46% and PCI more often, 59% vs. 42% (P= 0.03). Among patients without STelevation/LBBB on the initial ECG, more men had previously known ischaemic heart disease, 27% vs. 19% (P=0.02) and a presumed cardiac origin of the cardiac arrest, 86% vs. 72% (P< 0.001). Multivariable analysis showed no association between gender and evaluation by early CAG. In men and women, 1-year survival was 56% vs. 50% (P= 0.22) in patients with ST-elevation/LBBB and 48% vs. 51% (P= 0.50) in patients without.Conclusion: Despite no gender differences in ECG findings indicating an early CAG, men had more severe coronary artery disease while women more frequently had normal coronary angiography. However, this did not influence 1-year survival.
  • Lund, Lars H, et al. (författare)
  • Registry-Based Pragmatic Trials in Heart Failure : Current Experience and Future Directions
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Current Heart Failure Reports. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1546-9530 .- 1546-9549. ; 14:2, s. 59-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in heart failure (HF) are becoming increasingly complex and expensive to conduct and if positive deliver expensive therapy tested only in selected populations.RECENT FINDINGS: Electronic health records and clinical cardiovascular quality registries are providing opportunities for pragmatic and registry-based prospective randomized clinical trials (RRCTs). Simplified regulatory, ethics, and consent procedures; recruitment integrated into real-world care; and simplified or automated baseline and outcome collection allow assessment of study power and feasibility, fast and efficient recruitment, delivery of generalizable findings at low cost, and potentially evidence-based and novel use of generic drugs with low costs to society. There have been no RRCTs in HF to date. Major challenges include generating funding, international collaboration, and the monitoring of safety and adherence for chronic HF treatments. Here, we use the Spironolactone Initiation Registry Randomized Interventional Trial in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (SPIRRIT-HFpEF), to be conducted in the Swedish Heart Failure Registry, to exemplify the advantages and challenges of HF RRCTs.Summary: There have been no RRCTs in HF to date. Major challenges include generating funding, international collaboration, and the monitoring of safety and adherence for chronic HF treatments. Here, we use the Spironolactone Initiation Registry Randomized Interventional Trial in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (SPIRRIT-HFpEF), to be conducted in the Swedish Heart Failure Registry, to exemplify the advantages and challenges of HF RRCTs.
  • Mahmoud, Karim D., et al. (författare)
  • Clinical impact of direct stenting and interaction with thrombus aspiration in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention : Thrombectomy Trialists Collaboration
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 39:26, s. 2472-2479
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Preliminary studies suggest that direct stenting (DS) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may reduce microvascular obstruction and improve clinical outcome. Thrombus aspiration may facilitate DS. We assessed the impact of DS on clinical outcome and myocardial reperfusion and its interaction with thrombus aspiration among ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing PCI.Methods and results: Patient-level data from the three largest randomized trials on routine manual thrombus aspiration vs. PCI only were merged. A 1:1 propensity matched population was created to compare DS and conventional stenting. Synergy between DS and thrombus aspiration was assessed with interaction P-values in the final models. In the unmatched population (n= 17329), 32% underwent DS and 68% underwent conventional stenting. Direct stenting rates were higher in patients randomized to thrombus aspiration as compared with PCI only (41% vs. 22%; P < 0.001). Patients undergoing DS required less contrast (162 mL vs. 172 mL; P < 0.001) and had shorter fluoroscopy time (11.1 min vs. 13.3 min; P < 0.001). After propensity matching (n = 10944), no significant differences were seen between DS and conventional stenting with respect to 30-day cardiovascular death [1.7% vs. 1.9%; hazard ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-1.41; P=0.60; P-interaction = 0.96) and 30-day stroke or transient ischaemic attack (0.6% vs. 0.4%; odds ratio 1.02; 95% CI 0.14-7.54; P= 0.99; P-interaction = 0.81). One-year results were similar. No significant differences were seen in electrocardiographic and angiographic myocardial reperfusion measures.Conclusion: Direct stenting rates were higher in patients randomized to thrombus aspiration. Clinical outcomes and myocardial reperfusion measures did not differ significantly between DS and conventional stenting and there was no interaction with thrombus aspiration.
  • Manzi, Maria Virginia, et al. (författare)
  • Sex-Related Differences in Thrombus Burden in STEMI Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: JACC. - : Elsevier. - 1936-8798 .- 1876-7605. ; 15:20, s. 2066-2076
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Women have a worse prognosis after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) than men. The prognostic role of thrombus burden (TB) in influencing the sex-related differences in clinical outcomes after STEMI has not been clearly investigated.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the sex-related differences in TB and its clinical implications in patients with STEMI.METHODS: Individual patient data from the 3 major randomized clinical trials of manual thrombus aspiration were analyzed, encompassing a total of 19,047 patients with STEMI, of whom 13,885 (76.1%) were men and 4,371 (23.9%) were women. The primary outcome of interest was 1-year cardiovascular (CV) death. The secondary outcomes of interest were recurrent myocardial infarction, heart failure, all-cause mortality, stroke, stent thrombosis (ST), and target vessel revascularization at 1 year.RESULTS: Patients with high TB (HTB) had worse 1-year outcomes compared with those presenting with low TB (adjusted HR for CV death: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.10-2.12; P = 0.01). In unadjusted analyses, female sex was associated with an increased risk for 1-year CV death regardless of TB. After adjustment, the risk for 1-year CV death was higher only in women with HTB (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.18-1.28; P < 0.001), who also had an increased risk for all-cause death and ST than men.CONCLUSIONS: In patients with STEMI, angiographic evidence of HTB negatively affected prognosis. Among patients with HTB, women had an excess risk for ST, CV, and all-cause mortality than men. Further investigations are warranted to better understand the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to excess mortality in women with STEMI and HTB.
  • Mohammad, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • The association of mode of location activity and mobility with acute coronary syndrome : nationwide ecological study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Blackwell Science Ltd.. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 289:2, s. 247-254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: We aimed to study the effect of social containment mandates on ACS presentation during COVID-19 pandemic using location activity and mobility data from mobile phone map services.METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR) including all ACS presentations during the pandemic until May 07, 2020. Using a count regression model, we adjusted for day of the week, daily weather, and incidence of COVID-19.RESULTS: A 10% increase in activity around areas of residence was associated with 38% lower rates of ACS hospitalisations whereas increased activity relating to retail and recreation, grocery stores and pharmacies, workplaces as well as mode of mobility was associated with 10-20% higher rates of ACS hospitalisations.CONCLUSION: Government policy regarding social containment mandates has important public health implications for medical emergencies like ACS and may explain the decline in ACS presentations observed during COVID-19 pandemic.
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