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  • Accordini, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence trends of airflow obstruction among European adults without asthma : a 20-year cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Investigating COPD trends may help healthcare providers to forecast future disease burden. We estimated sex- and smoking-specific incidence trends of pre-bronchodilator airflow obstruction (AO) among adults without asthma from 11 European countries within a 20-year follow-up (ECRHS and SAPALDIA cohorts). We also quantified the extent of misclassification in the definition based on pre-bronchodilator spirometry (using post-bronchodilator measurements from a subsample of subjects) and we used this information to estimate the incidence of post-bronchodilator AO (AO(post-BD)), which is the primary characteristic of COPD. AO incidence was 4.4 (95% CI: 3.5-5.3) male and 3.8 (3.1-4.6) female cases/1,000/year. Among ever smokers (median pack-years: 20, males; 12, females), AO incidence significantly increased with ageing in men only [incidence rate ratio (IRR), 1-year increase: 1.05 (1.03-1.07)]. A strong exposure-response relationship with smoking was found both in males [IRR, 1-pack-year increase: 1.03 (1.02-1.04)] and females [1.03 (1.02-1.05)]. The positive predictive value of AO for AO(post-BD) was 59.1% (52.0-66.2%) in men and 42.6% (35.1-50.1%) in women. AO(post-BD) incidence was 2.6 (1.7-3.4) male and 1.6 (1.0-2.2) female cases/1,000/year. AO incidence was considerable in Europe and the sex-specific ageing-related increase among ever smokers was strongly related to cumulative tobacco exposure. AO(post-BD) incidence is expected to be half of AO incidence.
  • Accordini, S., et al. (författare)
  • Prenatal and prepubertal exposures to tobacco smoke in men may cause lower lung function in future offspring: a three-generation study using a causal modelling approach
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 58:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mechanistic research suggests that lifestyle and environmental factors impact respiratory health across generations by epigenetic changes transmitted through male germ cells. Evidence from studies on humans is very limited. We investigated multigeneration causal associations to estimate the causal effects of tobacco smoking on lung function within the paternal line. We analysed data from 383 adult offspring (age 18-47 years; 52.0% female) and their 274 fathers, who had participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS)/Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study and had provided valid measures of pre-bronchodilator lung function. Two counterfactual-based, multilevel mediation models were developed with: paternal grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy and fathers' smoking initiation in prepuberty as exposures; fathers' forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), or FEV1/FVC z-scores as potential mediators (proxies of unobserved biological mechanisms that are true mediators); and offspring's FEV1 and FVC, or FEV1/FVC z-scores as outcomes. All effects were summarised as differences (Delta) in expected z-scores related to fathers' and grandmothers' smoking history. Fathers' smoking initiation in prepuberty had a negative direct effect on both offspring's FEV1 (Delta z-score -0.36, 95% CI -0.63--0.10) and FVC (-0.50, 95% CI -0.80--0.20) compared with fathers' never smoking. Paternal grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy had a negative direct effect on fathers' FEV1/FVC -0.57, 95% CI -1.09--0.05) and a negative indirect effect on offspring's FEV1/FVC (-0.12, 95% CI -0.21--0.03) compared with grandmothers' not smoking before fathers' birth nor during fathers' childhood. Fathers' smoking in prepuberty and paternal grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy may cause lower lung function in offspring. Our results support the concept that lifestyle-related exposures during these susceptibility periods influence the health of future generations.
  • Accordini, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • The Cost of Persistent Asthma in Europe : An International Population-Based Study in Adults
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. - 1018-2438 .- 1423-0097. ; 160:1, s. 93-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: This study is aimed at providing a real-world evaluation of the economic cost of persistent asthma among European adults according to the degree of disease control [as defined by the 2006 Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines]. Methods: A prevalence-based cost-of-illness study was carried out on 462 patients aged 30-54 years with persistent asthma (according to the 2002 GINA definition), who were identified in general population samples from 11 European countries and examined in clinical settings in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II between 1999 and 2002. The cost estimates were computed from the societal perspective following the bottom-up approach on the basis of rates, wages and prices in 2004 (obtained at the national level from official sources), and were then converted to the 2010 values. Results: The mean total cost per patient was EUR 1,583 and was largely driven by indirect costs (i.e. lost working days and days with limited, not work-related activities 62.5%). The expected total cost in the population aged 30-54 years of the 11 European countries was EUR 4.3 billion (EUR 19.3 billion when extended to the whole European population aged from 15 to 64 years). The mean total cost per patient ranged from EUR 509 (controlled asthma) to EUR 2,281 (uncontrolled disease). Chronic cough or phlegm and having a high BMI significantly increased the individual total cost. Conclusions: Among European adults, the cost of persistent asthma drastically increases as disease control decreases. Therefore, substantial cost savings could be obtained through the proper management of adult patients in Europe.
  • Accordini, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • The Role of Smoking in Allergy and Asthma : Lessons from the ECRHS
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports. - 1529-7322 .- 1534-6315. ; 12:3, s. 185-191
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The European Community Respiratory Health Survey is an international multicenter cohort study of asthma, allergy, and lung function that began in the early-1990s with recruitment of population-based samples of 20- to 44-year-old adults, mainly in Europe. The aims of the study are broad ranging but include assessment of the role of in utero exposure to tobacco smoke, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and active smoking on the incidence, prevalence, and prognosis of allergy and asthma. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses looking at these associations have been conducted, sometimes only using information collected in one country, and on other occasions using information collected in all the participating centers. This article summarizes the results from these various publications from this large epidemiologic study.
  • Ahlbeck, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • When and how to step down asthma treatment.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - 0023-7205 .- 1652-7518. ; 115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Swedish asthma guidelines recommend treating asthma with the lowest effective dose possible. These recommendations are both hard to follow and seldom considered enough in asthma care today. As an example, combination therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long acting beta agonists (LABA) should only be considered if asthma control is not achieved with low to medium dose ICS daily. However, the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare estimates that 120 000 asthma patients are overmedicated with combination therapy. Guidelines are clear in instructions of when and how to step up asthma treatment, while instructions for stepping down are not that obvious. In this article, we present an asthma treatment algorithm for step 1-3 in adults for use in clinical practice (Fig. 1), where stepping down asthma treatment is considered as an alternative. Included are also instructions of how to step down asthma treatment (Fig. 2). We conclude that stepping down is possible to do in a safe way in certain patient groups while maintaining asthma control. If possible risks are taken into consideration, stepping down asthma treatment can be done in every clinical setting.
  • Ahlroth Pind, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • Patient-reported signs of dampness at home may be a risk factor for chronic rhinosinusitis: A cross-sectional study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - Hoboken : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 47:11, s. 1383-1389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: An association between dampness at home and respiratory conditions has been convincingly demonstrated in children. Fewer studies have been performed in adults, and data are lacking for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). With a prevalence of 10.9% in Europe, CRS imposes a significant burden on quality of life, as well as economy. Objective: Our aim was to study CRS and other respiratory conditions in relation to dampness at home in a representative sample of adults. Methods: The Swedish GA2LEN questionnaire was answered by 26 577 adults (16-75 years) and included questions on respiratory symptoms, smoking, education and environmental exposure. CRS was defined according to the EP3OS criteria. Dampness was defined as reporting water damage, floor dampness or visible moulds in the home during the last 12 months. The dampness score was ranked from 0 to 3, counting the number of signs of dampness reported. Results: Dampness at home was reported by 11.3% and was independently related to respiratory conditions after adjustment for demographic and socio-economic factors and smoking: CRS odds ratio (OR) 1.71; allergic rhinitis OR 1.24; current asthma OR 1.21; wheeze OR 1.37; nocturnal dyspnoea OR 1.80; nocturnal coughing OR 1.34; and chronic bronchitis OR 1.64. The risk of CRS and most of the other respiratory conditions was further elevated in subjects reporting multiple signs of dampness. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: This study demonstrated an independent association between dampness at home and CRS in adults. The high burden of this and the other respiratory conditions studied is a strong argument in favour of countering indoor dampness by improving building standards. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
  • Ahmadi, Zainab, et al. (författare)
  • Agreement of the modified Medical Research Council and New York Heart Association scales for assessing the impact of self-rated breathlessness in cardiopulmonary disease
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: ERJ Open Research. - : European Respiratory Society. - 2312-0541. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The functional impact of breathlessness is assessed using the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale for chronic respiratory disease and with the New York Heart Association Functional Classification (NYHA) scale for heart failure. We evaluated agreement between the scales and their concurrent validity with other clinically relevant patient-reported outcomes in cardiorespiratory disease.Methods: Outpatients with stable chronic respiratory disease or heart failure were recruited. Agreement between the mMRC and NYHA scales was analysed using Cramér's V and Kendall's tau B tests. Concurrent validity was evaluated using correlations with clinically relevant measures of breathlessness, anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life. Analyses were conducted for all participants and separately in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure.Results: In a total of 182 participants with cardiorespiratory disease, the agreement between the mMRC and NYHA scales was moderate (Cramér's V: 0.46; Kendall's tau B: 0.57) with similar results for COPD (Cramér's V: 0.46; Kendall's tau B: 0.66) and heart failure (Cramér's V: 0.46; Kendall's tau B: 0.67). In the total population, the scales correlated in similar ways to other patient-reported outcomes.Conclusion: In outpatients with cardiorespiratory disease, the mMRC and NYHA scales show moderate to strong correlations and similar associations with other patient-reported outcomes. This supports that the scales are comparable when assessing the impact of breathlessness on function and patient-reported outcomes.
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