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  • Al-Shamkhi, Nasrin, et al. (författare)
  • Important non-disease-related determinants of exhaled nitric oxide levels in mild asthma – results from the Swedish GA2LEN study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 46:9, s. 1185-1193
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has a potential clinical role in asthma management. Constitutive factors such as age, height and gender, as well as individual characteristics, such as IgE sensitization and smoking, affect the levels of FeNO in population-based studies. However, their effect on FeNO in subjects with asthma has been scarcely studied. Objective: To study the effects on FeNO of these commonly regarded determinants, as demonstrated in healthy subjects, as well as menarche age and parental smoking, in a population of asthmatics. Material and Methods: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide was measured in 557 subjects with asthma from the Swedish GA2LEN study. Allergic sensitization was assessed by skin prick tests to most common aeroallergens. Upper airway comorbidities, smoking habits, smoking exposure during childhood and hormonal status (for women) were questionnaire-assessed. Results: Male gender (P < 0.001), greater height (P < 0.001) and sensitization to both perennial allergens and pollen (P < 0.001) are related to higher FeNO levels. Current smoking (P < 0.001) and having both parents smoking during childhood, vs. having neither (P < 0.001) or only one parent smoking (P = 0.002), are related to lower FeNO. Women with menarche between 9 and 11 years of age had lower FeNO than those with menarche between 12 and 14 years of age (P = 0.03) or 15 and 17 years of age (P = 0.003). Conclusions and Clinical relevance: Interpreting FeNO levels in clinical practice is complex, and constitutional determinants, as well as smoking and IgE sensitisation, are of importance in asthmatic subjects and should be accounted for when interpreting FeNO levels. Furthermore, menarche age and parental smoking during childhood and their effects on lowering FeNO deserve further studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
  • Ali, M. A. E., et al. (författare)
  • Antimicrobial potential of Saccharomyces boulardii extracts and fractions
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Sciences Research. - 1816-157X .- 1819-544X. ; 8:8, s. 4537-4543
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Different extracts of viable therapeutic Saccharomyces boulardii cells were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Water, methanol, isopropanol, n-butanol and ethanol were used as solvents for extraction. Ethanol-extract exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity towards both strains, followed by water-extract. No antimicrobial activity could be detected on testing methanol-extract towards both strains. Ethanol- and water-extracts, cells remaining after water and ethanol extraction and broth were also tested for their antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, non-filamentous and filamentous fungi and showed considerable amounts of antimicrobial activities. Ethanol extracts exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against all the tested strains, was then fractionated on a Sephadex G-100 column and the obtained fractions were examined using the agar-well diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, E.coli, C. albicans and Aspergillus niger. Results obtained indicate the presence of different scattered active fractions with different potencies against the four tested microorganisms. A large scale fermentation process was conducted using a BioFlo benchtop-15L Fermentor/ Bioreactor and the products were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities.
  • Alimohammadi, Mohammad, et al. (författare)
  • Pulmonary Autoimmunity as a Feature of Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1 and Identification of KCNRG as a Bronchial Autoantigen
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 106:11, s. 4396-4401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) suffer from multiple organ-specific autoimmunity with autoantibodies against target tissue-specific autoantigens. Endocrine and nonendocrine organs such as skin, hair follicles, and liver are targeted by the immune system. Despite sporadic observations of pulmonary symptoms among APS-1 patients, an autoimmune mechanism for pulmonary involvement has not been elucidated. We report here on a subset of APS-1 patients with respiratory symptoms. Eight patients with pulmonary involvement were identified. Severe airway obstruction was found in 4 patients, leading to death in 2. Immunoscreening of a cDNA library using serum samples from a patient with APS-1 and obstructive respiratory symptoms identified a putative potassium channel regulator (KCNRG) as a pulmonary autoantigen. Reactivity to recombinant KCNRG was assessed in 110 APS-1 patients by using immunoprecipitation. Autoantibodies to KCNRG were present in 7 of the 8 patients with respiratory symptoms, but in only 1 of 102 APS-1 patients without respiratory symptoms. Expression of KCNRG messenger RNA and protein was found to be predominantly restricted to the epithelial cells of terminal bronchioles. Autoantibodies to KCNRG, a protein mainly expressed in bronchial epithelium, are strongly associated with pulmonary involvement in APS-1. These findings may facilitate the recognition, diagnosis, characterization, and understanding of the pulmonary manifestations of APS-1.
  • Amaral, A. F. S., et al. (författare)
  • Changes in IgE sensitization and total IgE levels over 20 years of follow-up
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 137:6, s. 1788-1795e9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of sensitization in older adults, but few longitudinal studies have examined whether this is an aging or a year-of-birth cohort effect. Objective We sought to assess changes in sensitization and total IgE levels in a cohort of European adults as they aged over a 20-year period. Methods Levels of serum specific IgE to common aeroallergens (house dust mite, cat, and grass) and total IgE levels were measured in 3206 adults from 25 centers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey on 3 occasions over 20 years. Changes in sensitization and total IgE levels were analyzed by using regression analysis corrected for potential differences in laboratory equipment and by using inverse sampling probability weights to account for nonresponse. Results Over the 20-year follow-up, the prevalence of sensitization to at least 1 of the 3 allergens decreased from 29.4% to 24.8% (-4.6%; 95% CI, -7.0% to -2.1%). The prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite (-4.3%; 95% CI, -6.0% to -2.6%) and cat (-2.1%; 95% CI, -3.6% to -0.7%) decreased more than sensitization to grass (-0.6%; 95% CI, -2.5% to 1.3%). Age-specific prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite and cat did not differ between year-of-birth cohorts, but sensitization to grass was most prevalent in the most recent ones. Overall, total IgE levels decreased significantly (geometric mean ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.58-0.68) at all ages in all year-of-birth cohorts. Conclusion Aging was associated with lower levels of sensitization, especially to house dust mite and cat, after the age of 20 years. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier, Inc. on behalf ofthe American Academy of Allergy, Asthma&Immunology. This is an open access article under the CC BY license.
  • Amaral, Andre F. S., et al. (författare)
  • Chronic airflow obstruction and ambient particulate air pollution
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 76:12, s. 1236-1241
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Smoking is the most well-established cause of chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) but particulate air pollution and poverty have also been implicated. We regressed sex-specific prevalence of CAO from 41 Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study sites against smoking prevalence from the same study, the gross national income per capita and the local annual mean level of ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) using negative binomial regression. The prevalence of CAO was not independently associated with PM2.5 but was strongly associated with smoking and was also associated with poverty. Strengthening tobacco control and improved understanding of the link between CAO and poverty should be prioritised.
  • Amaral, Andre F. S., et al. (författare)
  • Interaction between gas cooking and GSTM1 null genotype in bronchial responsiveness : results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 69:6, s. 558-564
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Increased bronchial responsiveness is characteristic of asthma. Gas cooking, which is a major indoor source of the highly oxidant nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. However, little is known about the effect of gas cooking on bronchial responsiveness and on how this relationship may be modified by variants in the genes GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1, which influence antioxidant defences. Methods The study was performed in subjects with forced expiratory volume in one second at least 70% of predicted who took part in the multicentre European Community Respiratory Health Survey, had bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine challenge and had been genotyped for GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1-rs1695. Information on the use of gas for cooking was obtained from interviewer-led questionnaires. Effect modification by genotype on the association between the use of gas for cooking and bronchial responsiveness was assessed within each participating country, and estimates combined using meta-analysis. Results Overall, gas cooking, as compared with cooking with electricity, was not associated with bronchial responsiveness (beta=-0.08, 95% CI -0.40 to 0.25, p=0.648). However, GSTM1 significantly modified this effect (beta for interaction=-0.75, 95% CI - 1.16 to -0.33, p=4x10(-4)), with GSTM1 null subjects showing more responsiveness if they cooked with gas. No effect modification by GSTT1 or GSTP1-rs1695 genotypes was observed. Conclusions Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with gas cooking among subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype. This may reflect the oxidant effects on the bronchi of exposure to nitrogen dioxide.
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