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Sökning: WFRF:(Jarvis Deborah)

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  • Föregående 1[2]34567...9Nästa
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11.
  • Bedard, Annabelle, et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity and lung function-Cause or consequence?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203. ; 15:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Concerns exist that the positive association of physical activity with better lung function, which has been suggested in previous longitudinal studies in smokers, is due to reverse causation. To investigate this, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM), an exploratory approach, and marginal structural modeling (MSM), an approach from the causal inference framework that corrects for reverse causation and time-dependent confounding and estimates causal effects, on data from participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS, a multicentre European cohort study initiated in 1991-1993 with ECRHS I, and with two follow-ups: ECRHS II in 1999-2003, and ECRHS III in 2010-2014). 753 subjects who reported current smoking at ECRHS II, with repeated data on lung function at ECRHS I, II and III, physical activity at ECRHS II and III, and potential confounders at ECRHS I and II, were included in the analyses. SEM showed positive associations between physical activity and lung function in both directions. MSM suggested a protectivecausaleffect of physical activity on lung function (overall difference in mean beta (95% CI), comparing active versus non-active individuals: 58 mL (21-95) for forced expiratory volume in one second and 83 mL (36-130) for forced vital capacity). Our results suggest bi-directional causation and support a true protective effect of physical activity on lung function in smokers, after accounting for reverse causation and time-dependent confounding.
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12.
  • Boudier, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Data-driven adult asthma phenotypes based on clinical characteristics are associated with asthma outcomes twenty years later
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0105-4538 .- 1398-9995. ; 74:5, s. 953-963
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundResearch based on cluster analyses led to the identification of particular phenotypes confirming phenotypic heterogeneity of asthma. The long-term clinical course of asthma phenotypes defined by clustering analysis remains unknown, although it is a key aspect to underpin their clinical relevance. We aimed to estimate risk of poor asthma events between asthma clusters identified 20years earlier. MethodsThe study relied on two cohorts of adults with asthma with 20-year follow-up, ECRHS (European Community Respiratory Health Survey) and EGEA (Epidemiological study on Genetics and Environment of Asthma). Regression models were used to compare asthma characteristics (current asthma, asthma exacerbations, asthma control, quality of life, and FEV1) at follow-up and the course of FEV(1)between sevencluster-based asthma phenotypes identified20years earlier. ResultsThe analysis included 1325 adults with ever asthma. For each asthma characteristic assessed at follow-up, the risk for adverse outcomes differed significantly between the seven asthma clusters identified at baseline. As compared with the mildest asthma phenotype, ORs (95% CI) for asthma exacerbations varied from 0.9 (0.4 to 2.0) to 4.0 (2.0 to 7.8) and the regression estimates (95% CI) for FEV1% predicted varied from 0.6 (-3.5 to 4.6) to -9.9 (-14.2 to -5.5) between clusters. Change in FEV1 over time did not differ significantly across clusters. ConclusionOur findings show that the long-term risk for poor asthma outcomes differed between comprehensive adult asthma phenotypes identified 20years earlier, and suggest a strong tracking of asthma activity and impaired lung function over time.
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13.
  • Burte, Emilie, et al. (författare)
  • Association between air pollution and rhinitis incidence in two European cohorts
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 115, s. 257-266
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The association between air pollution and rhinitis is not well established.Aim: The aim of this longitudinal analysis was to study the association between modeled air pollution at the subjects' home addresses and self-reported incidence of rhinitis.Methods: We used data from 1533 adults from two multicentre cohorts' studies (EGEA and ECRHS). Rhinitis incidence was defined as reporting rhinitis at the second follow-up (2011 to 2013) but not at the first follow-up (2000 to 2007). Annual exposure to NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 at the participants' home addresses was estimated using land-use regression models developed by the ESCAPE project for the 2009-2010 period. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were computed using Poisson regression. Pooled analysis, analyses by city and meta-regression testing for heterogeneity were carried out.Results: No association between long-term air pollution exposure and incidence of rhinitis was found (adjusted IRR (aIRR) for an increase of 10 mu g center dot m(-3) of NO2: 1.00 [0.91-1.09], for an increase of 5 mu g center dot m(-3) of PM2.5: 0.88 [0.73-1.04]). Similar results were found in the two-pollutant model (aIRR for an increase of 10 mu g center dot m(-3) of NO2: 1.01 [0.87-1.17], for an increase of 5 mu g center dot m(-3) of PM2.5: 0.87 [0.68-1.08]). Results differed depending on the city, but no regional pattern emerged for any of the pollutants.Conclusions: This study did not find any consistent evidence of an association between long-term air pollution and incident rhinitis.
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14.
  • Burte, Emilie, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with increased severity of rhinitis in 2 European cohorts
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 145:3, s. 834-842.e6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Very few studies have examined the association between long-term outdoor air pollution and rhinitis severity in adults.OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the cross-sectional association between individual long-term exposure to air pollution and severity of rhinitis.METHODS: Participants with rhinitis from 2 multicenter European cohorts (Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment on Asthma and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey) were included. Annual exposure to NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and PMcoarse (calculated by subtracting PM2.5 from PM10) was estimated using land-use regression models derived from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects project, at the participants' residential address. The score of rhinitis severity (range, 0-12), based on intensity of disturbance due to symptoms reported by questionnaire, was categorized into low (reference), mild, moderate, and high severity. Polytomous logistic regression models with a random intercept for city were used.RESULTS: A total of 1408 adults with rhinitis (mean age, 52 years; 46% men, 81% from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey) were included. The median (1st quartile-3rd quartile) score of rhinitis severity was 4 (2-6). Higher exposure to PM10 was associated with higher rhinitis severity (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] for a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10: for mild: 1.20 [0.88-1.64], moderate: 1.53 [1.07-2.19], and high severity: 1.72 [1.23-2.41]). Similar results were found for PM2.5. Higher exposure to NO2 was associated with an increased severity of rhinitis, with similar adjusted odds ratios whatever the level of severity. Adjusted odds ratios were higher among participants without allergic sensitization than among those with, but interaction was found only for NO2. CONCLUSIONS: People with rhinitis who live in areas with higher levels of pollution are more likely to report more severe nasal symptoms. Further work is required to elucidate the mechanisms of this association.
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15.
  • Calciano, Lucia, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of asthma severity in adults with ever asthma : A continuous score
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 12:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In epidemiological studies, continuous measures of asthma severity should be used to catch the heterogeneity of phenotypes. This study aimed at developing and validating continuous measures of asthma severity in adult patients with ever asthma from the general population, to be used in epidemiological studies.Methods: Respiratory symptoms, anti-asthmatic treatment and lung function were measured on 520 patients with ever asthma aged 20-64 years from the general Italian population (GEIRD study; 2007/2010). The variables that represent the same dimension of asthma severity were identified through an exploratory factor analysis and were summarized through a multiple factor analysis.Results: Only respiratory symptoms and anti-asthmatic treatment were summarized in a continuous score (STS). STS ranges from 0 (no symptoms/treatment) to 10 (maximum symptom frequency and treatment intensity). STS was positively correlated with the Global Initiative for Asthma classification of asthma severity computed on the 137 cases with a doctor's diagnosis (Spearman's coefficient = 0.61, p-value<0.0001) (concurrent validity). Furthermore, using a cohort of 1,097 European asthmatics (ECRHS II study; 1999/2002), increasing STS levels at baseline (1991/1993) were positively associated with long-term outcomes (hospitalization and lost workdays for breathing problems, asthma attack frequency and use of asthma controllers) (predictive validity). Finally, the STS scores computed from the GEIRD and ECRHS II data were comparable (Lin's coefficient = 0.95, p-value<0.0001) (replication analysis).Conclusions: STS is a valid and replicable measure of asthma severity in adults, which could be used in association studies.
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16.
  • Castro-Giner, Francesc, et al. (författare)
  • Traffic-related air pollution, oxidative stress genes, and asthma (ECHRS)
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - : Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 117:12, s. 1919-1924
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Traffic-related air pollution is related with asthma, and this association may be modified by genetic factors. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the role of genetic polymorphisms potentially modifying the association between home outdoor levels of modeled nitrogen dioxide and asthma. METHODS: Adults from 13 cities of the second European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS II) were included (n = 2,920), for whom both DNA and outdoor NO(2) estimates were available. Home addresses were geocoded and linked to modeled outdoor NO(2) estimates, as a marker of local traffic-related pollution. We examined asthma prevalence and evaluated polymorphisms in genes involved in oxidative stress pathways [gluthatione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1), T1 (GSTT1), and P1 (GSTP1) and NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1)], inflammatory response [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA)], immunologic response [Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)], and airway reactivity [adrenergic receptor beta2 (ADRB2)]. RESULTS: The association between modeled NO(2) and asthma prevalence was significant for carriers of the most common genotypes of NQO1 rs2917666 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-2.24], TNFA rs2844484 (OR = 2.02; 95% CI, 1.30-3.27). For new-onset asthma, the effect of NO(2) was significant for the most common genotype of NQO1 rs2917666 (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.09-2.16). A significant interaction was found between NQO1 rs2917666 and NO(2) for asthma prevalence (p = 0.02) and new-onset asthma (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic polymorphisms in the NQO1 gene are related to asthma susceptibility among persons exposed to local traffic-related air pollution. This points to the importance of antioxidant pathways in the protection against the effects of air pollution on asthma.
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17.
  • Cazzoletti, Lucia, et al. (författare)
  • Asthma control in Europe : a real-world evaluation based on an international population-based study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 120:6, s. 1360-1367
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Epidemiologic evidence related to asthma control in   patients from the general population is scanty. Objectives: We sought to assess asthma control in several European   centers according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines   and to investigate its determinants. Methods: In the European Community Respiratory Health Survey 11   (1999-2002), 1241 adults with asthma were identified and classified   into inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) users and non-ICS users in the last   year. Control was assessed in both groups by using the GINA proposal   (controlled, partly controlled, and uncontrolled asthma), and it was   related to potential determinants. Results: Only 15% (95% CI, 12% to 19%) of subjects who had used ICSs in   the last year and 45% (95% CI, 41% to 50%) of non-ICS users had their   asthma under control; individuals with uncontrolled asthma accounted   for 49% (95% CI, 44% to 53%) and 18% (95% CI, 15% to 21%),   respectively. Among ICS users, the prevalence of uncontrolled asthma   showed great variability across Europe, ranging from 20% (95% CI, 7% to   41%; Iceland) to 67% (95% CI, 35% to 90%; Italy). Overweight status, chronic cough and phlegm, and sensitization to Cladosporium species   were associated with poor control in ICS users. About 65% and 87% of   ICS users with uncontrolled and partly controlled asthma, respectively,   were on a medication regimen that was less than recommended by the GINA   guidelines. Conclusion: Six of 7 European asthmatic adults using ICSs in the last   year did not achieve good disease control. The large majority of   subjects with poorly controlled asthma were using antiasthma drugs in a   suboptimal way. A wide variability in asthma control emerged across   Europe. Clinical implications: Greater attention should be paid to asthma management and to the implementation of the GINA guidelines.
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18.
  • Cazzoletti, Lucia, et al. (författare)
  • Asthma Severity According to Global Initiative for Asthma and Its Determinants : An International Study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. - : S. Karger AG. - 1018-2438 .- 1423-0097. ; 151:1, s. 70-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The identification of the factors associated with severe asthma may shed some light on its etiology and on the mechanisms of its development. We aimed to describe asthma severity using the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) classification and to investigate its determinants in a cross-sectional, population-based sample in Europe. Methods: In the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II (1999-2002), 1,241 adults with asthma were identified. Severity was assessed using the 2002 GINA classification (intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent, severe persistent) and it was related to potential determinants by a multinomial logistic model, using the intermittent group as the reference category for relative risk ratios. Results: About 30% of asthmatic subjects were affected by moderate-to-severe asthma. Sensitization to Cladosporium was associated with a more than 5-fold greater risk of having (mild, moderate or severe) persistent asthma than intermittent asthma. Persistent asthma was positively associated with sensitization to house dust mite, nonseasonal asthma, an older age at asthma onset, and chronic cough and phlegm. Sensitization to cat increased the risk of severe asthma only. Smoking was more strongly associated with asthma severity in men, while rhinitis was more strongly associated with asthma severity in women. Conclusions: One third of the asthmatic population have moderate-to-severe asthma. Sensitization to perennial indoor allergens, particularly Cladosporium, is strongly associated with asthma severity. The role of smoking and rhinitis in determining asthma severity may differ between the sexes, and it should be further investigated. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel
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19.
  • Cerveri, Isa, et al. (författare)
  • Underestimation of airflow obstruction among young adults using FEV1/FVC<70% as a fixed cut-off : a longitudinal evaluation of clinical and functional outcomes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 63:12, s. 1040-1045
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Early detection of airflow obstruction is particularly important among young adults because they are more likely to benefit from intervention. Using the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) (FEV1/FVC) <70% fixed ratio, airflow obstruction may be underdiagnosed. The lower limit of normal (LLN), which is statistically defined by the lower fifth percentile of a reference population, is physiologically appropriate but it still needs a clinical validation.Methods: To evaluate the characteristics and longitudinal outcomes of subjects misidentified as normal by the fixed ratio with respect to the LLN, 6249 participants (aged 20-44 years) in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey were examined and divided into three groups (absence of airflow obstruction by the LLN and the fixed ratio; presence of airflow obstruction only by the LLN; presence of airflow obstruction by the two criteria) for 1991-1993. LLN equations were obtained from normal non-smoking participants. A set of clinical and functional outcomes was evaluated in 1999-2002.Results: The misidentified subjects were 318 (5.1%); only 45.6% of the subjects with airflow obstruction by the LLN were also identified by the fixed cut-off. At baseline, FEV1 (107%, 97%, 85%) progressively decreased and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (slope 7.84, 6.32, 5.57) progressively increased across the three groups. During follow-up, misidentified subjects had a significantly higher risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a significantly higher use of health resources (medicines, emergency department visits/hospital admissions) because of breathing problems than subjects without airflow obstruction (p<0.001).Conclusions: Our findings show the importance of using statistically derived spirometric criteria to identify airflow obstruction.
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20.
  • Chen, Chih-Mei, et al. (författare)
  • Is There a Threshold Concentration of Cat Allergen Exposure on Respiratory Symptoms in Adults?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 10:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Objective Cat allergen concentrations higher than 8 mu g/g in settled house dust, have been suggested to provoke exacerbation of allergic respiratory symptoms. However, whether the 8 mu g/g of indoor cat allergen concentration is indeed the minimal exposure required for triggering the asthma related respiratory symptoms or the development of sensitization has not yet been confirmed. We studied the associations between domestic cat allergen concentrations and allergic symptoms in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II, with the aim of confirming this suggested threshold. Methods Cat allergen concentrations were measured in the mattress dust of 3003 participants from 22 study centres. Levels of specific immunoglobulin E to cat allergens were measured in serum samples using an immunoassay. Information on allergic symptoms, medication use, home environment and smoking was obtained from a face-to-face interview. Results Domestic cat allergen concentrations were not associated with allergic/asthmatic symptoms in the entire study population, nor in the subset sensitized to cat allergen. We also found no association among individuals exposed to concentrations higher than 8 mu g/g. However, exposure to medium cat allergen concentrations (0.24-0.63 mu g/g) was positively associated with reported asthmatic respiratory symptoms in subjects who have experienced allergic symptoms when near animals. Conclusions The proposed 8 mu g/g threshold of cat allergen concentrations for the exacerbation of allergic/respiratory symptoms was not confirmed in a general European adult population. Potential biases attributable to avoidance behaviours and an imprecise exposure assessment cannot be excluded.
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