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Sökning: WFRF:(Jarvis Deborah)

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31.
  • de Marco, Roberto, et al. (författare)
  • Risk Factors for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a European Cohort of Young Adults
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. - 1073-449X .- 1535-4970. ; 183:7, s. 891-897
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Few studies have investigated the factors associated with the early inception of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objectives: We investigated COPD risk factors in an international cohort of young adults using different spirometric definitions of the disease. Methods. We studied 4,636 subjects without asthma who had prebronchodilator FEV1/FVC measured in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey both in 1991 to 1993 (when they were 20-44 yr old) and in 1999 to 2002. COPD was defined according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease fixed cut-off criterion (FEV1/FVC < 0.70), and two criteria based on the Quanjer and LuftiBus reference equations (FEV1/FVC less than lower limit of normal). COPD determinants were studied using two-level Poisson regression models. Measurements and Main Results: COPD incidence ranged from 1.85 (lower limit of normal [Quanjer]) to 2.88 (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) cases/1,000/yr. Although about half of the cases had smoked less than 20 pack-years, smoking was the main risk factor for COPD, and it accounted for 29 to 39% of the new cases during the follow-up. Airway hyperresponsiveness was the second strongest risk factor (15-17% of new cases). Other determinants were respiratory infections in childhood and a family history of asthma, whereas the role of sex, age, and of being underweight largely depended on the definition of COPD used. Conclusions: COPD may start early in life. Smoking prevention should be given the highest priority to reduce COPD occurrence. Airway hyperresponsiveness, a family history of asthma, and respiratory infections in childhood are other important determinants of COPD. We suggest the need for a definition of COPD that is not exclusively based on spirometry.
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32.
  • Dratva, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing : Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied. Methods Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9-11 years) and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28-73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705) and ECRHS (n = 7157). The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1) decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression. Results Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95% CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80]), of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49]) of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]). Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78; 5.18]), and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16; 2.09]). High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age. Conclusion Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further.
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35.
  • Emilsson, Össur Ingi, et al. (författare)
  • Snoring and nocturnal reflux : association with lung function decline and respiratory symptoms
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ERJ Open Research. - : European Respitory Society (ERS). - 2312-0541. ; 5:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: The study aim was to examine the association of snoring and nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux (nGOR) with respiratory symptoms and lung function, and if snoring and/or nGOR associated with a steeper decline in lung function. Methods: Data from the third visit of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was used for cross-sectional analysis. Pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry was performed, and information on sleep, nGOR and respiratory symptoms was collected (n=5715). Habitual snoring and nGOR were assessed by questionnaire reports. Pre-bronchodilator spirometry from ECRHS I, II and III (20 years follow-up) were used to analyse lung function changes by multivariate regression analysis. Results: Snoring and nGOR were independently associated with a higher prevalence of wheeze, chest tightness, breathlessness, cough and phlegm. The prevalence of any respiratory symptom was 79% in subjects with both snoring and nGOR versus 56% in those with neither (p<0.001). Subjects with both snoring and nGOR had more frequent exacerbations (adjusted prevalence 32% versus 19% among "no snoring, no nGOR", p=0.003). Snoring but not nGOR was associated with a steeper decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s over 10 years after adjusting for confounding factors (change in % predicted -5.53, versus -4.58 among "no snoring", p=0.04) and forced vital capacity (change in % predicted -1.94, versus -0.99 among "no snoring", p=0.03). Conclusions: Adults reporting both habitual snoring and nGOR had more respiratory symptoms and more frequent exacerbations of these symptoms. Habitual snoring was associated with a steeper decline in lung function over time.
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36.
  • Flexeder, Claudia, et al. (författare)
  • Second-hand smoke exposure in adulthood and lower respiratory health during 20 year follow up in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Research. - : BioMed Central. - 1465-9921 .- 1465-993X. ; 20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Early life exposure to tobacco smoke has been extensively studied but the role of second-hand smoke (SHS) for new-onset respiratory symptoms and lung function decline in adulthood has not been widely investigated in longitudinal studies. Our aim is to investigate the associations of exposure to SHS in adults with respiratory symptoms, respiratory conditions and lung function over 20 years. We used information from 3011 adults from 26 centres in 12 countries who participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Surveys I-III and were never or former smokers at all three surveys. Associations of SHS exposure with respiratory health (asthma symptom score, asthma, chronic bronchitis, COPD) were analysed using generalised linear mixed-effects models adjusted for confounding factors (including sex, age, smoking status, socioeconomic status and allergic sensitisation). Linear mixed-effects models with additional adjustment for height were used to assess the relationships between SHS exposure and lung function levels and decline. Reported exposure to SHS decreased in all 26 study centres over time. The prevalence of SHS exposure was 38.7% at baseline (1990-1994) and 7.1% after the 20-year follow-up (2008-2011). On average 2.4% of the study participants were not exposed at the first, but were exposed at the third examination. An increase in SHS exposure over time was associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma (odds ratio (OR): 2.7; 95% confidence interval (95%-CI): 1.2-5.9), chronic bronchitis (OR: 4.8; 95%-CI: 1.6-15.0), asthma symptom score (count ratio (CR): 1.9; 95%-CI: 1.2-2.9) and dyspnoea (OR: 2.7; 95%-CI: 1.1-6.7) compared to never exposed to SHS. Associations between increase in SHS exposure and incidence of COPD (OR: 2.0; 95%-CI: 0.6-6.0) or lung function (beta: - 49 ml; 95%-CI: -132, 35 for FEV1 and beta: - 62 ml; 95%-CI: -165, 40 for FVC) were not apparent. Exposure to second-hand smoke may lead to respiratory symptoms, but this is not accompanied by lung function changes.
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37.
  • Fuertes, Elaine, et al. (författare)
  • Leisure-time vigorous physical activity is associated with better lung function : the prospective ECRHS study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 73:4, s. 376-384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: We assessed associations between physical activity and lung function, and its decline, in the prospective population-based European Community Respiratory Health Survey cohort. Methods: FEV1 and FVC were measured in 3912 participants at 27-57 years and 39-67 years (mean time between examinations= 11.1 years). Physical activity frequency and duration were assessed using questionnaires and used to identify active individuals (physical activity >= 2 times and >= 1 hour per week) at each examination. Adjusted mixed linear regression models assessed associations of regular physical activity with FEV1 and FVC. Results: Physical activity frequency and duration increased over the study period. In adjusted models, active individuals at the first examination had higher FEV1 (43.6 mL (95% CI 12.0 to 75.1)) and FVC (53.9 mL (95% CI 17.8 to 89.9)) at both examinations than their non-active counterparts. These associations appeared restricted to current smokers. In the whole population, FEV1 and FVC were higher among those who changed from inactive to active during the follow-up (38.0 mL (95% CI 15.8 to 60.3) and 54.2 mL (95% CI 25.1 to 83.3), respectively) and who were consistently active, compared with those consistently non-active. No associations were found for lung function decline. Conclusion: Leisure-time vigorous physical activity was associated with higher FEV1 and FVC over a 10-year period among current smokers, but not with FEV1 and FVC decline.
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38.
  • Fuertes, Elaine, et al. (författare)
  • Residential air pollution does not modify the positive association between physical activity and lung function in current smokers in the ECRHS study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 120, s. 364-372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Very few studies have examined whether a long-term beneficial effect of physical activity on lung function can be influenced by living in polluted urban areas.OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether annual average residential concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and <10 μm (PM10) modify the effect of physical activity on lung function among never- (N = 2801) and current (N = 1719) smokers in the multi-center European Community Respiratory Health Survey.METHODS: Associations between repeated assessments (at 27-57 and 39-67 years) of being physically active (physical activity: ≥2 times and ≥1 h per week) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were evaluated using adjusted mixed linear regression models. Models were conducted separately for never- and current smokers and stratified by residential long-term NO2, PM2.5 mass and PM10 mass concentrations (≤75th percentile (low/medium) versus >75th percentile (high)).RESULTS: Among current smokers, physical activity and lung function were positively associated regardless of air pollution levels. Among never-smokers, physical activity was associated with lung function in areas with low/medium NO2, PM2.5 mass and PM10 mass concentrations (e.g. mean difference in FVC between active and non-active subjects was 43.0 mL (13.6, 72.5), 49.5 mL (20.1, 78.8) and 49.7 mL (18.6, 80.7), respectively), but these associations were attenuated in high air pollution areas. Only the interaction term of physical activity and PM10 mass for FEV1 among never-smokers was significant (p-value = 0.03).CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity has beneficial effects on adult lung function in current smokers, irrespective of residential air pollution levels in Western Europe. Trends among never-smokers living in high air pollution areas are less clear.
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39.
  • Gómez Real, Francisco, et al. (författare)
  • Menstrual irregularity and asthma and lung function
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 120:3, s. 557-564
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Oligomenorrhea was associated with more asthma (Respiratory Health in Northern Europe study), but a possible association with lung function has not been investigated previously. Objective: To investigate whether oligomenorrhea was related to lung function and asthma, and whether body mass index and physical activity modified associations. Methods: Women age 28 to 44 years (n = 1631) participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey were included. Women who were taking exogenous sex hormones, were pregnant, or had recently given birth were excluded. Results: Long or irregular menstrual cycles were reported by 313 women (19%). Oligomenorrhea was significantly associated with more asthma symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% CI, 1.29-2.40), allergic asthma (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.43-4.23), and lower forced vital capacity (FVC; adjusted difference, 63 mL; 95% CI, -124 to -1). When excluding women using asthma medication, very lean women, or women exercising daily, these associations remained significant. Effects of oligomenorrhea were additive to those of body mass index (BMI) on asthma and FVC. Asthma symptoms increased significantly with BMI. FVC and FEV1 increased with BMI until 25 kg/m2 and thereafter decreased with increasing BMI. Excluding women exercising daily, asthma symptoms increased significantly with decreasing physical activity (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.001-1.19) per category of physical activity) independently of oligomenorrhea. Among women exercising daily, oligomenorrhea predicted very high risk for asthma symptoms (OR, 12.6; 95% CI, 3.7-43). Conclusion: Women with oligomenorrhea have reduced lung function and more asthma, particularly allergic asthma, independent of BMI and physical activity. Airways pathology may have not only a hormonal but also a metabolic component. Clinical implications: Women with oligomenorrhea should be investigated with regard to asthma and lung function. Underlying metabolic disturbance should be considered in asthma.
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40.
  • Gunnbjörnsdottir, Maria I, et al. (författare)
  • Indoor environment in three North European cities in relationship to atopy and respiratory symptoms
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Clinical Respiratory Journal. - 1752-6981. ; 3:2, s. 85-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) I, the lowest prevalence of asthma and atopy was found in Reykjavik (Iceland)  and Tartu (Estonia). The aim of this study was to compare home environments in Reykjavik and Tartu to a town with a higher prevalence of asthma and atopy (Uppsala, Sweden) in an attempt to identify factors   in the indoor environment that could explain these differences. A random sample of 129 ECRHS II participants was included in this analysis at each of the three study centres. The subjects answered a questionnaire, blood was analysed for specific immunoglobulin E, a   methacholine test was performed and home indoor measurements were taken. The prevalence of atopy was 11.9% in Reykjavik, 35.5% in Uppsala and   28.2% in Tartu (P < 0.04). The level of indoor cat allergen was significantly lower in Reykjavik compared with Uppsala (P = 0.05). No mite allergens were identified in the 41 homes investigated in   Reykjavik, while this was the case in 16% and 72% of the households in Uppsala and Tartu, respectively (P = 0.001). A positive association was found between asthma symptoms and cat allergen levels [odds ratio 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.04-2.24)], while the levels of viable moulds were significantly associated with increased bronchial responsiveness.   Indoor exposure to allergens, moulds and bacteria was lower in Reykjavik than in the Swedish and Estonian centres. This finding indicates that the lower prevalence of allergic sensitization in Reykjavik may partly be related to lower indoor allergen exposure. Please cite this paper as: Gunnbjornsdottir MI, NorbAck D, Bjornsson E, Soon A, Jarvis D, Jogi R, Gislason D, Gislason T and Janson C. Indoor environment in three North European cities in relationship to atopy and respiratory symptoms. The Clinical Respiratory Journal 2009; 3: 85-94.
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