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Sökning: WFRF:(Jarvis Deborah)

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41.
  • Götschi, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Air pollution and lung function in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International journal of epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1464-3685 .- 0300-5771. ; 37:6, s. 1349-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The association of long-term air pollution and lung function has not been studied across adult European multi-national populations before. The aim of this study was to determine the association between long-term urban background air pollution and lung function levels, as well as change in lung function among European adults. METHODS: Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and the ratio thereof (FEV1/FVC) were assessed at baseline and after 9 years of follow-up in adults from 21 European centres (followed-up sample 5610). Fine particles (PM(2.5)) were measured in 2000/2001 using central monitors. RESULTS: Despite sufficient statistical power no significant associations were found between city-specific annual mean PM(2.5) and average lung function levels. The findings also do not support an effect on change in lung function, albeit statistical power was insufficient to significantly detect such an association. CONCLUSIONS: The inability to refuse the null hypothesis may reflect (i) no effect of urban air pollution on lung function or (ii) inherent biases due to the study design. Examples of the latter are lack of individual-level air quality assignment, not quantified within-city contrasts in traffic-related pollution, or the heterogeneity of the studied populations and their urban environments. Future studies on long-term effects of air pollution on lung function could increase statistical power and reduce potential misclassification and confounding by characterizing exposure on the level of individuals, capturing contrasts due to local sources, in particular traffic.
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42.
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43.
  • Götschi, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Elemental composition and reflectance of ambient fine particles at 21 European locations
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - Oxford : Pergamon Press. - 1352-2310 .- 1873-2844. ; 39:32, s. 5947-5958
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We sampled fine particles (PM2.5) over a 1-year period at 21 central urban monitoring sites in 20 cities of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Particle filters were then analysed for elemental composition using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and reflectance (light absorption). Elemental analyses yielded valid results for 15 elements (Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Pb, S, Si, Ti, V, Zn). Annual and seasonal means Of PM2.5, reflectance, and elements show a wide range across Europe with the lowest levels found in Iceland and up to 80 times higher concentrations in Northern Italy. This pattern holds for most of the air pollution indicators. The mass concentration of S did constitute the largest fraction of the analysed elements Of PM2.5 in all locations. The crustal component varies from less than 10% up to 25% across these cities. Temporal correlations of daily values vary considerably from city to city, depending on the indicators compared. Nevertheless, correlations between estimates of long-term exposure, such as annual means, are generally high among indicators Of PM2.5 from anthropogenic sources, such as S, metals, and reflectance. This highlights the difficulty to disentangle effects of specific sources or PM constituents in future health effect analyses using annual averages.
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44.
  • Hancock, Dana B, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Joint Meta-Analysis of SNP and SNP-by-Smoking Interaction Identifies Novel Loci for Pulmonary Function
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS genetics. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1553-7404. ; 8:12, s. e1003098-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous genetic loci for spirometic measures of pulmonary function, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC). Given that cigarette smoking adversely affects pulmonary function, we conducted genome-wide joint meta-analyses (JMA) of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and SNP-by-smoking (ever-smoking or pack-years) associations on FEV1 and FEV1/FVC across 19 studies (total N = 50,047). We identified three novel loci not previously associated with pulmonary function. SNPs in or near DNER (smallest PJMA = 5.00×10−11), HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DQA2 (smallest PJMA = 4.35×10−9), and KCNJ2 and SOX9 (smallest PJMA = 1.28×10−8) were associated with FEV1/FVC or FEV1 in meta-analysis models including SNP main effects, smoking main effects, and SNP-by-smoking (ever-smoking or pack-years) interaction. The HLA region has been widely implicated for autoimmune and lung phenotypes, unlike the other novel loci, which have not been widely implicated. We evaluated DNER, KCNJ2, and SOX9 and found them to be expressed in human lung tissue. DNER and SOX9 further showed evidence of differential expression in human airway epithelium in smokers compared to non-smokers. Our findings demonstrated that joint testing of SNP and SNP-by-environment interaction identified novel loci associated with complex traits that are missed when considering only the genetic main effects.
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45.
  • Heinrich, Joachim, et al. (författare)
  • Cat allergen level : its determinants and relationship to specific IgE to cat across European centers
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 118:3, s. 674-681
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cat allergen level in settled house dust and its determinants in Europe are unknown. Objective: The aim of this study is to quantify the level of cat allergens in mattress dust, to study its determinants, and to analyze the relationship with cat specific IgE on community level across European centers. Methods: Trained field workers collected dust from approximately 3000 mattresses during home visits in 22 European Community Respiratory Health Survey II centers. Sieved dust extracts were assayed for cat allergen using a mAb ELISA assay. Results: The overall geometric mean cat allergen was 0.94 mu g/g, ranging from 0.12 mu g/g in Huelva, Spain, to 3.76 mu g/g in Antwerp, Belgium. Current cat owners' homes showed substantially higher levels than past cat owners' and never cat owners' homes (geometric mean and 95% CI, 61.4 mu g/g [48.4-77.9] vs 1.37 mu g/g [0.97-1.9] vs 0.29 mu g/g [0.27-0.31]x). Community prevalence of cat ownership was moderately correlated with cat allergen levels in noncat owners (r(s) = 0.50), but not for past or current cat owners. The multilevel model identified community prevalence of cat keeping as the only statistically significant determinant of mattress cat allergen levels for noncat owners. However, averaged cat allergen levels per center were not related to community prevalence of detectable specific IgE to cat. Conclusion: Not having a cat in the home is associated with substantially lower Fel d 1 concentration, but does not protect against high Fel d 1 exposure in communities where cat ownership is common. Clinical implications: People (including patients with cat allergy) who do not own cats may be exposed to high levels of cat allergen in their home, particularly if they live in communities with high levels of cat ownership.
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46.
  • Imboden, Medea, et al. (författare)
  • Epigenome-wide association study of lung function level and its change
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 54:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous reports link differential DNA methylation (DNAme) to environmental exposures that are associated with lung function. Direct evidence on lung function DNAme is, however, limited. We undertook an agnostic epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on pre-bronchodilation lung function and its change in adults.In a discovery-replication EWAS design, DNAme in blood and spirometry were measured twice, 6-15 years apart, in the same participants of three adult population-based discovery cohorts (n=2043). Associated DNAme markers (p<5×10-7) were tested in seven replication cohorts (adult: n=3327; childhood: n=420). Technical bias-adjusted residuals of a regression of the normalised absolute β-values on control probe-derived principle components were regressed on level and change of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and their ratio (FEV1/FVC) in the covariate-adjusted discovery EWAS. Inverse-variance-weighted meta-analyses were performed on results from discovery and replication samples in all participants and never-smokers.EWAS signals were enriched for smoking-related DNAme. We replicated 57 lung function DNAme markers in adult, but not childhood samples, all previously associated with smoking. Markers not previously associated with smoking failed replication. cg05575921 (AHRR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor)) showed the statistically most significant association with cross-sectional lung function (FEV1/FVC: pdiscovery=3.96×10-21 and pcombined=7.22×10-50). A score combining 10 DNAme markers previously reported to mediate the effect of smoking on lung function was associated with lung function (FEV1/FVC: p=2.65×10-20).Our results reveal that lung function-associated methylation signals in adults are predominantly smoking related, and possibly of clinical utility in identifying poor lung function and accelerated decline. Larger studies with more repeat time-points are needed to identify lung function DNAme in never-smokers and in children.
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47.
  • Jacquemin, Benedicte, et al. (författare)
  • Ambient Air Pollution and Adult Asthma Incidence in Six European Cohorts (ESCAPE)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - : Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 123:6, s. 613-621
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Short-term exposure to air pollution has adverse effects among patients with asthma, but whether long-term exposure to air pollution is a cause of adult-onset asthma is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between air pollution and adult onset asthma. METHODS: Asthma incidence was prospectively assessed in six European cohorts. Exposures studied were annual average concentrations at home addresses for nitrogen oxides assessed for 23,704 participants (including 1,257 incident cases) and particulate matter (PM) assessed for 17,909 participants through ESCAPE land-use regression models and traffic exposure indicators. Meta-analyses of cohort-specific logistic regression on asthma incidence were performed. Models were adjusted for age, sex, overweight, education, and smoking and included city/area within each cohort as a random effect. RESULTS: In this longitudinal analysis, asthma incidence was positively, but not significantly, associated with all exposure metrics, except for PMcoarse. Positive associations of borderline significance were observed for nitrogen dioxide [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.21 per 10 mu g/m(3); p = 0.10] and nitrogen oxides (adjusted OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.08 per 20 mu g/m(3); p = 0.08). Nonsignificant positive associations were estimated for PM10 (adjusted OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.23 per 10 mu g/m(3)), PM2.5 (adjusted OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.23 per 5 mu g/m(3)), PM2.5absorbance (adjusted OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.19 per 10(-5)/m), traffic load (adjusted OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.30 per 4 million vehicles x meters/day on major roads in a 100-m buffer), and traffic intensity (adjusted OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.30 per 5,000 vehicles/day on the nearest road). A nonsignificant negative association was estimated for PMcoarse (adjusted OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.14 per 5 mu g/m(3)). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest a deleterious effect of ambient air pollution on asthma incidence in adults. Further research with improved personal-level exposure assessment (vs. residential exposure assessment only) and phenotypic characterization is needed.
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48.
  • Janson, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Change in the prevalence asthma, rhinitis and respiratory symptom over a 20 year period : associations to year of birth, life style and sleep related symptoms
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMC Pulmonary Medicine. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2466. ; 18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The aim of this investigation was to study change in adults over a 20 year period in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and disorders and its association to year of birth, life style and sleep related variables.Method: Adults 20-44 years of age, 6085 women and 5184 men, were randomly selected from seven centres in Northern Europe and followed for 20 years. The number of participants in the first survey was 21,595 and 11,269 participated in all three surveys. The participants were divided into three birth cohorts: 1944-1955, 1956-1965 and 1966-1975.Results: During the 20 year period the prevalence of wheeze decreased (-2%) and the prevalence of asthma (+ 4%) and allergic rhinitis (+ 5%) increased, whereas the prevalence of nocturnal respiratory symptoms was relatively unchanged. The increase in allergic rhinitis was largest in those born 1966 to 1975 except in Estonia. There was large decrease in smoking (-20%), increase in obesity (+ 7%) and snoring (+ 6%) during the study period. Smoking, obesity, snoring and nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux (nGER) were related to a higher risk of all symptoms. Obesity, snoring and nGER were also independently related to asthma.Conclusion: We conclude that as our participants got older there was a decrease in wheeze, no change in nocturnal symptoms and an increase in reported asthma and allergic rhinitis. These changes in prevalence are probably related to a decrease in smoking being counteracted by an increase in allergy, obesity and sleep related disorders.
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49.
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50.
  • Janson, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Pharmacological treatment of asthma in a cohort of adults during a 20-year period : results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey I, II and III
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ERJ Open Research. - : European Respiratory Society. - 2312-0541. ; 5:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Asthma often remains uncontrolled, despite the fact that the pharmacological treatment has undergone large changes. We studied changes in the treatment of asthma over a 20-year period and identified factors associated with the regular use of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment. Changes in the use of medication were determined in 4617 randomly selected subjects, while changes in adults with persistent asthma were analysed in 369 participants. The study compares data from three surveys in 24 centres in 11 countries. The use of ICSs increased from 1.7% to 5.9% in the general population and the regular use of ICSs increased from 19% to 34% among persistent asthmatic subjects. The proportion of asthmatic subjects reporting asthma attacks in the last 12 months decreased, while the proportion that had seen a doctor in the last 12 months remained unchanged (42%). Subjects with asthma who had experienced attacks or had seen a doctor were more likely to use ICSs on a regular basis. Although ICS use has increased, only one-third of subjects with persistent asthma take ICSs on a regular basis. Less than half had seen a doctor during the last year. This indicates that underuse of ICSs and lack of regular healthcare contacts remains a problem in the management of asthma.
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