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Sökning: WFRF:(Jarvis Deborah)

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51.
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52.
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53.
  • Kirkeleit, Jorunn, et al. (författare)
  • Early life exposures contributing to accelerated lung function decline in adulthood – a follow-up study of 11,000 adults from the general population
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: eClinicalMedicine. - : Elsevier BV. - 2589-5370. ; 66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: We aimed to assess whether exposure to risk factors in early life from conception to puberty continue to contribute to lung function decline later in life by using a pooled cohort comprising approx. 11,000 adults followed for more than 20 years and with up to three lung function measurements. Methods: Participants (20–68 years) in the ECRHS and NFBC1966 cohort studies followed in the periods 1991–2013 and 1997–2013, respectively, were included. Mean annual decline in maximum forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were main outcomes. Associations between early life risk factors and change in lung function were estimated using mixed effects linear models adjusted for sex, age, FEV1, FVC and height at baseline, accounting for personal smoking. Findings: Decline in lung function was accelerated in participants with mothers that smoked during pregnancy (FEV1 2.3 ml/year; 95% CI: 0.7, 3.8) (FVC 2.2 ml/year; 0.2, 4.2), with asthmatic mothers (FEV1 2.6 ml/year; 0.9, 4.4) (FEV1/FVC 0.04 per year; 0.04, 0.7) and asthmatic fathers (FVC 2.7 ml/year; 0.5, 5.0), and in women with early menarche (FVC 2.4 ml/year; 0.4, 4.4). Personal smoking of 10 pack-years contributed to a decline of 2.1 ml/year for FEV1 (1.8, 2.4) and 1.7 ml/year for FVC (1.3, 2.1). Severe respiratory infections in early childhood were associated with accelerated decline among ever-smokers. No effect-modification by personal smoking, asthma symptoms, sex or cohort was found. Interpretation: Mothers’ smoking during pregnancy, parental asthma and early menarche may contribute to a decline of FEV1 and FVC later in life comparable to smoking 10 pack-years. Funding: European Union's Horizon 2020; Research Council of Norway; Academy of Finland; University Hospital Oulu; European Regional Development Fund; Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation; Generalitat de Catalunya.
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54.
  • Künzli, Nino, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of oxidative properties, light absorbance, total and elemental mass concentration of ambient PM2.5 collected at 20 European sites.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Environ Health Perspect. - 0091-6765. ; 114:5, s. 684-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Body mass, as well as distribution of body fat, are predictors of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In Northern Sweden, despite a marked increase in average body mass, prevalence of diabetes was stagnant and myocardial infarctions decreased. A more favourable distribution of body fat is a possible contributing factor.This study investigates the relative importance of individual food items for time trends in waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) on a population level. METHODS: Independent cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1986, 1990, 1994 and 1999 in the two northernmost counties of Sweden with a common population of 250,000. Randomly selected age stratified samples, altogether 2982 men and 3087 women aged 25-64 years. Questionnaires were completed and anthropometric measurements taken. For each food item, associations between frequency of consumption and waist and hip circumferences were estimated. Partial regression coefficients for every level of reported intake were multiplied with differences in proportion of the population reporting the corresponding levels of intake in 1986 and 1999. The sum of these product terms for every food item was the respective estimated impact on mean circumference. RESULTS: Time trends in reported food consumption associated with the more favourable gynoid distribution of adipose tissue were increased use of vegetable oil, pasta and 1.5% fat milk. Trends associated with abdominal obesity were increased consumption of beer in men and higher intake of hamburgers and French fried potatoes in women. CONCLUSION: Food trends as markers of time trends in body fat distribution have been identified. The method is a complement to conventional approaches to establish associations between food intake and disease risk on a population level.
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55.
  • Lam, Holly C. Y., et al. (författare)
  • Food hypersensitivity : an examination of factors influencing symptoms and temporal changes in the prevalence of sensitization in an adult sample
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : Springer Nature. - 0954-3007 .- 1476-5640. ; 77:8, s. 833-840
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/ObjectivesFood hypersensitivity (FHS) is common, but little is known about the factors associated with severe reactions, age of onset and whether sensitization persists. This study examines the factors associated with self-reported severe food reactions, onset age and the changes in prevalence of sensitization to foods over time in an adult sample.Subjects/MethodsWe used data from adults taking part in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) III (2010-2014) who provided information on food hypersensitivity, including symptoms, suspected culprit food and onset age (n = 4865). A subsample from six countries had serum food-specific IgE tested for 25 core foods and also in 10 years earlier (ECRHS II). We applied logistic regression and McNemar's test for analyses.ResultsThe prevalence of self-reported FHS was 13.5% at ECRHS III. Of those providing information on symptoms (n = 611), 26.4% reported severe reactions. About 80% of 1033 reported food-specific reactions (reported by 596 participants) began after age 15. History of asthma (odds ratio OR 2.12 95% confidence interval CI 1.13-3.44) and a younger age of onset of FHS (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, per year) were associated with higher risks of a lifetime experience of severe food reactions. In the subsample with IgE tested in both surveys (n = 1612), the overall prevalence of sensitization to foods did not change over 10 years.ConclusionOur findings support previous observations of more severe food reactions in people with asthma and that most FHS reported by this sample started after age 15. We found no evidence of changes in the prevalence of sensitization to food in adults followed for 10 years.
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56.
  • Leynaert, Benedicte, et al. (författare)
  • Gender differences in prevalence, diagnosis and incidence of allergic and non-allergic asthma : a population-based cohort
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 67:7, s. 625-631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Although women with severe non-allergic asthma may represent a substantial proportion of adults with asthma in clinical practice, gender differences in the incidence of allergic and non-allergic asthma have been little investigated in the general population. Methods Gender differences in asthma prevalence, reported diagnosis and incidence were investigated in 9091 men and women randomly selected from the general population and followed up after 8-10 years as part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. The protocol included assessment of bronchial responsiveness, IgE specific to four common allergens and skin tests to nine allergens. Results Asthma was 20% more frequent in women than in men over the age of 35 years. Possible under-diagnosis of asthma appeared to be particularly frequent among non-atopic individuals, but was as frequent in women as in men. The follow-up of subjects without asthma at baseline showed a higher incidence of asthma in women than in men (HR 1.94; 95% CI 1.40 to 2.68), which was not explained by differences in smoking, obesity or lung function. More than 60% of women and 30% of men with new-onset asthma were non-atopic. The incidence of non-allergic asthma was higher in women than in men throughout all the reproductive years (HR 3.51; 95% CI 2.21 to 5.58), whereas no gender difference was observed for the incidence of allergic asthma. Conclusions This study shows that female sex is an independent risk factor for non-allergic asthma, and stresses the need for more careful assessment of possible non-allergic asthma in clinical practice, in men and women.
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57.
  • Loth, Daan W, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analysis identifies six new loci associated with forced vital capacity
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 46, s. 669-677
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Forced vital capacity (FVC), a spirometric measure of pulmonary function, reflects lung volume and is used to diagnose and monitor lung diseases. We performed genome-wide association study meta-analysis of FVC in 52,253 individuals from 26 studies and followed up the top associations in 32,917 additional individuals of European ancestry. We found six new regions associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)) with FVC in or near EFEMP1, BMP6, MIR129-2-HSD17B12, PRDM11, WWOX and KCNJ2. Two loci previously associated with spirometric measures (GSTCD and PTCH1) were related to FVC. Newly implicated regions were followed up in samples from African-American, Korean, Chinese and Hispanic individuals. We detected transcripts for all six newly implicated genes in human lung tissue. The new loci may inform mechanisms involved in lung development and the pathogenesis of restrictive lung disease.
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58.
  • Macsali, Ferenc, et al. (författare)
  • Early Age at Menarche, Lung Function, and Adult Asthma
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. - 1073-449X .- 1535-4970. ; 183:1, s. 8-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Hormonal and metabolic status appears to influence lung health in women, and there are findings suggesting that early menarche may be related to asthma, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and breast cancer. Objectives: This study investigates whether age at menarche is related to adult lung function and asthma. Methods: Among participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II, 3,354 women aged 27-57 years from random population samples in 21 centers responded to a questionnaire concerning women's health (1998-2002). Of these women, 2,873 had lung function measurements, 2,136 had measurements of bronchial hyperreactivity, and 2,743 had IgE measurements. Logistic, linear, and negative binomial regression analyses included adjustment for age, height, body mass index, education, smoking, family size, and center. Measurements and Main Results: FEV1 and FVC were lower and asthma was more common in women with early menarche. Women reporting menarche at age 10 years or less, as compared with women with menarche at age 13 years (reference category), had lower FEV1 (adjusted difference, -113 ml; 95% confidence interval [CI], -196 to -33 ml) and FVC (-126 ml; 95% CI, -223 to -28 ml); also lower FEV1 expressed as a percentage of the predicted value (-3.28%; 95% CI, -6.25 to -0.30%) and FVC expressed as a percentage of the predicted value (-3.63%; 95% CI, -6.64 to -0.62%). Women with early menarche more often had asthma symptoms (odds ratio, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.09-2.97), asthma with bronchial hyperreactivity (odds ratio, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.06-7.34), and higher asthma symptom score (mean ratio, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.12-2.21). Conclusions: Women with early menarche had lower lung function and more asthma in adulthood. This supports a role for metabolic and hormonal factors in women's respiratory health.
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59.
  • Marcon, Alessandro, et al. (författare)
  • Airway responsiveness to methacholine and incidence of COPD : an international prospective cohort study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 73:9, s. 825-832
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: It has been debated, but not yet established, whether increased airway responsiveness can predict COPD. Recognising this link may help in identifying subjects at risk.Objective: We studied prospectively whether airway responsiveness is associated with the risk of developing COPD.Methods: We pooled data from two multicentre cohort studies that collected data from three time points using similar methods (European Community Respiratory Health Survey and Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults). We classified subjects (median age 37 years, 1st–3rd quartiles: 29–44) by their level of airway responsiveness using quintiles of methacholine dose–response slope at the first examination (1991–1994). Then, we excluded subjects with airflow obstruction at the second examination (1999–2003) and analysed incidence of COPD (postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal) at the third examination (2010–2014) as a function of responsiveness, adjusting for sex, age, education, body mass index, history of asthma, smoking, occupational exposures and indicators of airway calibre.Results: We observed 108 new cases of COPD among 4205 subjects during a median time of 9 years. Compared with the least responsive group (incidence rate 0.6 per 1000/year), adjusted incidence rate ratios for COPD ranged from 1.79 (95% CI 0.52 to 6.13) to 8.91 (95% CI 3.67 to 21.66) for increasing airway responsiveness. Similar dose–response associations were observed between smokers and non-smokers, and stronger associations were found among subjects without a history of asthma or asthma-like symptoms.Conclusions: Our study suggests that increased airway responsiveness is an independent risk factor for COPD. Further research should clarify whether early treatment in patients with high responsiveness can slow down disease progression.
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60.
  • Marcon, Alessandro, et al. (författare)
  • Atopy Modifies the Association Between Inhaled Corticosteroid Use and Lung Function Decline in Patients with Asthma
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : ELSEVIER. - 2213-2198 .- 2213-2201. ; 8:3, s. 980-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are the mainstay of asthma treatment, but response to medication is variable. Patients with allergic inflammation generally show a better short-term response to ICSs; however, studies on predictors of long-term response are few. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether allergic sensitization can modify the association between ICS use and lung function decline over 20 years in adult asthma. METHODS: We used data from the 3 clinical examinations of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. We measured ICS use (no use, and use for <1.3, 1.3-8, and >8 years) and FEV1 decline among subjects with asthma over the 2 periods between consecutive examinations. We conducted a cohort study combining data of the 2 periods (906 observations from 745 subjects) to assess whether the association between ICS use and FEV1 decline was modified by allergic sensitization (IgE > 0.35 kU/L for any of house-dust mite, timothy grass, cat, or Cladosporium). RESULTS: FEV1 decline was similar for non-ICS users, as well as ICS users for less than 1.3 years, with and without allergic sensitization. However, among subjects on ICSs for a longer period, sensitization was associated with an attenuated decline (P-interaction = .006): in the group treated for more than 8 years, FEV1 decline was on average 27 mL/y (95% CIBonferroni-adjusted, 11-42) lower for subjects with sensitization compared with nonsensitized subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that biomarkers of atopy can predict a more favorable long-term response to ICSs. Randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.
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