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Sökning: WFRF:(Jarvis Deborah)

  • Resultat 71-80 av 89
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  • Peralta, Gabriela P., et al. (författare)
  • Body mass index trajectories during adult life and lung function decline
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Body mass index (BMI) has been associated with lung function. Whether distinct BMI trajectories during adult life affect lung function differently is unknown. We assessed associations of BMI trajectories from 34 to 54 years with lung function decline over the same period of time in the ECRHS cohort.BMI trajectories were developed using Group-Based Trajectory Modeling on data collected at least twice between ECRHS I and ECRHS III (n=9327). Associations of these trajectories with lung function decline were assessed using mixed linear regression models (adjusted for sex, age, age2, height, smoking status and baseline lung function) in a subgroup (n=3534) with lung function data at ECRHS I and III. As sex-specific analyses showed similar findings, males and females were combined.Four parallel trajectories were identified: ‘normal’, ‘overweight’, ‘obese’ and ‘morbidly obese’ (Fig. 1). Those with higher BMI trajectories had greater decline of FEV1 and FVC than those with ‘normal BMI’ trajectory (Fig. 2).Overweight and obese trajectories of BMI during adult life were associated with greater lung function decline in the ECRHS cohort.
  • Pesce, Giancarlo, et al. (författare)
  • Low dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) is associated with worse lung function in women
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • DHEA-S is the most abundant circulating steroid hormone in humans. Low concentrations of DHEA-S have been linked to several chronic diseases, but it is unclear if DHEA-S affects respiratory health. As part of the ALEC project [EU H2020 grant #633212], the associations of DHEA-S concentrations with lung function levels and decline were evaluated in women from the general population.Serum DHEA-S concentrations were measured in 2,250 women (28-57 years) participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey in 1999-2002. Associations of DHEA-S concentrations (categorized by age-adjusted quintiles) with FEV1, FVC, and the FEV1/FVC ratio were investigated using linear regression models adjusted for age, height, active and passive smoking, BMI, physical activity, education, menopausal status, and with study centre included as a random effect. Associations of DHEA-S concentrations with yearly decline in lung function (ΔFEV1, ΔFVC, ΔFEV1/FVC) were assessed in 1,340 women with spirometry data at follow-up in 2010-2014.The median (25th-75th percentile) concentration of DHEA-S was 4.2 µmol/L (2.9-6.0). The concentration of DHEA-S was significantly higher in current smokers and steadily declined with age. In fully adjusted models, women with low DHEA-S concentrations (below the 1st quintile) at baseline had worse FEV1 (-80mL, p<0.001) and FVC (-79mL, p=0.001) compared to women with higher DHEA-S levels. Low DHEA-S concentrations at baseline were associated with ΔFEV1/FVC (-0.08%/year, p=0.006), but not with ΔFEV1 or ΔFVC.The results suggest that low DHEA-S concentrations are associated with worse lung function in women, but have limited effects on lung function decline.
  • Pesce, Giancarlo, et al. (författare)
  • Time and age trends in smoking cessation in Europe
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203. ; 14:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Smoking is the main risk factor for most of the leading causes of death. Cessation is the single most important step that smokers can take to improve their health. With the aim of informing policy makers about decisions on future tobacco control strategies, we estimated time and age trends in smoking cessation in Europe between 1980 and 2010. Methods Data on the smoking history of 50,228 lifetime smokers from 17 European countries were obtained from six large population-based studies included in the Ageing Lungs in European Cohorts (ALEC) consortium. Smoking cessation rates were assessed retrospectively, and age trends were estimated for three decades (1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2010). The analyses were stratified by sex and region (North, East, South, West Europe). Results Overall, 21,735 subjects (43.3%) quit smoking over a total time-at-risk of 803,031 years. Cessation rates increased between 1980 and 2010 in young adults (16-40 years), especially females, from all the regions, and in older adults (41-60 years) from North Europe, while they were stable in older adults from East, South and West Europe. In the 2000s, the cessation rates for men and women combined were highest in North Europe (49.9 per 1,000/ year) compared to the other regions (range: 26.5-32.7 per 1,000/ year). A sharp peak in rates was observed for women around the age of 30, possibly as a consequence of pregnancy-related smoking cessation. In most regions, subjects who started smoking before the age of 16 were less likely to quit than those who started later. Conclusions Our findings suggest an increasing awareness on the detrimental effects of smoking across Europe. However, East, South and West European countries are lagging behind North Europe, suggesting the need to intensify tobacco control strategies in these regions. Additional efforts should be made to keep young adolescents away from taking up smoking, as early initiation could make quitting more challenging during later life.
  • Portas, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Cost variations of asthma over 10 years in adults
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)
  • Raherison, Chantal, et al. (författare)
  • Evolution of asthma severity in a cohort of young adults : is there any gender difference?
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 4:9, s. e7146-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the distribution of asthma severity in men and women in the general population. The objective of our study was to describe asthma severity and change in severity according to gender in a cohort of adult asthmatics METHODS: Subjects with asthma were identified from random samples of the 22 to 44 year-olds from the general population, screened for asthma from 1991 to 1993 in 48 centers from 22 countries and followed-up during 1998-2002, as part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). All participants to follow-up with current asthma at baseline were eligible for the analysis. To assess change over the follow-up, asthma severity at the two surveys was defined using standardized data on respiratory symptoms, lung function and medication according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) Guidelines. Another quantitative score (Ronchetti) further considering hospitalizations was also analysed. RESULTS: The study included 685 subjects with asthma followed-up over a mean period of 8.65 yr (min 4.3-max 11.7). At baseline, asthma severity according to GINA was distributed as intermittent: 40.7%, 31.7% as mild persistent, 14% as moderate persistent, and 13.5% as severe persistent. Using the Ronchetti score derived classification, the distribution of asthma severity was 58% mild, (intermittent and mild persistent), 25.8% moderate, and 15.4% severe. Whatever the classification, there was no significant difference in the severity distribution between men and women. There was also no gender difference in the severity distribution among incident cases which developed asthma between the two surveys. Men with moderate-to-severe asthma at baseline were more likely than women to have moderate-to-severe asthma at follow-up. Using GINA, 69.2% of men vs. 53.1% of women (p = 0.09) with moderate-to-severe asthma at baseline were still moderate-to-severe at follow-up. Using Ronchetti score, 53.3% of men vs. 36.2% of women (p = 0.03) with moderate-to-severe asthma at baseline were still moderate-to-severe at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: There was no gender difference in asthma severity at the two surveys. However, our findings suggest that asthma severity might be less stable in women than in men.
  • Ramasamy, Adaikalavan, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Association Studies of Asthma in Population-Based Cohorts Confirm Known and Suggested Loci and Identify an Additional Association near HLA
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 7:9, s. e44008-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Asthma has substantial morbidity and mortality and a strong genetic component, but identification of genetic risk factors is limited by availability of suitable studies. Objectives: To test if population-based cohorts with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and genome-wide association (GWA) data could be used to validate known associations with asthma and identify novel associations. Methods: The APCAT (Analysis in Population-based Cohorts of Asthma Traits) consortium consists of 1,716 individuals with asthma and 16,888 healthy controls from six European-descent population-based cohorts. We examined associations in APCAT of thirteen variants previously reported as genome-wide significant (P < 5x10(-8)) and three variants reported as suggestive (P < 5 x 10(-7)). We also searched for novel associations in APCAT (Stage 1) and followed-up the most promising variants in 4,035 asthmatics and 11,251 healthy controls (Stage 2). Finally, we conducted the first genome-wide screen for interactions with smoking or hay fever. Main Results: We observed association in the same direction for all thirteen previously reported variants and nominally replicated ten of them. One variant that was previously suggestive, rs11071559 in RORA, now reaches genome-wide significance when combined with our data (P = 2.4x10(-9)). We also identified two genome-wide significant associations: rs13408661 near IL1RL1/IL18R1 (PStage1+Stage2 = 1.1x10(-9)), which is correlated with a variant recently shown to be associated with asthma (rs3771180), and rs9268516 in the HLA region (PStage1+Stage2 = 1.1x10(-8)), which appears to be independent of previously reported associations in this locus. Finally, we found no strong evidence for gene-environment interactions with smoking or hay fever status. Conclusions: Population-based cohorts with simple asthma phenotypes represent a valuable and largely untapped resource for genetic studies of asthma.
  • Real, Francisco Gómez, et al. (författare)
  • Lung function, respiratory symptoms, and the menopausal transition
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 121:1, s. 72-80.e3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: There is limited information on potential changes in respiratory health when women enter the menopausal transition. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether the menopausal transition is related to lung function and asthma and whether body mass index (BMI) modifies associations. METHODS: Four thousand two hundred fifty-nine women from 21 centers (ECRHS II, 2002) responded to a questionnaire concerning women's health. Women aged 45 to 56 years not using exogenous sex hormones (n = 1274) were included in the present analysis. Lung function measurements (n = 1120) and serum markers of hormonal status (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and estradiol; n = 710) were available. Logistic and linear regression analyses were adjusted for BMI, age, years of education, smoking status, center, and height. RESULTS: Women not menstruating for the last 6 months (n = 432, 34%) had significantly lower FEV(1) values (-120 mL [95% CI, -177 to -63]), lower forced vital capacity values (-115 mL [95% CI, -181 to -50]), and more respiratory symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 1.82 [95% CI, 1.27-2.61]) than those menstruating regularly. Results were similar when restricting analyses to those who never smoked. Associations were significantly stronger in women with BMIs of less than 23 kg/m(2) (respiratory symptoms: OR, 4.07 [95% CI, 1.88-8.80]; FEV(1) adjusted difference: -166 [95% CI, -263 to -70]) than in women with BMIs of 23 to 28 kg/m(2) (respiratory symptoms: OR, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.61-1.97], P(interaction): .04; FEV(1) adjusted difference, -54 [95% CI, -151 to 43], P(interaction) = .06). CONCLUSIONS: Menopause is associated with lower lung function and more respiratory symptoms, especially among lean women.
  • Russell, Melissa, et al. (författare)
  • The association of vigorous physical activity with 10-year adult asthma incidence
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Introduction: Studies investigating the effect of physical activity on asthma incidence have often been limited to one sex, and given mixed results.Aim: To investigate the association of vigorous physical activity with asthma incidence in middle-aged, predominantly European adults.Methods: Participants from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey with no history of asthma were included (n=2532). The association between baseline vigorous physical active (>1 hour and >2 times per week) and (1) self-report of newly doctor diagnosed asthma and (2) time to first asthma attack, over the following 10 years, was analysed using mixed effects logistic regression and cox regression respectively. To reduce potential reverse causation, incident asthma cases in the 2 years after baseline were excluded. Associations were adjusted for baseline sex, age, smoking, BMI, occupation, heart disease and education.Results: At baseline the mean age was 43 years and 47% were female. There were 44 (1.7%) incident doctor diagnosed asthma cases and 38 (1.5%) new cases of asthma attack reported. There was evidence that being vigorously physically active at baseline was associated with an increased odds of newly doctor diagnosed asthma (odds ratio 1.93, 95% Confidence Interval 1.04, 3.57, p=0.036). There was no association with time to first asthma attack.Conclusion: The health benefits of physical activity are well documented. However, our data do not support the presupposition that vigorous physical activity would reduce asthma incidence. We observed an increased risk of report of doctor diagnosed asthma with vigorous physical activity in this general adult population, as has been observed with athletes.
  • Shaaban, Rafea, et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity and bronchial hyperresponsiveness : European Community Respiratory Health Survey II
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 62:5, s. 403-410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Identification of the risk factors for bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) would increase the understanding of the causes of asthma. The relationship between physical activity and BHR in men and women aged 28.0-56.5 years randomly selected from 24 centres in 11 countries participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II was investigated. Methods: 5158 subjects answered questionnaires about physical activity and performed BHR tests. Participants were asked about the frequency and duration of usual weekly exercise resulting in breathlessness or sweating. BHR was defined as a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s of at least 20% of its post-saline value for a maximum methacholine dose of 2 mg. Results: Both frequency and duration of physical activity were inversely related to BHR. The prevalence of BHR in subjects exercising ≤ 1, 2-3 and ≥4 times a week was 14.5%, 11.6% and 10.9%, respectively (p<0.001). The corresponding odds ratios were 1.00, 0.78 (95% Cl 0.62 to 0.99) and 0.69 (95% Cl 0.50 to 0.94) after controlling for potential confounding factors. The frequency of BHR in subjects exercising <1 h, 1-3 h and ≥4 h a week was 15.9%, 10.9% and 10.7%, respectively (p<0.001). The corresponding adjusted odds ratios were 1.00, 0.70 (95% Cl 0.57 to 0.87) and 0.67 (95% Cl 0.50 to 0.90). Physical activity was associated with BHR in all studied subgroups. Conclusions: These results suggest that BHR is strongly and independently associated with decreased physical activity. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms underlying this association.
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