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  • Persson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Utbildningsvetenskaplig forskning vid Lunds universitet
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Vetenskapliga perspektiv på lärande, undervisning och utbildning i olika institutionella sammanhang : utbildningsvetenskaplig forskning vid Lunds universitet - utbildningsvetenskaplig forskning vid Lunds universitet. - : Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap, Lunds universitet. - 9789174738629 - 9789174738636 ; , s. 9-22
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Lärarhögskolan i Malmö var en del av Lunds universitet fram till 1998, då den inordnades i nystartade Malmö högskola. I samarbete med Högskolan Kristianstad blev Lunds universitet 2011 återigen ansvarigt för en lärarutbildning, en ämneslärarutbildning som startade med examenstillstånd i ämnena engelska, historia, samhällskunskap och svenska. Föreliggande antologi syftar till att spegla utbildnings-vetenskaplig forskning vid eller associerad med Lunds universitet. Givet det faktum att Lunds universitet inte haft ansvar för lärarutbildning sedan 1998, kan de 24 forskningstexter som här presenteras ses som ett slags naturligt experiment som kan lockas att säga något om vad frånvaron av lärarutbildning har inneburit för den utbildningsvetenskapliga forskningen. Hur utvecklades den utbildnings-vetenskapliga forskningen vid Lunds universitet under de 15 åren utan egen lärarutbildning?
  • Westrup, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Att förstå varandra och tänka om
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Tjänstelogik i välfärden : En modell för samskapande mellan professionella med barnet i fokus - En modell för samskapande mellan professionella med barnet i fokus. - : Studentlitteratur AB. - 9789144120577 ; 1:1, s. 107-119
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • En modell för samskapande mellan professionella med barnet i fokusDenna bok handlar om hur välfärdsorganisationer kan samskapa värde tillsammans med den som de är till för. Boken belyser betydelsen av att förstå olika verksamheters perspektiv – socialtjänsten, barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin och skolan – genom yrkesgruppernas egna röster för att effektivt kunna ta tillvara varandras kompetenser. I boken föreslås en modell för samskapande i välfärdstjänster som bygger på ett tjänsteperspektiv, ibland kallat tjänstelogik.Boken vänder sig till studenter vid lärarutbildningar, socionomutbildningar och beteendevetenskapliga utbildningar samt inom området hälsa.
  • Abdallah, Qasem M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Minor structural modifications to alchemix influence mechanism of action and pharmacological activity
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Pharmacology. - 0006-2952 .- 1356-1839 .- 1873-2968. ; 83:11, s. 1514-1522
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alchemix is an exemplar of a class of anthraquinone with efficacy against multidrug resistant tumours. We have explored further the mechanism of action of alchemix and investigated the effect of extending its side arm bearing the alkylating functionality with regard to DNA binding and activity against multidrug resistant cancer cells. Increasing the distance between the intercalating chromophore and the alkylating functionality of ICT2901 (propyl), ICT2902 (butyl) and ICT2903 (pentyl), led to a higher number of DNA alkylation sites, more potent topoisomerase II inhibition and generated more apoptotic and necrotic cells when analysed in p53-proficient HCT116 cells. Intriguingly, alchemix, the compound with the shortest distance between its intercalative chromophore and alkylating functionality (ethyl), did not conform to this SAR. A different toxicity pattern against DNA repair defective CHO cell lines as well as arrest of cells in Cl supports a somewhat distinct mode of action by alchemix compared with its analogues. Importantly, both alchemix and ICT2901 demonstrated greater cytotoxic activity against anthraquinone-resistant MCF-7/adr cells than wild-type MCF-7 cells. Subtle synthetic modification in this anthraquinone series has led to significant changes to the stability of DNA-compound complexes and cellular activity. Given that the failure of chemotherapy in the clinic is often associated with MDR, the results of both alchemix and ICT2901 represent important advances towards improved therapies.
  • Bargholtz, Chr., et al. (författare)
  • The WASA detector facility at CELSIUS
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A. - 0168-9002 .- 1872-9576. ; 594:3, s. 339-350
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The WASA 4 pi multidetector system, aimed at investigating light meson production in light ion collisions and eta meson rare decays at the CELSIUS storage ring in Uppsala is presented. A unique feature of the system is the use of hydrogen pellets as internal targets for the first time. A detailed description of the design, together with the anticipated and achieved performance parameters are given. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Bjernestedt, Amanda, et al. (författare)
  • Pupil dilation reflects interference during memory retrieval
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We demonstrate that pupillometry can be used to track memory interference independent of explicit responses. Pupil diameter was recordedthroughout encoding and retrieval of words from the same category over 4 trials, causing buildup of proactive interference (PI). In a contrastingcondition, the category was switched on the 4th trial, causing release from interference (RI). Pupil dilation systematically increased for bothconditions as interference built up and retrieval performance declined. Critically, in trial 4 the RI condition resulted in improved retrievalperformance, with significantly smaller pupil dilation than in the PI condition, where performance continued to decline. Principal component analysisrevealed an early dilation peak possibly related to control of interference, and a later component possibly linked to memory search.
  • Dreij, Kristian, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer Risk Assessment of Airborne PAHs Based on in Vitro Mixture Potency Factors
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology. - 0013-936X .- 1520-5851. ; 51:15, s. 8805-8814
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common environmental pollutants associated with adverse human health effects including cancer. However, the risk of exposure to mixtures is difficult to estimate, and risk assessment by whole mixture potency evaluations has been suggested. To facilitate this, reliable in vitro based testing systems are necessary. Here, we investigated if activation of DNA damage signaling in vitro could be an endpoint for developing whole mixture potency factors (MPFs) for airborne PAHs. Activation of DNA damage signaling was assessed by phosphorylation of Chid and H2AX using Western blotting. To validate the in vitro approach, potency factors were determined for seven individual PAHs which were in very good agreement with established potency factors based on cancer data in vivo. Applying the method using Stockholm air PAH samples indicated MPFs with orders of magnitude higher carcinogenic potency than predicted by established in vivo-based potency factors. Applying the MPFs in cancer risk assessment suggested that 45.4 (6% of all) cancer cases per year in Stockholm are due to airborne PAHs. Applying established models resulted in <1 cancer case per year, which is far from expected levels. We conclude that our in vitro based approach for establishing MPFs could be a novel method to assess whole mixture samples of airborne PAHs to improve health risk assessment.
  • Duell, EJ, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol consumption and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 94:5, s. 1266-1275
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract: Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The association between alcohol consumption and GC has been investigated in numerous epidemiologic studies with inconsistent results. Objective: We evaluated the association between alcohol consumption and GC risk. Design: We conducted a prospective analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which included 444 cases of first primary gastric adenocarcinoma. HRs and 95% CIs for GC were estimated by using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression for consumption of pure ethanol in grams per day, with stratification by smoking status, anatomic subsite (cardia, noncardia), and histologic subtype (diffuse, intestinal). In a subset of participants, results were further adjusted for baseline Helicobacter pylori serostatus. Results: Heavy (compared with very light) alcohol consumption (>= 60 compared with 0.1-4.9 g/d) at baseline was positively associated with GC risk (HR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.58), whereas lower consumption amounts (<60 g/d) were not. When we analyzed GC risk by type of alcoholic beverage, there was a positive association for beer (>= 30 g/d; HR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.73) but not for wine or liquor. Associations were primarily observed at the highest amounts of drinking in men and limited to noncardia subsite and intestinal histology; no statistically significant linear dose-response trends with GC risk were observed. Conclusion: Heavy (but not light or moderate) consumption of alcohol at baseline (mainly from beer) is associated with intestinal-type noncardia GC risk in men from the EPIC cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94:1266-75.
  • Ekman, Simon, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical value of using serological cytokeratins as therapeutic markers in thoracic malignancies
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Anticancer Research. - 0250-7005 .- 1791-7530. ; 27:5B, s. 3545-3553
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In recent years, there has been an increasing awareness among physicians of the value of therapeutic interventions in patients suffering from lung cancer and mesothelioma. A search for an optimal approach using surgery, irradiation and chemotherapy in different settings of the tumour disease, including curatively aimed adjuvant chemotherapy after locoregional surgery or radiotherapy, has resulted in gradually improved survival rates. Still, early detection is crucial if there is to be a possibility of curing patients or prolonging life in cases of relapsed disease. Several studies have been initiated in which surrogate markers are evaluated in comparison to chest X-rays and computer tomography. The present review focuses on the predictive and prognostic value of using serological cytokeratins as tumour markers for patients suffering from thoracic malignancies.
  • Ferreira, Brigida Costa, et al. (författare)
  • Effective beam directions using radiobiologically optimized IMRT of node positive breast cancer
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physica medica (Testo stampato). - 1120-1797 .- 1724-191X. ; 22:1, s. 3-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to investigate the optimal coplanar beam directions when treating an early breast cancer with locoregional lymphatic spread with a few radiobiologically optimized intensity modulated beams. Also to determine the increase in the probability of complication-free cure with the number of beam portals and the smallest number required to perform a close to optimal treatment for this tumour site. Four test patients with stage II left-sided breast cancer were studied with heart, lung and contralateral breast as principal organs at risk. The clinical target volume consisted of the breast tissue remaining after surgery, the axillary, the internal mammary as well as the supraclavicular lymph nodes. Through an exhaustive search of all possible beam directions the most effective coplanar beams with one to four intensity modulated photon beam portals were investigated. Comparisons with uniform beam treatment techniques and up to 12 intensity modulated beams were also made. The different plans were optimized using the probability of complication-free tumour cure, P+, as biological objective function. When using two intensity modulated beam directions three major sets of suitable directions were identified denoted by A, P and T A corresponds to an anterior oblique pair of beams around 25 degrees and 325 degrees, P is a perpendicular lateral pair at around 50 and 130 whereas T is a more conventional tangential pair at around 155 degrees and 300 degrees. Interestingly, these configurations identify simply three major effective beam directions namely at 30 degrees +/- 20 degrees, 145 degrees +/- 20 degrees and 310 degrees +/- 15 degrees. For the three intensity modulated beam technique a combination of these three effective beam directions generally covered the global maximum of the probability of complication-free tumour control. The improvement in complication-free cure probability with two optimally selected intensity modulated beams is around 10% when compared to a uniform beam technique with three to four beam portals. This increase is mainly due to a reduction by almost 1% in the probability of injury to the heart and an increase of 6% in the probability of local tumour control. When three or four biologically optimized beam portals are used a further increase in the probability of complication-free cure of about 6% can often be obtained. This improvement is caused by a small decrease in the probability of injury to the heart, left lung and other surrounding normal tissue, as well as a slight further increase in the probability of tumour control. The increase in the treatment outcome is minimal when more than four intensity modulated beams are employed. A small increase in dose homogeneity in the target volume and a slight decrease in the normal tissue volume receiving high dose may be seen, but without appreciably improving the complication-free cure probability. For a stage II breast cancer, three and in more complex cases four optimally oriented beams are sufficient to reach close to the maximum probability of complication-free tumour control when biologically optimized intensity modulated dose delivery is used. Angle of incidence optimization may then be advantageous starting from the given most effective three beam directions.
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