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51.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Nuclear modification factors of phi mesons in d plus Au, Cu plus Cu, and Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 83:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has performed systematic measurements of phi meson production in the K+K- decay channel at midrapidity in p + p, d + Au, Cu + Cu, and Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. Results are presented on the phi invariant yield and the nuclear modification factor R-AA for Au + Au and Cu + Cu, and R-dA for d + Au collisions, studied as a function of transverse momentum (1 < p(T) < 7 GeV/c) and centrality. In central and midcentral Au + Au collisions, the R-AA of phi exhibits a suppression relative to expectations from binary scaled p + p results. The amount of suppression is smaller than that of the pi(0) and the. in the intermediate p(T) range (2-5 GeV/c), whereas, at higher p(T), the phi, pi(0), and. show similar suppression. The baryon (proton and antiproton) excess observed in central Au + Au collisions at intermediate p(T) is not observed for the phi meson despite the similar masses of the proton and the phi. This suggests that the excess is linked to the number of valence quarks in the hadron rather than its mass. The difference gradually disappears with decreasing centrality, and, for peripheral collisions, the R-AA values for both particle species are consistent with binary scaling. Cu + Cu collisions show the same yield and suppression as Au + Au collisions for the same number of N-part. The R-dA of phi shows no evidence for cold nuclear effects within uncertainties.
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52.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
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53.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Cold nuclear matter effects on J/psi production as constrained by deuteron-gold measurements at root S-NN=200 GeV
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 77:2, s. 15-024912
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a new analysis of J/psi production yields in deuteron-gold collisions at root s(NN) =200 GeV using data taken from the PHENIX experiment in 2003 and previously published in S. S. Adler [Phys. Rev. Lett 96, 012304 (2006)]. The high statistics proton-proton J/psi data taken in 2005 are used to improve the baseline measurement and thus construct updated cold nuclear matter modification factors (R-dAu). A suppression of J/psi in cold nuclear matter is observed as one goes forward in rapidity (in the deuteron-going direction), corresponding to a region more sensitive to initial-state low-x gluons in the gold nucleus. The measured nuclear modification factors are compared to theoretical calculations of nuclear shadowing to which a J/psi (or precursor) breakup cross section is added. Breakup cross sections of sigma(breakup)=2.8(-1.4)(+1.7) (2.2(-1.5)(+1.6)) mb are obtained by fitting these calculations to the data using two different models of nuclear shadowing. These breakup cross-section values are consistent within large uncertainties with the 4.2 +/- 0.5 mb determined at lower collision energies. Projecting this range of cold nuclear matter effects to copper-copper and gold-gold collisions reveals that the current constraints are not sufficient to firmly quantify the additional hot nuclear matter effect.
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54.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of higher cumulants of net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=7.7-200 GeV
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 93:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the measurement of cumulants (C-n,n = 1, ..., 4) of the net-charge distributions measured within pseudorapidity (vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.35) in Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 7.7-200 GeV with the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The ratios of cumulants (e.g., C-1/C-2, C-3/C-1) of the net-charge distributions, which can be related to volume independent susceptibility ratios, are studied as a function of centrality and energy. These quantities are important to understand the quantum-chromodynamics phase diagram and possible existence of a critical end point. The measured values are very well described by expectation from negative binomial distributions. We do not observe any nonmonotonic behavior in the ratios of the cumulants as a function of collision energy. The measured values of C-1/C-2 and C-3/C-1 can be directly compared to lattice quantum-chromodynamics calculations and thus allow extraction of both the chemical freeze-out temperature and the baryon chemical potential at each center-of-mass energy. The extracted baryon chemical potentials are in excellent agreement with a thermal-statistical analysis model.
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55.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Photon-hadron jet correlations in p plus p and Au plus Au collisions at s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 80:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the observation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider of suppression of back-to-back correlations in the direct photon+jet channel in Au+Au relative to p+p collisions. Two-particle correlations of direct photon triggers with associated hadrons are obtained by statistical subtraction of the decay photon-hadron (gamma-h) background. The initial momentum of the away-side parton is tightly constrained, because the parton-photon pair exactly balance in momentum at leading order in perturbative quantum chromodynamics, making such correlations a powerful probe of the in-medium parton energy loss. The away-side nuclear suppression factor, I-AA, in central Au+Au collisions, is 0.32 +/- 0.12(stat)+/- 0.09(syst) for hadrons of 3 < p(T)(h)< 5 in coincidence with photons of 5 < p(T)(gamma)< 15 GeV/c. The suppression is comparable to that observed for high-p(T) single hadrons and dihadrons. The direct photon associated yields in p+p collisions scale approximately with the momentum balance, z(T)equivalent to p(T)(h)/p(T)(gamma), as expected for a measurement of the away-side parton fragmentation function. We compare to Au+Au collisions for which the momentum balance dependence of the nuclear modification should be sensitive to the path-length dependence of parton energy loss.
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56.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Systematic study of charged-pion and kaon femtoscopy in Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 92:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a systematic study of charged-pion and kaon interferometry in Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. The kaon mean source radii are found to be larger than pion radii in the outward and longitudinal directions for the same transverse mass; this difference increases for more central collisions. The azimuthal-angle dependence of the radii was measured with respect to the second-order event plane and similar oscillations of the source radii were found for pions and kaons. Hydrodynamic models qualitatively describe the similar oscillations of the mean source radii for pions and kaons, but they do not fully describe the transverse-mass dependence of the oscillations.
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57.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r(g) = -0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.
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58.
  • Lawrenson, Kate, et al. (författare)
  • Functional mechanisms underlying pleiotropic risk alleles at the 19p13.1 breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility locus
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A locus at 19p13 is associated with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Here we analyse 438 SNPs in this region in 46,451 BC and 15,438 OC cases, 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 73,444 controls and identify 13 candidate causal SNPs associated with serous OC (P=9.2 × 10-20), ER-negative BC (P=1.1 × 10-13), BRCA1-associated BC (P=7.7 × 10-16) and triple negative BC (P-diff=2 × 10-5). Genotype-gene expression associations are identified for candidate target genes ANKLE1 (P=2 × 10-3) and ABHD8 (P<2 × 10-3). Chromosome conformation capture identifies interactions between four candidate SNPs and ABHD8, and luciferase assays indicate six risk alleles increased transactivation of the ADHD8 promoter. Targeted deletion of a region containing risk SNP rs56069439 in a putative enhancer induces ANKLE1 downregulation; and mRNA stability assays indicate functional effects for an ANKLE1 3′-UTR SNP. Altogether, these data suggest that multiple SNPs at 19p13 regulate ABHD8 and perhaps ANKLE1 expression, and indicate common mechanisms underlying breast and ovarian cancer risk.
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59.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Centrality dependence of low-momentum direct-photon production in Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 91:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured the centrality dependence of the direct photon yield from Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV down to pT = 0.4 GeV/c. Photons are detected via photon conversions to e(+)e(-) pairs and an improved technique is applied that minimizes the systematic uncertainties that usually limit direct photon measurements, in particular at low pT. We find an excess of direct photons above the N-coll-scaled yield measured in p + p collisions. This excess yield is well described by an exponential distribution with an inverse slope of about 240 MeV/c in the pT range 0.6-2.0 GeV/c. While the shape of the pT distribution is independent of centrality within the experimental uncertainties, the yield increases rapidly with increasing centrality, scaling approximately with N-part(alpha), where alpha = 1.38 +/- 0.03(stat) +/- 0.07(syst).
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60.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • phi meson production in d plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 92:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX Collaboration has measured phi meson production in d + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV using the dimuon and dielectron decay channels. The phi meson is measured in the forward (backward) d-going (Au-going) direction, 1.2 < y < 2.2 (-2.2 < y < -1.2) in the transverse-momentum (pT) range from 1-7 GeV/c and at midrapidity vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.35 in the p(T) range below 7 GeV/c. The phi meson invariant yields and nuclear-modification factors as a function of p(T), rapidity, and centrality are reported. An enhancement of phi meson production is observed in the Au-going direction, while suppression is seen in the d-going direction, and no modification is observed at midrapidity relative to the yield in p + p collisions scaled by the number of binary collisions. Similar behavior was previously observed for inclusive charged hadrons and open heavy flavor, indicating similar cold-nuclear-matter effects.
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