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Sökning: WFRF:(Jorgensen Torben)

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41.
  • Veronesi, Giovanni, et al. (författare)
  • Combined effect of educational status and cardiovascular risk factors on the incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke in European cohorts : implications for prevention
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. - 2047-4873 .- 2047-4881. ; 24:4, s. 437-445
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The combined effect of social status and risk factors on the absolute risk of cardiovascular disease has been insufficiently investigated, but results provide guidance on who could benefit most through prevention.Methods: We followed 77,918 cardiovascular disease-free individuals aged 35-74 years at baseline, from 38 cohorts covering Nordic and Baltic countries, the UK and Central Europe, for a median of 12 years. Using Fine-Gray models in a competing-risks framework we estimated the effect of the interaction of education with smoking, blood pressure and body weight on the cumulative risk of incident acute coronary heart disease and stroke.Results: Compared with more educated smokers, the less educated had an added increase in absolute risk of cardiovascular disease of 3.1% ( 95% confidence interval+0.1%, +6.2%) in men and of 1.5% ( = 1.9%, +5.0%) in women, consistent across smoking categories. Conversely, the interaction was negative for overweight: -2.6% ( 95% CI: -5.6%, +0.3%) and obese: -3.6% ( -7.6%, +0.4%) men, suggesting that the more educated would benefit more from the same reduction in body weight. A weaker interaction was observed for body weight in women, and for blood pressure in both genders. Less educated men and women with a cluster of two or more risk factors had an added cardiovascular disease risk of 3.6% ( +0.1%, +7.0%) and of 2.6% ( - 0.5%, +5.6%), respectively, compared with their more educated counterparts.Conclusions: Socially disadvantaged subjects have more to gain from lifestyle and blood pressure modification, hopefully reducing both their risk and also social inequality in disease.
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42.
  • Veronesi, Giovanni, et al. (författare)
  • Educational class inequalities in the incidence of coronary heart disease in Europe
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Heart. - 1355-6037 .- 1468-201X. ; 102:12, s. 958-965
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To estimate the burden of social inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD) and to identify their major determinants in 15 European populations.Methods: The MORGAM (MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph) study comprised 49 cohorts of middle-aged European adults free of CHD (110 928 individuals) recruited mostly in the mid-1980s and 1990s, with comparable assessment of baseline risk and follow-up procedures. We derived three educational classes accounting for birth cohorts and used regression-based inequality measures of absolute differences in CHD rates and HRs (ie, Relative Index of Inequality, RII) for the least versus the most educated individuals.Results: N=6522 first CHD events occurred during a median follow-up of 12 years. Educational class inequalities accounted for 343 and 170 additional CHD events per 100 000 person-years in the least educated men and women compared with the most educated, respectively. These figures corresponded to 48% and 71% of the average event rates in each gender group. Inequalities in CHD mortality were mainly driven by incidence in the Nordic countries, Scotland and Lithuania, and by 28-day case-fatality in the remaining central/South European populations. The pooled RIIs were 1.6 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.8) in men and 2.0 (1.7 to 2.4) in women, consistently across population. Risk factors accounted for a third of inequalities in CHD incidence; smoking was the major mediator in men, and High-Density-Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in women.Conclusions: Social inequalities in CHD are still widespread in Europe. Since the major determinants of inequalities followed geographical and gender-specific patterns, European-level interventions should be tailored across different European regions.
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43.
  • Vishram, Julie K. K., et al. (författare)
  • Do other cardiovascular risk factors influence the impact of age on the association between blood pressure and mortality? : The MORGAM Project
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hypertension. - : Ovid Technologies. - 0263-6352 .- 1473-5598. ; 32:5, s. 1025-1033
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate age-related shifts in the relative importance of SBP and DBP as predictors of cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality and whether these relations are influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Using 42 cohorts from the MORGAM Project with baseline between 1982 and 1997, 85 772 apparently healthy Europeans and Australians aged 19-78 years were included. During 13.3 years of follow-up, 9.2% died (of whom 7.2% died due to stroke and 21.1% due to coronary heart disease, CHD). Results: Mortality risk was analyzed using hazard ratios per 10-mmHg/5-mmHg increase in SBP/DBP by multivariate-adjusted Cox regressions, including SBP and DBP simultaneously. Because of nonlinearity, SBP and DBP were analyzed separately for blood pressure (BP) values above and below a cut-point wherein mortality risk was the lowest. For the total population, significantly positive associations were found between stroke mortality and SBP [hazard ratio = 1.19 (1.13-1.25)] and DBP at least 78 mmHg [hazard ratio = 1.08 (1.02-1.14)], CHD mortality and SBP at least 116 mmHg [1.20 (1.16-1.24)], and all-cause mortality and SBP at least 120 mmHg [1.09 (1.08-1.11)] and DBP at least 82 mmHg [1.03 (1.02-1.05)]. BP values below the cut-points were inversely related to mortality risk. Taking into account the age x BP interaction, there was a gradual shift from DBP (19-26 years) to both DBP and SBP (27-62 years) and to SBP (63-78 years) as risk factors for stroke mortality and all-cause mortality, but not CHD mortality. The age at which the importance of SBP exceeded DBP was for stroke mortality influenced by sex, cholesterol, and country risk. Conclusion: Age-related shifts to the superiority of SBP exist for stroke mortality and all-cause mortality, and for stroke mortality was this shift influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors.
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44.
  • Vishram, Julie K. K., et al. (författare)
  • Impact of Age and Gender on the Prevalence and Prognostic Importance of the Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Europeans. The MORGAM Prospective Cohort Project
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 9:9, s. e107294-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Europeans presenting with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Methods: Using 36 cohorts from the MORGAM-Project with baseline between 1982-1997, 69094 men and women aged 19-78 years, without known CVD, were included. During 12.2 years of follow-up, 3.7%/2.1% of men/women died due to CVD. The corresponding percentages for fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke were 8.3/3.8 and 3.1/2.5. Results: The prevalence of MetS, according to modified definitions of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII), increased across age groups for both genders (P<0.0001); with a 5-fold increase in women from ages 19-39 years to 60-78 years (7.4%/7.6% to 35.4%/37.6% for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) and a 2-fold increase in men (5.3%/10.5% to 11.5%/21.8%). Using multivariate-adjusted Cox regressions, the associations between MetS and all three CVD events were significant (P<0.0001). For IDF/NCEP-ATPIII in men and women, hazard ratio (HR) for CHD was 1.60/1.62 and 1.93/2.03, for CVD mortality 1.73/1.65 and 1.77/2.06, and for stroke 1.51/1.53 and 1.58/1.77. Whereas in men the HRs for CVD events were independent of age (MetS*age, P>0.05), in women the HRs for CHD declined with age (HRs 3.23/3.98 to 1.55/1.56; MetS*age, P = 0.01/P = 0.001 for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) while the HRs for stroke tended to increase (HRs 1.31/1.25 to 1.55/1.83; MetS*age, P>0.05). Conclusion: In Europeans, both age and gender influenced the prevalence of MetS and its prognostic significance. The present results emphasise the importance of being critical of MetS in its current form as a marker of CVD especially in women, and advocate for a redefinition of MetS taking into account age especially in women.
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45.
  • Willeit, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Natriuretic peptides and integrated risk assessment for cardiovascular disease : an individual-participant-data meta-analysis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology. - : Elsevier. - 2213-8587 .- 2213-8595. ; 4:10, s. 840-849
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Guidelines for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases focus on prediction of coronary heart disease and stroke. We assessed whether or not measurement of N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration could enable a more integrated approach than at present by predicting heart failure and enhancing coronary heart disease and stroke risk assessment. Methods: In this individual-participant-data meta-analysis, we generated and harmonised individual-participant data from relevant prospective studies via both de-novo NT-proBNP concentration measurement of stored samples and collection of data from studies identified through a systematic search of the literature (PubMed, Scientific Citation Index Expanded, and Embase) for articles published up to Sept 4, 2014, using search terms related to natriuretic peptide family members and the primary outcomes, with no language restrictions. We calculated risk ratios and measures of risk discrimination and reclassification across predicted 10 year risk categories (ie, <5%, 5% to <7.5%, and >= 7.5%), adding assessment of NT-proBNP concentration to that of conventional risk factors (ie, age, sex, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes, and total and HDL cholesterol concentrations). Primary outcomes were the combination of coronary heart disease and stroke, and the combination of coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. Findings: We recorded 5500 coronary heart disease, 4002 stroke, and 2212 heart failure outcomes among 95617 participants without a history of cardiovascular disease in 40 prospective studies. Risk ratios (for a comparison of the top third vs bottom third of NT-proBNP concentrations, adjusted for conventional risk factors) were 1.76 (95% CI 1.56-1.98) for the combination of coronary heart disease and stroke and 2.00 (1.77-2.26) for the combination of coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. Addition of information about NT-proBNP concentration to a model containing conventional risk factors was associated with a C-index increase of 0.012 (0.010-0.014) and a net reclassification improvement of 0.027 (0.019-0.036) for the combination of coronary heart disease and stroke and a C-index increase of 0.019 (0.016-0.022) and a net reclassification improvement of 0.028 (0.019-0.038) for the combination of coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. Interpretation: In people without baseline cardiovascular disease, NT-proBNP concentration assessment strongly predicted first-onset heart failure and augmented coronary heart disease and stroke prediction, suggesting that NT-proBNP concentration assessment could be used to integrate heart failure into cardiovascular disease primary prevention.
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46.
  • Wormser, David, et al. (författare)
  • Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people : individual participant meta-analysis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 41:5, s. 1419-1433
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundThe extent to which adult height, a biomarker of the interplay of genetic endowment and early-life experiences, is related to risk of chronic diseases in adulthood is uncertain.MethodsWe calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for height, assessed in increments of 6.5 cm, using individual-participant data on 174 374 deaths or major non-fatal vascular outcomes recorded among 1 085 949 people in 121 prospective studies.ResultsFor people born between 1900 and 1960, mean adult height increased 0.5-1 cm with each successive decade of birth. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and year of birth, HRs per 6.5 cm greater height were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.96-0.99) for death from any cause, 0.94 (0.93-0.96) for death from vascular causes, 1.04 (1.03-1.06) for death from cancer and 0.92 (0.90-0.94) for death from other causes. Height was negatively associated with death from coronary disease, stroke subtypes, heart failure, stomach and oral cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental disorders, liver disease and external causes. In contrast, height was positively associated with death from ruptured aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism, melanoma and cancers of the pancreas, endocrine and nervous systems, ovary, breast, prostate, colorectum, blood and lung. HRs per 6.5 cm greater height ranged from 1.26 (1.12-1.42) for risk of melanoma death to 0.84 (0.80-0.89) for risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRs were not appreciably altered after further adjustment for adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, inflammation biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption or socio-economic indicators.ConclusionAdult height has directionally opposing relationships with risk of death from several different major causes of chronic diseases.
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