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Sökning: WFRF:(Kabisch M)

  • Resultat 31-40 av 40
  • Föregående 123[4]
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34.
  • McPhearson, Timon, et al. (författare)
  • A social-ecological-technological systems framework for urban ecosystem services
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: One Earth. - 2590-3330 .- 2590-3322. ; 5:5, s. 505-518
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As rates of urbanization and climatic change soar, decision-makers are increasingly challenged to provide innovative solutions that simultaneously address climate change impacts and risks and inclusively ensure quality of life for urban residents. Cities have turned to nature-based solutions to help address these challenges. Nature-based solutions, through the provision of ecosystem services, can yield numerous benefits for people and address multiple challenges simultaneously. Yet, efforts to mainstream nature-based solutions are impaired by the complexity of the interacting social, ecological, and technological dimensions of urban systems. This complexity must be understood and managed to ensure ecosystem-service provisioning is effective, equitable, and resilient. Here, we provide a social-ecological-technological system (SETS) framework that builds on decades of urban ecosystem services research to better understand four core challenges associated with urban nature-based solutions: multi-functionality, systemic valuation, scale mismatch of ecosystem services, and inequity and injustice. The framework illustrates the importance of coordinating natural, technological, and socio-economic systems when designing, planning, and managing urban nature-based solutions to enable optimal social-ecological outcomes.
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  • Marselle, Melissa R., et al. (författare)
  • Pathways linking biodiversity to human health : A conceptual framework
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier BV. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 150
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biodiversity is a cornerstone of human health and well-being. However, while evidence of the contributions of nature to human health is rapidly building, research into how biodiversity relates to human health remains limited in important respects. In particular, a better mechanistic understanding of the range of pathways through which biodiversity can influence human health is needed. These pathways relate to both psychological and social processes as well as biophysical processes. Building on evidence from across the natural, social and health sciences, we present a conceptual framework organizing the pathways linking biodiversity to human health. Four domains of pathways?both beneficial as well as harmful?link biodiversity with human health: (i) reducing harm (e.g. provision of medicines, decreasing exposure to air and noise pollution); (ii) restoring capacities (e.g. attention restoration, stress reduction); (iii) building capacities (e.g. promoting physical activity, transcendent experiences); and (iv) causing harm (e.g. dangerous wildlife, zoonotic diseases, allergens). We discuss how to test components of the biodiversity-health framework with available analytical approaches and existing datasets. In a world with accelerating declines in biodiversity, profound land-use change, and an increase in non communicable and zoonotic diseases globally, greater understanding of these pathways can reinforce biodiversity conservation as a strategy for the promotion of health for both people and nature. We conclude by identifying research avenues and recommendations for policy and practice to foster biodiversity-focused public health actions.
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  • Zaharia, Oana P., et al. (författare)
  • Risk of diabetes-associated diseases in subgroups of patients with recent-onset diabetes : a 5-year follow-up study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology. - : Elsevier. - 2213-8587. ; 7:9, s. 684-694
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cluster analyses have proposed different diabetes phenotypes using age, BMI, glycaemia, homoeostasis model estimates, and islet autoantibodies. We tested whether comprehensive phenotyping validates and further characterises these clusters at diagnosis and whether relevant diabetes-related complications differ among these clusters, during 5-years of follow-up. Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed type 1 or type 2 diabetes in the German Diabetes Study underwent comprehensive phenotyping and assessment of laboratory variables. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps, hepatocellular lipid content using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, hepatic fibrosis using non-invasive scores, and peripheral and autonomic neuropathy using functional and clinical criteria. Patients were reassessed after 5 years. The German Diabetes Study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01055093, and is ongoing. Findings: 1105 patients were classified at baseline into five clusters, with 386 (35%) assigned to mild age-related diabetes (MARD), 323 (29%) to mild obesity-related diabetes (MOD), 247 (22%) to severe autoimmune diabetes (SAID), 121 (11%) to severe insulin-resistant diabetes (SIRD), and 28 (3%) to severe insulin-deficient diabetes (SIDD). At 5-year follow-up, 367 patients were reassessed, 128 (35%) with MARD, 106 (29%) with MOD, 88 (24%) with SAID, 35 (10%) with SIRD, and ten (3%) with SIDD. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was lowest in patients with SIRD at baseline (mean 4·3 mg/kg per min [SD 2·0]) compared with those with SAID (8·4 mg/kg per min [3·2]; p<0·0001), MARD (7·5 mg/kg per min [2·5]; p<0·0001), MOD (6·6 mg/kg per min [2·6]; p=0·0011), and SIDD (5·5 mg/kg per min [2·4]; p=0·0035). The fasting adipose-tissue insulin resistance index at baseline was highest in patients with SIRD (median 15·6 [IQR 9·3–20·9]) and MOD (11·6 [7·4–17·9]) compared with those with MARD (6·0 [3·9–10·3]; both p<0·0001) and SAID (6·0 [3·0–9·5]; both p<0·0001). In patients with newly diagnosed diabetes, hepatocellular lipid content was highest at baseline in patients assigned to the SIRD cluster (median 19% [IQR 11–22]) compared with all other clusters (7% [2–15] for MOD, p=0·00052; 5% [2–11] for MARD, p<0·0001; 2% [0–13] for SIDD, p=0·0083; and 1% [0–3] for SAID, p<0·0001), even after adjustments for baseline medication. Accordingly, hepatic fibrosis at 5-year follow-up was more prevalent in patients with SIRD (n=7 [26%]) than in patients with SAID (n=5 [7%], p=0·0011), MARD (n=12 [12%], p=0·012), MOD (n=13 [15%], p=0·050), and SIDD (n=0 [0%], p value not available). Confirmed diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy was more prevalent at baseline in patients with SIDD (n=9 [36%]) compared with patients with SAID (n=10 [5%], p<0·0001), MARD (n=39 [15%], p=0·00066), MOD (n=26 [11%], p<0·0001), and SIRD (n=10 [17%], p<0·0001). Interpretation: Cluster analysis can characterise cohorts with different degrees of whole-body and adipose-tissue insulin resistance. Specific diabetes clusters show different prevalence of diabetes complications at early stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and diabetic neuropathy. These findings could help improve targeted prevention and treatment and enable precision medicine for diabetes and its comorbidities. Funding: German Diabetes Center, German Federal Ministry of Health, Ministry of Culture and Science of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, German Diabetes Association, German Center for Diabetes Research, Research Network SFB 1116 of the German Research Foundation, and Schmutzler Stiftung.
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  • Resultat 31-40 av 40
  • Föregående 123[4]

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