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  • Weber, Katrin, et al. (författare)
  • Dental microwear texture analysis on extant and extinct sharks : Ante- or post-mortem tooth wear?
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. - : ELSEVIER. - 0031-0182 .- 1872-616X. ; 562
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sharks are apex-predators that play an important role in past and present aquatic food webs. However, their diet - especially in extinct species - is often not well constrained. Dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA) has been successfully applied to reconstruct diet and feeding behaviours of different aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates. However, unlike in mammals, food-to-tooth contact in sharks is rather limited because only larger prey is manipulated before swallowing. Together with a fast tooth replacement rate, this reduces wear on individual teeth. Here, we present an explorative study of dental microwear texture on extant and extinct sharks to test whether ante-mortem wear is related to ingested diet or habitat preferences and resistant to post-mortem alteration processes. Shark teeth from 24 modern species and 12 fossil species from different localities were measured. As an additional comparison, extant shark teeth of Carcharhinus plumbeus were tumbled in sediment-water suspensions to simulate post-mortem mechanical alteration by sediment transport. Only three of the twelve extant shark species with three or more specimens had significantly different dental surface textures. Furthermore, no clear relation between food or habitat preferences and ante-mortem dental wear features was detected for this sample set. Tumbling modern shark teeth with siliciclastic sediment of four different grain size fractions led to increasing complexity of the dental surface. Fossil specimens resemble these experimentally altered shark teeth more in complexity and roughness. Thus, fossil shark teeth seem to display either very different (e.g. harder) diet-related wear or a strong degree of post-mortem alteration. Based on our restricted sample size, dental wear of shark teeth does overall not seem to simply reflect dietary differences; hence, it is difficult to use DMTA as reliable dietary reconstruction, in either extant nor extinct sharks.
  • Weissferdt, Annikka, et al. (författare)
  • Thymoma : a clinicopathological correlation of 1470 cases
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Human Pathology. - : Elsevier. - 0046-8177. ; 73, s. 7-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present 1470 surgical resections for thymoma identified in the pathology files of 14 institutions from 11 countries with the purpose of determining and correlating a simplified histological classification of thymoma and pathological staging with clinical outcome. The study population was composed of 720 men and 750 women between the ages of 12 and 86 years (average, 54.8 years). Clinically, 137 patients (17%) had a history of myasthenia gravis, 31 patients (3.8%) of other autoimmune disease, and 55 (6.8%) patients of another neoplastic process. Surgical resection was performed in all patients. Histologically, 1284 (87.13%) cases were thymomas (World Health Organization types A, B1, and B2, and mixed histologies), and 186 (12.7%) were atypical thymomas (World Health Organization type B3). Of the entire group, 630 (42.9%) were encapsulated thymomas, and 840 (57.9%) were invasive thymomas in different stages. Follow-up information was obtained in 1339 (91%) patients, who subsequently were analyzed by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Follow-up ranging from 1 to 384 months was obtained (mean, 69.2 months) showing tumor recurrence in 136 patients (10.1%), whereas 227 died: 64 (28.2%) due to tumor and 163 (71.8%) due to other causes. Statistical analysis shows that separation of these tumors into thymoma and atypical thymoma is statistically significant (P =.001), whereas tumor staging into categories of encapsulated, minimally invasive, and invasion into adjacent organs offers a meaningful clinical assessment with a P =.038. Our findings suggest that our simplified histological schema and pathological staging system are excellent predictors of clinical outcome.
  • White, Alexander D., et al. (författare)
  • Static and Dynamic Stark Tuning of the Silicon Vacancy in Silicon Carbide
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: 2020 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO). - : IEEE. - 9781943580767
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the DC Stark tuning of single Silicon Vacancies in SiC. We demonstrate static tuning across 200 GHz, exceeding the inhomogenous broadening, and dynamic tuning on timescales shorter than the optical decay rate. (C) 2020 The Author(s)
  • Wilkowski, D, et al. (författare)
  • Low- and high-intensity velocity selective coherent population trapping in a two-level system
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Europhysics letters. - : EDP Sciences. - 0295-5075 .- 1286-4854. ; 86:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An experimental investigation is made of sub-recoil cooling by velocity selective coherent population trapping in a two-level system in Sr. The experiment is carried out using the narrow linewidth intercombination line at 689 nm. Here, the ratio between the recoil shift and the linewidth is as high as 0.64. We show that, on top of a broader momentum pro. le, subrecoil features develop, whose amplitude is strongly dependent on the detuning from resonance. We attribute this structure to a velocity selective coherent population trapping mechanism. We also show that the population trapping phenomenon leads to complex momentum profiles in the case of highly saturated transitions, displaying a multitude of subrecoil features at integer multiples of the recoil momentum.
  • Yang, Zhenlin, et al. (författare)
  • Structural basis of ligand binding modes at the neuropeptide Y Y-1 receptor
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 556:7702, s. 520-524
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and have important roles in food intake, anxiety and cancer biology(1,2). The NPY-Y receptor system has emerged as one of the most complex networks with three peptide ligands (NPY, peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide) binding to four receptors in most mammals, namely the Y-1, Y-2, Y-4 and Y-5 receptors, with different affinity and selectivity(3). NPY is the most powerful stimulant of food intake and this effect is primarily mediated by the Y-1 receptor (Y1R)(4). A number of peptides and small-molecule compounds have been characterized as Y1R antagonists and have shown clinical potential in the treatment of obesity(4), tumour(1) and bone loss(5). However, their clinical usage has been hampered by low potency and selectivity, poor brain penetration ability or lack of oral bioavailability(6). Here we report crystal structures of the human Y1R bound to the two selective antagonists UR-MK299 and BMS-193885 at 2.7 and 3.0 angstrom resolution, respectively. The structures combined with mutagenesis studies reveal the binding modes of Y1R to several structurally diverse antagonists and the determinants of ligand selectivity. The Y1R structure and molecular docking of the endogenous agonist NPY, together with nuclear magnetic resonance, photo-crosslinking and functional studies, provide insights into the binding behaviour of the agonist and for the first time, to our knowledge, determine the interaction of its N terminus with the receptor. These insights into Y1R can enable structure-based drug discovery that targets NPY receptors.
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