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Sökning: WFRF:(Karpe Fredrik)

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  • Föregående 123[4]5Nästa
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31.
  • Nygren, Jonas O., et al. (författare)
  • Perioperative insulin and glucose infusion maintains normal insulin sensitivity after surgery
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. - : American Physiological Society. - 0002-9513 .- 2163-5773. ; 275:1 Part 1, s. E140-E148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elective surgery was performed after overnight fasting, a routine that may affect the metabolic response to surgery. We investigated the effects of insulin and glucose infusions before and during surgery on postoperative substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity. Seven patients were given insulin and glucose infusions 3 h before and during surgery (insulin group), and a control group of six patients underwent surgery after fasting overnight. Insulin sensitivity and glucose kinetics (D-[6,6-2H2]glucose) were measured before and immediately after surgery using a hyperinsulinemic, normoglycemic clamp. Glucose infusion rates and whole body glucose disposal decreased after surgery in the control group (-40 and -29%, respectively), whereas no significant change was found in the insulingroup (+16 and +25%). Endogenous glucose production remained unchanged in both groups. Postoperative changes in cortisol, glucagon, fat oxidation, and free fatty acids were attenuated in the insulin group (vs. control). We conclude that perioperative insulin and glucose infusions minimize the endocrine stress response and normalize postoperative insulin sensitivity and substrate utilization.
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32.
  • Nygren, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Short-term hypocaloric nutrition but not bed rest decrease insulin sensitivity and IGF-I bioavailability in healthy subjects : the importance of glucagon
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nutrition. - : Oxford University Press. - 0022-3166 .- 1541-6100. ; 13:11-12, s. 945-951
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hyperinsulinemic, normoglycemic clamps were performed before and after 24 h of either hypocaloric nutrition or bed rest in healthy subjects. Decreased insulin sensitivity and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) bioavailibility, as measured by the serum IGF-I/insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) ratio, was found after fasting, whereas no metabolic changes were found after bed rest. Glucagon seems to be a key regulator of IGFBP-1 after brief hypocaloric nutrition. Hypocaloric nutrition and immobilization may add to the catabolic response to surgery and other trauma. Presently, six healthy subjects were studied before and after a 24-h period of hypocaloric nutrition (200 kcal/24 h, fast) or immobilization (bed rest) using the hyperinsulinemic (0.8 mU · kg−1 · min−1), normoglycemic (4.5 mmol/L) clamp, indirect calorimetry, and circulating levels of substrates and hormones. After fast, body weight decreased (P < 0.05), and nitrogen balance was negative (−10 ± 1 g urea nitrogen/24 h). Basal levels of free fatty acids, glucagon, and IGFBP-1 increased (P < 0.05), whereas c-peptide levels and the IGF-I/IGFBP-1 ratio decreased (P < 0.05). However, no change was found in basal levels of IGF-I or substrate oxidation. Furthermore, changes (%) in basal levels of glucagon after fast correlated to IGFBP-1 (r = 1.0, P < 0.05), whereas the suppressibility of IGFBP-1 by insulin was maintained at normal levels. During clamps, glucose infusion rates (GIR) decreased after fast (−43 ± 13%, mean ± SEM, P < 0.001). Although not significant, clamp levels of fat oxidation tended to increase and glucose oxidation tended to decrease. Levels of IGFBP-1 during clamps were higher as compared with the control clamp (P < 0.05). No adverse metabolic changes were seen after bed rest, and no change in GIR during clamps were seen as compared with the control measurement (0 ± 14%). After brief hypocaloric nutrition, insulin sensitivity is reduced, whereas IGF-I bioavailibility is reduced by an increase in levels of IGFBP-1. Glucagon seems to contribute to the increase in IGFBP-1 during these conditions.
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33.
  • Palmer, Nicholette D, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - San Francisco : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 7:1, s. e29202-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci) were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071), were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05). Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8)). SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9), OR (95% CI) = 0.75 (0.67-0.84)) is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217) were associated with T2DM (P<0.05) and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5)) in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.
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34.
  • Randall, Joshua C., et al. (författare)
  • Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 9:6, s. e1003500-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5x10(-8)), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.
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35.
  • Risérus, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)delta promotes reversal of multiple metabolic abnormalities, reduces oxidative stress, and increases fatty acid oxidation in moderately obese men
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 57:2, s. 332-339
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIEVE-Pharmacological use of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)delta agonists and transgenic overexpression of PPAR delta in mice suggest amelioration of features of the metabolic syndrome through enhanced fat oxidation in skeletal muscle. We hypothesize a similar mechanism operates in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-The PPAR delta agonist (10 mg o.d. GW501516), a comparator PPAR alpha agonist (20 mu g o.d. GW590735)), and placebo were given in a double-blind, randomized, three-parallel group, 2-week study to six healthy moderately overweight subjects in each group. Metabolic evaluation was made before and after treatment including liver fat quantification, fasting blood samples, a 6-h meal tolerance test with stable isotope fatty acids, skeletal muscle biopsy for gene expression, and urinary isoprostanes for global oxidative stress. RESULTS-Treatment with GW501516 showed statistically significant reductions in fasting plasma triglycerides (-30%), apolipoprotein B (-26%), LDL cholesterol (-23%), and insulin (-11%), whereas HDL cholesterol was unchanged. A 20% reduction in liver fat content (P < 0.05) and 30% reduction in urinary isoprostanes (P = 0.01) were also observed. Except for a lowering of triglycerides (-30%, P < 0.05), none of these changes were observed in response to GW590735. The relative proportion of exhaled CO, directly originating from the fat content of the meal was increased (P < 0.05) in response to GW501516, and skeletal muscle expression of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1b (CPT1b) was also significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS-The PPAR delta agonist GW501516 reverses multiple abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome without increasing oxidative stress. The effect is probably caused by increased fat oxidation in skeletal muscle.
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36.
  • Ruge, Toralph, et al. (författare)
  • Fasted to fed trafficking of fatty acids in human adipose tissue reveals a novel regulatory step for enhanced fat storage.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 1945-7197.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Absence or excess of adipose tissue are both associated with metabolic complications implying the importance of well-functioning adipose tissue present in normal amounts. Adipose tissue sequesters dietary fat and thus protects other tissues from excess fat exposure, especially following meals. Objective: Use of an integrative physiological technique to quantify trafficking of fatty acids (FA) in adipose tissue over a 24-h period. Methods: Adipose tissue FA handling was studied in response to three meals in eight healthy men by the combination of arterio-venous blood sampling, tissue blood flow, and specific labelling of FA tracing of exogenous and endogenous fat by stable isotope methodology. Results: The efficiency of adipose tissue FA uptake increased robustly with each meal. Chylomicron-triglyceride (TG) was the dominating source of FA. Adipose tissue fractional extraction of chylomicron-TG increased from 21+/-4 to 47+/-8% (p=0.03) between the first and last meal. Although adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) action increased with time (2-fold), there was an even greater increase in FA re-esterification (3-fold), which led to a reduced spillover of chylomicron-derived FA, from 77+/-15 to 34+/-7% (p=0.04) comparing the end of the first and the third meal period. Increased uptake of VLDL-derived FA was observed, but spillover of VLDL-derived FA was only seen in the fasting state. Conclusion: Human adipose tissue has a significant potential to up-regulate fat storage during a normal day that goes beyond increased LPL activation. The adaptation towards increasing fat storage may provide an explanation for the beneficial properties of normal amounts of adipose tissue.
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37.
  • Schwenk, Jochen M., et al. (författare)
  • Comparative protein profiling of serum and plasma using an antibody suspension bead array approach
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Proteomics. - 1615-9853 .- 1615-9861. ; 10:3, s. 532-540
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the pursuit towards a systematic analysis of human diseases, array-based approaches within antibody proteomics offer high-throughput strategies to discover protein biomarkers in serum and plasma. To investigate the influence of sample preparation on such discovery attempts, we report on a systematic effort to compare serum and plasma protein profiles determined with an antibody suspension bead array. The intensity levels were used to define protein profiles and no significant differences between serum and plasma were observed for 79% of the 174 antibodies (targeting 156 proteins). By excluding 36 antibodies giving rise to differential intensity levels, cluster analysis revealed donor-specific rather than preparation-dependent grouping. With a cohort from a clinically relevant medical condition, the metabolic syndrome, the influence of the sample type on a multiplexed biomarker discovery approach was further investigated. Independent comparisons of protein profiles in serum and plasma revealed an antibody targeting ADAMTSL-4, a protein that would qualify to be studied further in association with the condition. In general, the preparation type had an impact on the results of the applied antibody suspension bead array, and while the technical variability was equal, plasma offered a greater biological variability and allowed to give rise to more discoveries than serum.
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38.
  • Shungin, Dmitry, et al. (författare)
  • New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 518:7538, s. 187-378
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.
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39.
  • Stimson, Roland H, et al. (författare)
  • Cortisol release from adipose tissue by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in humans
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 58:1, s. 46-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) regenerates cortisol from cortisone. 11beta-HSD1 mRNA and activity are increased in vitro in subcutaneous adipose tissue from obese patients. Inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 is a promising therapeutic approach in type 2 diabetes. However, release of cortisol by 11beta-HSD1 from adipose tissue and its effect on portal vein cortisol concentrations have not been quantified in vivo.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Six healthy men underwent 9,11,12,12-[(2)H](4)-cortisol infusions with simultaneous sampling of arterialized and superficial epigastric vein blood sampling. Four men with stable chronic liver disease and a transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt in situ underwent tracer infusion with simultaneous sampling from the portal vein, hepatic vein, and an arterialized peripheral vein.RESULTS: Significant cortisol and 9,12,12-[(2)H](3)-cortisol release were observed from subcutaneous adipose tissue (15.0 [95% CI 0.4-29.5] and 8.7 [0.2-17.2] pmol . min(-1) . 100 g(-1) adipose tissue, respectively). Splanchnic release of cortisol and 9,12,12-[(2)H](3)-cortisol (13.5 [3.6-23.5] and 8.0 [2.6-13.5] nmol/min, respectively) was accounted for entirely by the liver; release of cortisol from visceral tissues into portal vein was not detected.CONCLUSIONS: Cortisol is released from subcutaneous adipose tissue by 11beta-HSD1 in humans, and increased enzyme expression in obesity is likely to increase local glucocorticoid signaling and contribute to whole-body cortisol regeneration. However, visceral adipose 11beta-HSD1 activity is insufficient to increase portal vein cortisol concentrations and hence to influence intrahepatic glucocorticoid signaling.
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40.
  • Surendran, Praveen, et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of rare variants associated with blood pressure regulation through meta-analysis of 1.3 million individuals.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 52:12, s. 1314-1332
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10-8), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.
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